##### Study of Some Optical Properties for Different Composition Bismuth -Antimony Thin Films

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/19845

BiSb, Bi2Sb and BiSb2 alloys were prepared by direct melting of weight from elements, which was followed by quenching then the alloy used to prepared on quartz substrates by using the thermal vacuum evaporation technique at room temperature. The optical characteristics of  the prepared thin films have been investigated by UV-VIS spectrophotometer (UV-1650PC Shimadzu) in the wavelength range (200-900 nm), also were determined by FTIR recorder spectrometer model  Shimadzu were used  to measure the transmission  and  absorption spectra of (Bi-Sb) alloy thin  film deposited on quartz substrate in spectral range (400–4000 cm-1). The films has an indirect allow electronic transitions and optical energy gap (Eg) has increased from 0.063 eV to 0.081eV by modification Bismuth Antimony ratio. The optical properties of the BiSb, Bi2Sb, BiSb2 thin films were studied which include their absorbance and transmittance. The films were found to exhibit low transmittance, high absorbance in the visible, and near infrared region.

##### Non-uniformity Correction Algorithm Based on Polynomial Fit Estimation

Yang Weiping, Zhang Yan, Zhang Zhilong

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/18926

Because of many advantages such as all-weather work, passive imaging, high sensitivity, high frame frequency and simple structure, etc., IRFPA (infrared focal plane array) sensors have become popular in civil and military applications. However, images obtained by IRFPA suffer from a common problem called FPN (fixed pattern noise), which severely degrades image quality and limits the infrared imaging applications, and they can hardly be used without non-uniformity correction (NUC) on IR image. Therefore, it is urged to perform the NUC processing. As we all know, the algorithms of non-uniformity correction can be classified into two main categories, the calibration-based algorithm and the scene-based algorithm. But each kind of algorithm has its disadvantages, in order to make up for the limitations, a novel non-uniformity correction algorithm based on polynomial fit estimation and a modified factor is proposed, which combines the advantages of the two algorithms. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed NUC algorithm has a good NUC effect with a lower non-uniformity ratio.

##### Accessibility and Use of Authoring Tools to Prepare Effective Audio and Video Course Materials in Secondary Schools in Nigeria

I. O. Muraina, I. A. Adeleke

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/19732

Teaching has moved away from a teacher traveling a far distance before getting necessary materials required to effectively impact relevant and effective learning to students. Nowadays, there are various tools that can be of great assistance to this end. Numerous tools are available for designing interactive tutoring CDs which are embedded with audio and video clips to arouse the interest of learners. The use of authoring tools will make teachers’ presentations more timely, interesting and covering large classes at a time without leaving any student in doubt. This paper focuses on the level at which Nigerian teachers access and use of authoring tools for effective teaching and learning. The graphical presentations in this study reveal that despite the free availability of these tools; some teachers do not still have access to them and those having access could not use them expectedly. In order to overcome this concern, using available authoring tools to teach would be essential ingredients for preparing children and youth of this technological age to fulfill their educational objectives and compete with their counterparts anywhere in the world.

##### Evaluation of Health Level Seven (HL7) Standards Implementation in Egyptian Hospitals

Ahmed Sharaf Eldin, Mahmoud Mostafa, Rola Hussien Fahmy

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/19590

Health information technology has entered the everyday workflow in a variety of healthcare providers with a certain degree of independence. This independence may be the cause of difficulty in interoperability and integration for shared Electronic Health Records (EHRs) which was overcome by a number of interoperability standards. Health Level Seven (HL7) is a standard for the interchange of data within the healthcare industry. Although the benefits of adopting HL7 are well known, only a few hospitals in Egypt have actually implemented it. This paper investigates the barriers and success factors of the three perspectives (environmental, managerial and technological) affecting positively and negatively on the implementation of HL7 standards in the Egyptian hospitals, and it presents recommendations which can be used by academics and practitioners to develop the implementation of HL7 standards. For the purpose of this study a questionnaire was developed and applied on the senior managers and decision makers of the information system in a sample of Egyptian hospitals. The study revealed that HL7 was implemented only in 18% of hospitals sample. Also, it identified the most important barriers facing the dissemination of HL7 implementation in healthcare sectors in Egypt which are unavailability of financing, lack of competition toward health data exchange, and low awareness of HL7 and its importance.

