Open Access Short Research Article

Classification of Ear Biometric Data using Support Vector Machine

M. A. Jayaram, G. K. Prashanth, Shabreen Taj

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/19509

In this paper, a method to recognize persons using ear biometrics has been proposed. We propose a method to classify ears based on supervised learning using Support Vector Machine (SVM). For this, ear has been considered as a planar surface of irregular shape. The shape based features like distribution of area, moment of inertia (MI) with respect to minor and major axis and radius of gyration with respect to minor and major axis are considered.

A database of 605 ears were considered in the development of the model. SVM was able to classify the ears into three groups. A recognition accuracy of 93% has been recorded. The clusters so formed were analyzed for precision, recall, f-measure and kappa statistics. The results showed that the SVM is a robust method.

Open Access Short Research Article

Determination of Antioxidants and Total Phenolic Content in Some Wild Vegetables Used Widely in Lesotho

Mosotho J. George, Relebohile Lets’aba, Makhotso J. Khotso, Lineo E. Bese, Keneuoe Taole, Mamotlotlisi Maroba

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/18249

Antioxidants, important chemicals that combat uncontrollable oxidation processes in the living cells, occur naturally in plants in the form of phenolic compounds such as phenolic acids and flavanoids. The total antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content of different wild edible plants consumed widely in Lesotho as vegetables, namely Moetse-oa-pere -Tragopogon dubius (Scopoli), Papasane -Rorippa nudiuscula, Leharasoana - Sonchus oleraceus (Linnaeus), Bobatsi - Urtica urens (Linnaeus) and Seruoe - Chenopodium album (Linnaeus) were determined from the ethanol extracts resulting in the linoleic acid peroxidation inhibition of 73.7%, 64.6%, 76.3%, 69.5% and 60.3% respectively using the iron (II) thiocyanate spectrophotometric method. The results also demonstrated high levels of total phenolic content (39.2–54.4 [MG1] mg GAE per gram of sample) with a significant correlation (R2=0.9277) between antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content. The extraction efficiency demonstrated temperature dependence as showed by the levelling off at around 80°C with some slight drop at boiling temperature of water (96°C). The observed abundance of the antioxidant capacity in these plants is gratifying considering how widely these vegetables are consumed in the rural areas of Lesotho – a small mountainous country in the Southern Africa.

Open Access Original Research Article

Heavy Metals Accumulation in Water, Sediments and Catfish (Clarias gariepinus) from Two Fishing Settlements along River Kaduna in Niger State, Nigeria

J. A. Omozokpia, A. I. Ajai, M. M. Ndamitso, J. O. Jacob, A. Akoma, E. Tanko

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/19001

Water, sediments and catfish (Clarias gariepinus) samples obtained from two fishing settlements along River Kaduna at Shiroro and Zungeru in Niger State, Nigeria were analyzed for some selected heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) using Buck Scientific Model 210 VGP atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The data obtained were then, analysed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) statistical analysis. All heavy metals analyzed were detected in all the samples except Pb, not detected in water and catfish samples and also, Cd was not detected in sediments sample. The highest heavy metal concentrations were found in the sediments compared to the water and catfish this is because sediments are known to be major depository of metals present in the system. Zungeru fishing settlement has higher concentration of the following metals: 0.72±0.84 mg/L Fe in the water; 1331.00±46.98 mg/kg Fe and 160.83±12.18 mg/kg Zn in the catfish; 7447.33±139.07 mg/kg Fe and 164.67±7.63 mg/kg Mn in the sediments than the values from Shiroro site. Shiroro fishing settlement has the highest concentration of Fe in water 5.86±0.11 mg/L, highest Fe in catfish 1482.83±99.50 mg/kg, highest in sediment 26629.50±487.97 mg/kg. The heavy metals in the water from Shiroro River follow the ranking: Fe > Cu > Cr > Zn > Mn > Cd > Ni; while the metals in the fish from Zungeru follow the order: Fe > Zn > Mn > Cr > Cu > Cd > Pb, Ni. Variable results were obtained from the two fishing settlements, but results obtained for some metals in different samples (water, catfish and sediments) were within maximum permissible limits for water, sediments and fish as recommended by WHO/USEPA, while other metals were higher than the recommended limits. Regular monitoring of these heavy metals in water, catfish and sediments on these fishing settlements is recommended.

