Open Access Short Research Article

Deflection Methodology in Humanitarian Logistics: Developing an Application Agro Supply Chains

Fernando Salazar, Judith Cavazos, Jordi Poch, Paola Mouthon

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/20377

This article analyzes and discusses the growth in food production in the world and the poor distribution of them. The issue is considered adequate food distribution as of paramount importance and suggests checking a methodology based on mechanics of materials that contributes to the process of decision making. Food production has grown in many countries but the number of people has also increased and food distribution has not improved according to the increase of people and food. To all this it is that the food chain is now more vulnerable to environmental pollution day. The proposed methodology is based mainly on the establishment of measures necessary to ensure access to enough food in this chain of humanitarian logistics measures. The paper concludes with a description of challenges and opportunities for better distribution of food in the world today and tomorrow.

Open Access Minireview Article

The Negative Impacts of Climate Change in Sub-Saharan Africa and their Mitigation Measures

Haile Arefayne Shishaye

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/17665

Sub-Saharan Africa is particularly vulnerable to climate change because of its dependence on natural resources, fragile economy, weak infrastructure and the already warm weather. Nowadays, food security and agricultural production in some countries in the region are getting worse because of the negative impacts of climate change and variability. Generally, the effect of climate change is higher in the developing nations, those with low economic capacity and of contributing a little to the greenhouse gas emissions than that of the industrialized countries. However, unless it is the weakness of the policies that the developing countries have, experts have found different climate change mitigation and adaptation measures. Therefore, this paper specifically concentrates on the negative impacts of climate change on the countries in Sub-Saharan Africa, and the mitigation and adaptation measures that should be taken into account to manage the risks of the changing climate.  It emphasizes on the importance of effective agricultural management, improving carbon trading and sequestration projects and using renewable energy sources. Furthermore, it also considers the roles of the people and governments of Sub-Saharan countries and the international community in mitigating the changing climate in the region, for Sub-Saharan countries particularly need to work ‘hand in glove’ with the international community to manage the current climate risks and mitigate the future climate.

Open Access Original Research Article

Acclimation of Teucrium polium Plants to Seasonal Variations by Alterations in the Activities of Antioxidant Enzymes and Protein Accumulation

M. Nasir Khan, M. Mobin, Zahid Khorshid Abbas, Khalid A. ALMutairi

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/19231

Any change in climatic conditions affects growth and productivity directly or indirectly. The present study was carried out to investigate the impact of varying climatic conditions of Tabuk region of Saudi Arabia on the performance of Teucrium polium plants. Plants were collected under varying environmental conditions of February, May, August and November 2014. Performance of the plants was assessed in terms of fresh weight (FW) and dry weight (DW), leaf chlorophyll content (Chl), carbonic anhydrase (CA) activity, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) content, leaf relative water content (LRWC), activites of antioxidant enzymes viz. superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POX) and leaf protein content. The results show that plants collected during August gave lower values for all the studied parameters except H2O2 content which was highest. Therefore, climatic conditions of November were found most suitable for proper growth and development of plants, as exhibited by higher values of most of the parameters except H2O2 content which gave lowest values during November. Plants sampled during November gave 24.8%, 61.8%, 48.1% and 12.0% higher values for FW, DW, total Chl content and activity of CA enzyme, respectively, than the plants collected during August which gave lowest values for these parameters. Moreover, plants collected during November again gave 0.5%, 66.4%, 34.6% and 53.3% higher values for SOD, CAT and POX and leaf protein content, respectively, than the plants collected during August. Thus, the present study suggested that the climatic conditions of Tabuk region during November suited best for the growth and development of Teucrium polium plants.

Open Access Original Research Article

Chemical Composition of Essential Oils from the Stem Barks of Three Cinnamomum Species

Le C. Son, Do N. Dai, Tran D. Thang, Tajudeen O. Olayiwola, Duong D. Huyen, AbdulRazaq Ogunmoye, Isiaka A. Ogunwande

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/20442

The stem barks essential oils of three Vietnamese species of Cinnamomum grown in Vietnam were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The main monoterpene compounds of Cinnamomum kunstleri Rild., were 1, 8-cineole (25.3%), α-terpineol (10.7%) and terpinen-4-ol (6.7%). However, linalool (27.0%), limonene  (23.4%), terpinen-4-ol (9.8%) and a-phellandrene (9.5%) were the principal monoterpene components of Cinnamomum cambodianumLecomte. Sesquiterpenes represened mainly by aromadendrene (26.0%), β-caryophyllene (17.2%) and α-copaene (5.7%) were the dominant compounds in the bark oil of Cinnamomum rigidifolium Kosterm.