##### Influence of Adding Rectangular Fins on the Performances of a Thermal Solar Air Plane Collector

Boukaré Ouedraogo, Boureima Dianda, Kalifa Palm, Dieudonné Joseph Bahiebo

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/20741

Low heat-air exchange in a dynamic vein of the solar collector still remains one of the major issues to solve in the use of thermal solar energy. These exchanges do not enable to achieve better performance or increased energy efficiency with these Systems. Instead, the fitting of fins on the absorber of the collector significantly improves heat transfer. So, the objective of our study is to assess the performance of a flat plate collector equipped with rectangular fins in natural and forced convections. In a theoretical study, a program to simulate the thermal performance of the transitory regime collector was established using MATLAB 7.8.0 calculation software. Regarding the experimental part, a set of measurements of solar radiation and temperatures of the fluid and the collector components were undertaken both in natural and forced convections. Theoretical and experimental results are consistent and encouraging. The maximum experimental productivity reaches 75% in forced convection and 40% in natural convection. The theoretical experimental efficiency is 84.5% in forced convection.

##### Corrosion Protection of Steel Pipe Lines used in Oil and Gas Industry of Oman

Muhammad Mumtaz Mirza, Elansezhian Rasu, Anjali Desilva

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-18
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/20077

This paper investigates experimentally the influence of different types of coatings with nano-additives on the corrosion behaviour of steel pipe lines used in petroleum industry of Oman. The investigation was carried out with several types of coated samples to examine the rate of corrosion in pipe lines made of low alloy steel. Different coatings such as organic, zinc, aluminium paints and electroless nickel-phosphorous with copper oxide as nano-powder are coated on the samples. The samples were prepared from the actual pipe lines used in oil industries of Oman. During the investigation, corrosion rate and its behaviour were studied. Electroless nickel baths were prepared with Nickel Chloride as source of nickel and Sodium Hypophosphite as reducing agent. Samples were prepared to conduct atmospheric exposure test, wet/dry test and Potentiodynamic test. Before the exposure test, surface roughness of the samples was measured. Uniform coating thickness was maintained on all samples. Characterization was done through scanning electron microscope to study the surface morphology and Energy-dispersive X-ray to examine the percentage to weight ratio of different elements supported with hardness test. The coating paint group investigates aluminum paint followed by zinc paint and then organic paint resulting high resistant to the corrosion rate. The second group of samples that was coated with electroless nickel- phosphorus (EN-P) paint in which two types of coatings were used. EN-P without nano additive particles and with nano CuO additives. A novel method is identified in which EN-P with nano CuO additives significantly improved the corrosion resistance of steel samples and resulted in protection of the external surface of pipe line. The complete experimental details, results and analysis are reported in this paper.

##### Activity Concentration of 222Rn Gas,226Ra, 232Th and 40K in Crops and Soil Taken from Safwan Granges Using Active, Passive and Gamma Spectroscopy Techniques

Jabbar H. Jebur, Abdul Ridha H. Subber

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/19983

It is widely expected that fertilizer has great effect on the soil crops, especially when it contains a radioactive elements. The radioactive content present in crops will increase the number of deferent type of cancer cases in consumers and will explain the importance of this study. In this work we used the passive method (can technique) to measure radon concentration and gamma ray spectrometer for gamma ray concentrations measurement type NaI(Tl) 3”x3”. The samples show an average radon concentration of 48.58 Bq/m3, area radon exhalation rate of 0.091 Bq.m-2.h-1 and mass exhalation rate of 0.007 Bq.kg-1.h-1. The average specific gamma activity concentration for 226Ra, 232Th, 238U and 40K were found to be 37.94, 27.88, 13.2 and 388.0 Bq/kg respectively. The gamma hazard indices Req, Hex, Hin, D, Eout were found to be 105.58 Bq/kg, 0.285, 0.383, 49.35 nGy/h, 0.06 mSv/y respectively. The concentrations of radionuclides found in this study are nominal and do not pose any health hazard.