Open Access Original Research Article

Clusterization for Distributed Timely Detection of Changes in Smart Grids

Jose Jimenez David Lara, P. Papantoni-Kazakos, A. T. Burrell, Fernando Mancilla-David

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-26
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/19043

For real-time management of power distribution systems, when rapid operational adjustments are required to cope with intermittent power generation which is typical of renewable-based units, it is imperative that the optimization of the overall power distribution system be addressed in a distributed fashion. Then, the power distribution system may be partitioned into clusters whose size is determined by the delay constraints induced by the regular operations and the required operational adjustments.

In this paper, clusterization is considered as directly addressing the operational adjustment problem in the presence of operational changes. Then, such changes need to be identified timely and accurately before pertinent adjustments be performed. Clusterization may thus be dictated by the accuracy and delay constraints imposed on the detection and identification of such changes. In particular, we first consider the initially non-clusterized power distribution network and determine the bus voltage and/or current variations perceived as considerable changes.  Then, we formulate a recursive maximum likelihood (ML) approach which naturally points to an initial network clusterization via incorporated sufficient identifiability conditions. We subsequently develop, analyze and evaluate a distributed sequential detection of change algorithm, implemented by the supporting data communication network, whose performance (including accuracy and decision delay) is controlled by a set of threshold parameters.  Required algorithmic performance constraints may dictate final cluster architecture and dimensionality. This performance monitoring and clusterization approach has never been considered in power systems before.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Impact of Temperature on the Removal of Nitrogen Compounds in Activated Sludge System

Sylwia Myszograj

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/18950

Introduction: The temperature, as one of the essential factors affecting the growth and survivability of all microorganisms, may have an impact on them in two opposite directions: the change in the temperature (its increase and decrease) may have a positive impact on the growth rate or may lead to the irreversible inactivation and degradation of the components. It influences on the efficiency of biological wastewater treatment carried out by microorganisms.

Aims: This paper presents the results of test performed in the model activated sludge system. The impact of temperature on the nitrogen compounds removal processes was investigated, within the temperature ranging between 10 and 37°C.

Methodology: The evaluation of the temperature impact on the processes of removal of nitrogen compounds was made on the basis of the laboratory tests conducted in the activated sludge system. The system was supplied with synthetic wastewater in the composition approximated that of the typical household wastewater. Each value of analyzed parameters (TKN, N-NH4, N-NO3, BOD5, COD, X) was determined as the average of the values measured in the following nine days. The formulations of ASM Models were used to calculate the kinetic parameters of transformations of the nitrogen compounds in the activated sludge process.

Results: The degree of removal of total nitrogen from the wastewater within the temperature range between 10 and 34°C was at the level of 75.5-90.6% (12.5-4.8 gN/m3), and at the temperature of 37°C, it amounted to 71.8% (14.4 gN/m3). The highest efficiency of overall nitrogen removal was observed within the temperature range from 10°C to 22°C and from 32°C to 35°C. Temperature coefficient values Q was different in various temperature ranges.

Conclusion: It was determined that the assumption of an exponential increase in the rate of biochemical reactions together with an increase in the temperature does not take into account the changes of the physiological condition of microorganisms. The activity of the bacteria does not change exponentially together with the increase in temperature, but rather demonstrates the minimum and maximum values. Temperature coefficient value Q can be regarded as a constant only within a strictly defined temperature range, characteristic for the respective groups of microorganisms.

Open Access Original Research Article

Utilization of Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy to Investigate the Metals in Dairy Products Waste Water

Nafie A. Almuslet, Maria M. Osman

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/18852

Background: Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is an atomic emission-type spectroscopy that can analyze any sample successfully and can be applied to gas, liquid, and solid samples. It can provide nonintrusive, qualitative and quantitative measurement of elements in various test environments.

Due to rapid industrial growth, environmental pollution has increased tremendously over the years, especially with heavy metals. These metals, are toxic even at low concentrations, may find their way into the human body via inhalation, ingestion, and skin absorption. The analysis of wastewater for trace and heavy metal contamination is an important step in ensuring human and environmental health.

Aim: In this work Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) was used to investigate the heavy metals in industrial water collected from dairy products processing plants.

