Open Access Method Article

Effects of Leaking Septic Tanks on Underground Water Quality in Owerri Municipal, Imo State, Nigeria

N. Nwugha Victor, I. Okeke Pamela, A. O. Selemo, C. Ibe Geogeline, P. C. Njoku, H. Oluwaseun

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/20410

Aim: To determine the effects of leaking septic tanks on underground water quality in Owerri Municipal.

Place and Duration of the Study: Department of Geosciences, Federal University of Technology Owerri, and Department of Chemistry, Alvan Ikoku University of Education, Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria, between January 2013 to May 2014.    

Methodology: Geophysical and geochemical analysis was carried out using chemical and geophysical analyses. Owerri Municipal is located within Longitudes 6º59’E to 7º06’E and Latitudes 5º33’N. It falls within the coastal plains sands. The quality of groundwater was determined by taking samples from three locations namely Amakohia, Naze and Nekede and carrying out physiochemical analysis on each to ascertain the nature of dissolved substances in the groundwater. Also, physiochemical parameters like bulk density, porosity and permeability of the samples were determined. Description of the lithology and aquifer parameters were obtained using vertical electrical sounding method.

Results: The density of the samples ranged from 1.49 to 1.98 mg/L, the porosity values are from 0.20 to 0.38 while the permeability varies from 0.51 mg/L to 0.67 mg/L.

The chemical analysis revealed that some heavy metals have concentrations above the amount acceptable by WHO standards. Iron 18.6 to 63.9 mg/L, Nickel 7.5 mg/L and Manganese, 0.46 mg/L. The resistivity of the topsoil ranges from 618 Ωm to 3800 Ωm. An average resistivity range of 7500 Ωm exist up to 30 m while a layer of low resistivity indicating clay and clayey sand extends to 60 m at Naze, 60 m at Nekede and 50 m at Amakohia. Beyond these depths, the resistivity is high on the average of 3500 Ωm.

Conclusion: The results showed that the subsurface is permeable which implies that traces of heavy metals present in the samples are contained in the leachets from surrounding environments either from septic tanks or from industrial activities on the surface. Groundwater quality can be improved within this environment by recommending boreholes drilled from 70 m where leachet permeability is negligible.

Open Access Short Research Article

Vector Field Analysis of Verbal Structures

B. Chuluundorj

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/21544

This paper presents the analysis of basic verbal structures in terms of vector (scalar) space. Applying vector methods to description of word meaning and basic syntax structures offers new methodological opportunities to interpret effect of semantic and pragmatic forces at morphology and syntax levels. 

Human verbal perception reflecting internal and external features of object and action (event) presents specific complex phenomenon to be described in the framework quantum semantic space.

Open Access Original Research Article

Electron Microscopy Documents the Microorganisms’ Biodestructive Action on Polyurethane and the Production, Internalization and Vesicular Trafficking of Nanoparticles

Marziale Milani, Lyubov V. Didenko, George A. Avtandilov, Roberta Curia, Alessandro Erega, Natalia V. Shevlyagina

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-19
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/20290

Prostheses in the oral cavity are constantly attacked by microorganisms. Bacteria and fungi colonize these surfaces concurring in the material’s biodestruction; the corrosive action generates debris of different size, with particles ranging from few micrometers to nanometers. Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM), Scanning Transmission Electron Microscope (STEM) and Focused Ion Beam/Scanning Electron Microscope (FIB/SEM) used in this study show that bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus) and fungi (Candida albicans) are able to adhere to the prostheses’ surfaces (polyurethane) and operate a biodestructive process. Electron images document the damages on the polymeric surfaces and the formation of debris. Polyurethane nanoparticles can be detected not only outside the bacterial cells but even in cells, surrounded by membrane vesicles; this work ascertains that the uptake process occurs through endocytosis, and outlines that the cytoskeleton is implicated both in the nanoparticles internalization and in the vesicular trafficking within the bacterial cell. Polyurethane nanoparticles we studied are not engineered, have unexpected characteristics and reactivity; moreover being surrounded by vesicles within bacterial cells they raise a new problem in toxicology, since this represents a new way through which nanoparticles may gain access to the body (driven by bacteria-host cells interactions), elude the immune system reaction to xenobiotic elements and provoke pathologies.

Open Access Original Research Article

Characterization of Low-cycle Fatigue Parameters

S. M. Humayun Kabir, Tae-In Yeo

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/20658

Aims: To characterize the fatigue parameters of some stainless steels at a wide range of temperatures, and also to evaluate the influence of temperature on their mechanical properties.