Aims: The aim of this study was to isolate essential oils from the stem barks of Cinnamomum kunstleriCinnamomum cambodianum and Cinnamomum rigidifolium and investigate the volatile constituents present therein.

Study Design:  Disitillation of essential oils from the plant materials and analysis of their chemical composition.

Place and Duration of Study: The stem barks of C. kunstleriC. cambodianum and C. rigidifolium were collected from Bạch Mã National Park, Thừa Thiên-Huế Province, Vietnam, in August 2012.

Methodology: About 500 g of air-dried plant samples was shredded and their oils were obtained by separate hydrodistillation for 4 h at normal pressure, according to the Vietnamese Pharmacopoeia. The chemical constituents of the distilled oils were analyzed by means of gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID) and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS).

Results: The major constituents of C. kunstleri were identified as 1, 8-cineole (25.3%), α-terpineol (10.7%) and terpinen-4-ol (6.7%) while linalool (27.0%), limonene (23.4%), terpinen-4-ol (9.8%) and a-phellandrene (9.5%) were the principal components of C. cambodianum. However, aromadendrene (26.0%), β-caryophyllene (17.2%) and α-copaene (5.7%) were the dominant compounds in C. rigidifolium

Conclusion: The present oil compositions were found to be different from the results obtained previously from the essential oils of Cinnamomum species grown in Vietnam and other parts of the world.

Open Access Original Research Article

On the Translated Whitney Numbers and their Combinatorial Properties

Mahid M. Mangontarum, Amerah M. Dibagulun

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/19973

In this paper, we further develop the study of the translated Whitney numbers by deriving more combinatorial properties such as more recurrence relations, exponential and rational generating functions and the orthogonality and inverse relations. To achieve this goal, we introduce the “signed” translated Whitney numbers of the first kind. A relationship between these numbers and the Bernoulli polynomials is also briefly discussed.

Open Access Original Research Article

Mathematical Model to Quantify Air Quality: Indirect Measurement Approach

I. T. S. Piyatilake, S. S. N. Perera, S. K. Boralugoda

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/20415

The air is a basic need of all life on planet earth. Unfortunately, the quality of air has fallen down and the main impact of polluted air on human is related to severe health hazards. This is a burning problem to the developing economy of countries like Sri Lanka. Urbanization and rapid development in these countries are the main reasons for air pollution. Therefore, it is important to identify the levels of the air pollution in cities in order to predetermine actions to improve the quality of air. There are lot of methods already available to measure the air quality, but these methods are based on direct measures of concentration of pollutants. The concentration cannot be measured continuously in countries like Sri Lanka by using direct measures due to lack of resources and financial support. Therefore, quantifying the levels of air pollution in cities using indirect technique is found practical.
The objective of this study is to develop a mathematical model to quantify air pollution using indirect measurements. Five most significant factors such as industries, population density, traffic intensity, green coverage and weather conditions are considered. The boundaries of the factors cannot be well defined. Therefore, fuzzy set theory is applied. Membership functions are defined for all the factors and those factors are combined using fuzzy operators. MATLAB program is used for the simulations. In order to construct and to validate the mathematical model, twenty three major cities in the world are considered. Then, the ranks of cities are compared with the PM2:5 concentration levels. Finally, a case study is carried out by selecting Colombo Municipal Council region in Sri Lanka.

Open Access Original Research Article

Detection of Tumour Based on Breast Tissue Categorization

T. M. Adepoju, J. A. Ojo, O. S. Olabiyisi, T. O. Bello

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/20039

Background: Despite the benefits of Computer Aided Detection (CAD), false detection of breast tumour is still a challenging issue with oncologist. A mammography is a non-invasive screening tool that uses low energy X-rays to show the pathology structure of breast tissue. Interpreting mammogram visually is a time consuming process and requires a great deal of skill and experience. Earlier Computer Aided Techniques emphasis detection of tumour in breast tissues rather than categorization of breast into Breast Imaging Report and Data System (BI-RADS) which is the medically understandable method of reporting.

Aim: The work centred on developing a CAD system which is capable of not only detecting but also categorizing breast tissue in line with BI-RADS scale.

Methodology: The acquired images were pre-processed to remove unwanted contents. Two stage medical procedural approach was designed to categorize the tissue in breast images into low dense (fatty) and high dense. Tumours in the low dense breasts were segmented, and then classified as normal, benign and malignant. The developed system was evaluated using sensitivity, specificity, false positive reduction, false negative reduction and overall performance.

Results: The developed CAD achieved 90.65% sensitivity, 73.59% specificity, 0.02 positive reduction, 0.04 false negative reduction and 85.71% overall performance.