##### Monetarization of Ecosystem Services of Oasean Biome (Case Study: Provisioning Services of Middle Draa Valley Oases, Morocco)

Ahmed Karmaoui, Issam Ifaadassan, Mohammed Messouli, Mohammed Yacoubi Khebiza

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-18
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/19689

Numerous studies have evaluated the monetarization of the ecosystem services throughout the world, but few have showed the oasean ecosystem services (Desert oasis). The purpose of this research is to identify and quantify ecosystem services as a tool to provide useful information for the management of arid lands. This study can serve as a reference to measure future changes in the oasean ecosystem mainly under the impact of extreme events. In this paper, we examine the economic value of the ecosystem services provided by the oases of Middle Draa Valley (MDV), which is part of Biosphere Reserve of southern Moroccan Oasis (UNESCO). The economic values are standardized to US$per hectare per year (2008-2010 period prices). The total value is found to be 117639, 75Dhs /ha/year (14116,7US$/ha/year) in the arable area (for 26 000ha) and 2039Dh/ha/year (244,7US\$/ha/year) for the total area (1500 000ha). The study can be applied to other oases of the pre-Saharan part of Morocco because of the similarity of lifestyle, climate, and water requirements etc.

##### Meeting the Millennium Development Goals’ Target for Potable Water Supply through Borehole Construction in Nigeria- An Overview

A. J. Oloruntade, K. O. Mogaji, G. G. Afuye

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/20254

An overview of the success, challenges and prospects of the use of boreholes to meet the potable water supply target of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in Nigeria was carried out. The study employed an extensive review of literature on the quantitative and qualitative assessments of boreholes including their spatial coverage, across the country. Similarly, reports of studies on the progress made to attain the MDGs target in Nigeria were also evaluated. From the review, it was observed that adequate access might not have been achieved owing to the high rate of failure of boreholes and the poor coverage of the system. The presence of harmful substances in water from boreholes in many instances as revealed by previous bacteriological and physico-chemical studies across the country also puts a doubt on the reliability of the system for potable water supply. Although there is no consensus as regards the water supply status of the country, more reports showed that there is great challenge to the attainment of the MDGs target. Thus, the paper recommended amongst other things, quantitative and qualitative assessment of all existing boreholes across the country to identify non-functioning ones for repair and as well determine their level of wholesomeness, and compliance with international best practices in borehole construction. In addition, reduction of groundwater pollution through the enforcement of all environmental laws will help to achieve the MDGs target of water supply in the country.

##### Development of a Robot Imitating Nomadic Spiders

Matthew Olatunde Afolayan, Babatunde Isaac Oyegbade

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/20538

Aims: The main objective of this work is to develop a simple robot that can imitate the jumping spider (Salticidae) in its motion, as a first stage to building a complete robot that mimics them in many ways.

Methodology: Biological systems are really complex in their complete make up; therefore the biomimicry employed here is to imitate scan-pause-scan motion employed by the spider. Their anterior media eye (the big eye) is imitated using a sonar sensor. The pausing period allows the robot to analyse the environment using low cost/ low power microcontroller. The system was then tested with different object at its front in other to investigate the robot one direction performance.

Results: Most object were detected except when the object was 2 mm2 size wire gauze. In its case the robot did not slowdown as it approaches it. For all other objects, the robot slowed down before reaching them - although it did not apply enough braking force before it reach some of those obstacle. It was also found out that the robot performed up to 45 scans within the period it was moving towards the objects placed at 1 m ahead.

Conclusion: This work is a preliminary work on the robot as first step in imitating the spider. The robot was able to imitate the biological model, jumping spiders (Salticidae) successfully in its pause-scan and move motion only – with the robot speeding whenever no obstacle was detected.