Methodology: Two ferritic stainless steels and one austenitic stainless steel were tested. Tensile tests under Isothermal condition are performed at room temperature and at elevated temperatures with the interval of 100ºC. Isothermal total strain-controlled fully-reversed low-cycle fatigue tests are performed at different total strain amplitudes ranging from 0.3% to 0.7% at different temperatures with a constant strain rate of 2×10-3 /s. The effect of temperature on elastic modulus, 0.2% yield strength, and ultimate tensile strength is demonstrated graphically. And, variation of reversals to failure with total strain amplitudes and temperatures are analyzed. Materials' constants concerning tensile and low-cycle fatigue behavior are calculated. A fatigue parameter under anisothermal condition is also assessed.

Results: The austenitic steel shows higher strength under monotonic tensile loading and lower fatigue strength under total strain-controlled fully-reversed low-cycle fatigue tests compare to others. Material strength decreases with increasing temperature. For a given total strain amplitude at low-cycle fatigue condition, when the temperature increases from room temperature to moderate elevated temperatures, fatigue lives are higher compared to that of room temperature, and then fatigue life decreases with the further increased temperature. And, fatigue life is reduced significantly with the increasing strain amplitude for all materials considered. The fatigue parameter under anisothermal condition is found realistic from the viewpoint of safety in design.

Conclusion: Fatigue properties of materials are essential in the design and practice of mechanical structures and components subjected to cyclic loading at wide range of operating temperatures. This research contains useful monotonic and fatigue parameters which would be advantageous for the application in design and practice.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Influence of the Depth of Cut on the Two-way Application of Cutting Fluids

S. O. Yakubu, D. K. Garba

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/18856

The depth of cut is one of the important parameters of machining. It influences a great number of factors of machining like the surface finish, the tool wear, the temperature/heat, energy/power consumption etc. It is of course obvious that the depth of cut affects the rate of heat generated and consequently the temperature in various degrees depending on the conditions of machining, the material etc. So, in order to reduce the negative effect of high temperature which is as a result of the large heat generated due to high rate of friction at the workpiece – tool interface, cutting fluids and lubricants are used. This research focused on the effect of the depth of cut on the two-way application of cutting fluids. The angle of feeding was varied from 30º to 180º. The feed rate was 0.75 mm/rev and the speed was 125 rpm. It was established that the two-way application of the cutting fluids was most effective in terms of the surface finish when the depth of cut was 2 mm and at angle of 150º. In other words, the lowest surface roughness (8.41 µm) was obtained at this angle and depth of cut. In fact the lowest surface roughness (highest surface quality) and temperature were achieved under all the feeding angles except angle 30º and when the depth of was 2 mm. However, the tool wear values were lowest when the depth of cut was 1.0 mm as compared to other values of depth of cut used. Therefore, the recommended values for the depth of cut are 1 mm and 2 mm in terms of the surface quality and tool wear obtained respectively.

Open Access Original Research Article

Profitability in Chilli Pepper Production in Kaduna State, Nigeria

B. Mohammed, Z. Abdulsalam, B. Ahmed

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/20300

The aims of the study were to determine relationship between farmer’s socio-economic variables and profitability in chilli pepper production, and to determine the profitability in chilli pepper producers in Kaduna state, Nigeria. Primary data were collected from chilli pepper producers through the use of structured questionnaires. This study was carried out in three local government areas in Kaduna state, Nigeria, between August and November 2014 cropping season. Purposive and random sampling techniques were employed for data collection. The study revealed that 37.5% of the respondents fall within the age of 30-39 years. The 53% had no formal education. The household size ranged from 6-10 persons, about (72%) of chilli pepper farmers do not participate in any chilli pepper related cooperative association, The result shows that 98.5% of chilli pepper farmers financed their production from personal savings. The data revealed that (58.5%) of chilli pepper farmers have extension visit. The result revealed that chilli pepper production is profitable in the study area. Based on the findings of the study, it can be concluded that investment in chilli pepper production is a viable enterprises for income generation, poverty alleviation, job creation and improvement of food security to every household since it is a profitable venture and it was also found that education was an important factor in increasing the profitability in chilli pepper production.

Open Access Original Research Article

Cluster Ions in Vapour over Calcium Dichloride: Theoretical Study of Geometrical Structure and Vibrational Spectra

Ibrahim Moustapher, Tatiana P. Pogrebnaya, Alexander M. Pogrebnoi

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/21810

Geometrical structure and vibrational spectra for CaCl3, Ca2Cl3+, Ca3Cl5+, Ca4Cl7+, and Ca5Cl9+ ions have been studied by employing density functional theory and the second order Møller–Plesset perturbation theory. The equilibrium geometrical structures are as follows: the planar D3h for CaCl3, triple-bridged bipyramid D3h for Ca2Cl3+, hexa-bridged bipyramid D3h for Ca3Cl5+, polyhedral C2v for Ca4Cl7+, and polyhedral D3h for Ca5Cl9+. No isomers have been confirmed to exist.