Conclusion: The false positive reduction result obtained shows that false detection has been minimized as a result of categorization procedure of the breast tissue in mammograms

Open Access Original Research Article

Study of the Thermal and Structural Properties of PVA/HPC Blends Due to Fast Neutrons Irradiation

M. M. Abutalib, N. A. Abdel-Zaher

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/20495

Blends of PVA/HPC are prepared using solution casting method and are irradiated with fast neutron irradiation of fluence 1.15 x 107 n/cm2 to use as biomaterials according to their broad importance in practical and medical applications. Thermal properties and structural configuration of the blends are studied to characterize and reveal the miscibility map of such blend system. The obtained results of the thermal analyses [differential scanning calorimetry, DSC, and thermal gravimetric analysis, TGA] show variations in the first order thermodynamic transition (Tth), the melting temperature, shape and area of thermal peaks which are attributed to the different degrees of crystallinity and the existence of interactions between PVA and HPC molecules. The X-ray diffraction patterns (XRD) show broadening and sharpening of peaks at different HPC concentrations with PVA and irradiation with fast neutrons. The results obtained indicate changes in the crystallinity/amorphosity ratio, and explains the possibility of miscibility existence between the amorphous components of the two polymers PVA and HPC.

Open Access Original Research Article

Relationship between Glutathione Levels and Activities of Detoxification Enzymes in Anopheles gambiae from Northwest Nigeria

A. A. Imam, Y. Deeni

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/19851

Aims: The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between levels of the three forms of glutathione and the activities of detoxification enzymes in Anopheles gambiae from northwest Nigeria.

Study Design: Anopheles gambiae larvae were sampled from breeding sites with marked differences in physico-chemical characteristics, grouped into three different  study zones A, B & C on the bases of human related activities (intensive agriculture, domestic, and petrochemical activities, respectively) taking place within and/or around the breeding sites. The sampled larvae were reared until they emerged into pupae and adult.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biochemistry Bayero University Kano, Abertay Centre for Environment, University of Abertay Dundee, between June 2011 and May 2013.

Methodology: Activities of the 3 major detoxification enzymes (P450, GST and α & β-esterases) were assayed on the sampled larvae and the emerged pupae and adult followed by the determination of the levels of total, oxidized and reduced glutathione across the three life stages.

Results: Following various statistical analyses, the activities of the detoxification enzymes were higher in zones A and C (which also recorded higher levels of the physico-chemical factors) compared to zone B. Also, the relative distribution of glutathione showed that the levels of total and reduced GSH across the three study zones appeared to be similar while the levels of oxidized glutathione (GSSG) appeared to be higher in study zone A and C compared to zone B. A deduced statistical model established the different forms of the glutathione variables as having a significant effect on the activities of the detoxification enzymes across the three life stages of An gambiae from northwest Nigeria.

Conclusion: These observations could allow for an evaluation of the possibility of targeting control of the activities of detoxification enzymes in mosquitoes through manipulation of the availability of GSH in the management of insecticides resistance in mosquitoes.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Hepatoprotective Effects of Concomitant Administration of Calcium and Magnesium on Cadmium and Lead Co-intoxicated Rats

Jonathan D. Dabak, Samuel Y. Gazuwa, Gregory A. Ubom

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/19787

Aims: To determine the hepatoprotective effects of concomitant administration of calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) on cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) co-intoxicated rats.

Study Design: Wistar rats were divided into five groups of four rats per group in metabolic cages. Group one was fed with tap water only, while group two to five were fed with the combination of 0.327 mg/L Pb and 0.079 mg/L Cd concurrently with graded Mg and Ca.

Place and Duration of Study: The animal House of Pharmacology Department, Anatomy and Biochemistry laboratories, University of Jos, Nigeria, were used for treatments, histochemical and biochemical analyses respectively, between December 2013 and April 2014.

Methodology: Their food was mashed with the same water meant for each group. All the groups fed and freely drank from the water for a period of fourteen (14) days. At the termination of the experiments, the rats were humanely sacrificed under anaesthesia, sample of blood was obtained from each rat by decapitation. Serum was obtained from clotted blood by centrifugation and kept frozen until required for the measurement of liver biomarkers, while the liver was identified and fixed in 10% formal saline for histopathological studies.

Results: Liver biomarkers in serum decreased as the concentrations of Ca and Mg were elevated. There was no significant difference (p>0.05) in the liver biomarkers concentrations of all the groups as compared with control. The histochemistry show that there was mild damage to the liver integrity at the lower concentrations of Ca and Mg but as their concentrations were elevated, there was no significant difference between the liver integrity of control and the test groups.

Conclusion: Results suggest that Ca and Mg could mitigate the hepatotoxicities induced by Cd and Pb in the rats.