Open Access Original Research Article

Illumination - Invariant Facial Components Extraction Using Adaptive Contrast Enhancement Methods

Suhaila N. Mohammed, Loay E. George

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/19937

The process of accurate localization of the basic components of human faces (i.e., eyebrows, eyes, nose, mouth, etc.) from images is an important step in face processing techniques like face tracking, facial expression recognition or face recognition. However, it is a challenging task due to the variations in scale, orientation, pose, facial expressions, partial occlusions and lighting conditions. In the current paper, a scheme includes the method of three-hierarchal stages for facial components extraction is presented; it works regardless of illumination variance. Adaptive linear contrast enhancement methods like gamma correction and contrast stretching are used to simulate the variance in light condition among images. As testing material a subset consists of 1150 images belong to 91 different subjects was taken from Cohn-Kanade AU coded dataset (CK); the subjects images hold different facial expressions. The test results show the effectiveness of the proposed automated localization scheme in different illuminations conditions; it gave accuracy of about 95.7%.

Open Access Original Research Article

Association between the Dynamics of Indian Ocean Subtropical High and Winter Time Precipitation and Stream Flow: A Case Study Over Acheron River Catchment, Victoria

Saqib Ur Rehman, Kamran Khan, Absar Ahmed

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/20100

In this study, we explore the relationships between winter (May-August) Acheron River catchment (ARC), Victoria, Australia, rainfall and streamflow and winter Indian Ocean Subtropical High Pressure (IOSHPS) and Indian Ocean Subtropical High Longitude (IOSHLN) through correlation and regression analysis. Analysis is performed for the period of 1951-2011. It is found that the correlation of IOSHPS with winter ARC rainfall and streamflow are -0.46 and -0.33 respectively and IOSHLN are -0.54 and -0.57 are observed. Dynamics (zonal movements) of IOSHPS analysis showed that east-west shifts of IOSHPS are responsible for the variable amounts of rainfall receive in the ARC that resulted in variable streamflow. Regression analysis suggested IOSH indices describe 38% and 36% variability in rainfall (May-August) and streamflow (May-August) over ARC respectively further investigations showed that southern oscillation index (SOI) and El-Nino southern oscillation (ENSO) have weak association independently as well as combination with IOSHLN than IOSH indices over ARC winter rainfall and streamflow. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Soil Properties and Nutrient Uptake of Coffee Seedlings as Influenced by NPK Fertilizer Formulations in Ibadan, Southwest, Nigeria

O. S. Ibiremo, O. S. O. Akanbi

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2016/16846

A greenhouse study was carried out at Cocoa Research Institute of Nigeria, Ibadan (Lat.7° 251N Long. 3° 251E) in 2010 to determine the effect of NPK fertilizer formulations on soil properties and nutrient uptake of coffee seedlings in Ibadan, Southwest Nigeria. The treatments consisted of NPK-liquid fertilizer (20: 2: 4 + TE-trace elements) applied at rates 0.33 and 0.66 mls/litre of water and NPK- solid fertilizer (15:15:15) applied at 1, 3 and 5 g/coffee seedling) and a control (no fertilizer application). The six treatments were arranged in a completely randomized design with three replications and data on coffee nutrient uptake and soil properties at six months after transplanting were determined. Results revealed that all the fertilizers irrespective of rates of application and types of NPK formulations enhanced the nutrient uptake of coffee seedlings relative to control.  Leaf N-uptake was significantly (P=0.05) enhanced due to application of NPK liquid fertilizer applied at 0.33 mls/l of water compared to the control and NPK liquid fertilizer applied at 0.66 mls/l of water. Similarly, the leaf-P uptake was improved significantly (P=0.05) as a result of application of NPK solid applied at 5 g/coffee seedling compared to the control and other treatments. The leaf K-uptake also followed a similarly trend in which solid NPK fertilizer at 5 g/plant consistently promoted (P=0.05) the K-uptake of coffee seedlings compared to liquid NPK applied at 0.66 mls/litre of water. The pH of the soil was significantly (P=0.05) affected as a result of application of liquid NPK fertilizer at 0.33 mls and 0.66 mls/l of water compared to NPK solid fertilizer. The organic carbon was not significantly (P=0.05) influenced as a result of NPK fertilizer formulations. The organic carbon decreased in the order of 1g NPK solid< 3g NPK solid<control< 0.33 mls NPK liquid< 0.66 mls NPK liquid. The total N in the soil was not significantly affected as a result of NPK fertilizer types applied. However, the  available P in the soil was significantly (P=0.05) increased as a result of NPK-solid applied at 3 and 5 g/plant compared to the control, at 0.33 and 0.66 mls/l of water. The improved growth and nutrient uptake of coffee seedlings through the use of NPK fertilizer formulations particularly liquid NPK provides alternative fertilizer options to farmers as a means of promoting crop growth.