Experimental: This study was designed to use LIBS technique to analyze the emission spectral lines collected from the samples plasma and to make use of this technique to determine the existence of heavy elements in waste water of dairy products.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of laser system, institute of laser in Sudan university of Science and Technology – Republic of the Sudan.

Methodology: Three water samples were irradiated by Q-switched Nd: YAG laser to produce its plasma. The emission spectra of the plasma were collected via optical fiber and analyzed by Ocean Optics 4000+ spectrometer, and the recorded spectra of the samples were analyzed using NIST data.

Samples: Three waste water samples, collected from dairy product plants, were used as study samples. 

Results: The analysis of the spectra showed considerable amounts of Na, Co, Cu, Fe, Cs, Hg, Pr, Cr, Ti elements in addition to Co+1 , Cu+1, Cs+1 and Fe+1 ions.

Conclusions: The analysis of the three industrial water samples led to efficient detection of different heavy metals using LIBS technique.

Open Access Original Research Article

Minimal Dimensions of a Small House by Means of Optimization Procedure

J. Horta Rangel, Gómez Ruiz Aimé, L. Pérez Rea, E. Rojas González, T. López Lara, J. Hernandez Zaragoza

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/18170

This work has focused on the analysis of minimum dimensions of housing while its occupants maintain a proper comfort within it according to several requirements: proxemics, ergonomics, anthropometry as well maintaining an energy efficiency of the house. The current analysis is referred to a small house with four occupants and according to Mexican standards. These constructions are built in a large number to satisfy needs society. Optimal design of architectural spaces of a small house makes sense in that housing should ensure a minimum of comfort for its occupants, maintaining minimum and standard requirements. However, current constructive trends of these houses tend to minimize its costs based mainly on two polices: reduced construction areas and use of inappropriate quality materials. On this work it was proposed an optimization procedure for finding the optimal dimensions of a small house through a mathematical model that takes the overall volume of housing as an objective function, while the design variables correspond to the main dimensions of the house while state equations correspond to the requirements characterizing all living spaces including thermal comfort and home energy costs.

Open Access Original Research Article

Performance Enhancement of Gas Turbine Power Plant via Wet Compression Technique and Its Effects on Economic Aspects

Hilman Syaeful Alam, John Sasso, Imam Djunaedi

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/19184

The study is intended to improve the performance of gas turbine engines to meet both electrical power demand and peak load in the power plant and to analyze their economic aspects. Performance enhancement of gas turbine was analyzed using thermodynamic modelling and focusing on power enhancement, specific fuel consumption (SFC), heat rate and thermal efficiency due to the application of wet compression system. The study was conducted on the two gas turbine units (GT1 and GT2) in the Pesanggaran power plant, Southern Bali Island, Indonesia between December 2014 and March 2015. GTPro, a power cycle thermodynamic computer modeling software program, was utilized to conduct the performance evaluation of the application of wet compression system. The study was conducted based on three conditions, i.e. saturated fogging and wet compression at 1% and 2% over spray (OS). The capacity cost, operating cost, and payback period due to the investment cost of the system are determined using PEACE. Based on the results of evaluation, performance enhancement of gas turbines using wet compression system is more significant than with conventional fogging, with maximum incremental power reaching 23.09%. In addition, in terms of SFC, heat rate and thermal efficiency, the wet compression system is more economical than conventional fogging; therefore the application of the wet compression system on GT1 and GT2 can achieve the fastest payback in, respectively, 9 and 10 year. It can be concluded that the wet compression system is more effective and economical than conventional fogging for improving the performance of gas turbines. However, the experimental work to validate a thermodynamic modelling and the effects of adding water to gas turbine components needs be further investigated.

Open Access Original Research Article

Arm Flexion Influence on Muscle Reaction Time in Females with Active Myofascial Trigger Point

Marzieh Yassin, Saeed Talebian, Ismail Ebrahimi Takamjani, Nader Maroufi, Amir Ahmadi, Javad Sarrafzadeh, Shapour Jaberzadeh, Shapour Jaberzadeh, Anita Emrani

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/17447

Aim: To investigate arm flexion effect on reaction time in females with upper trapezius active myofascial trigger point (MTP).

Methods: Fifteen women (aged 24.5±2.7 years) with one active MTP in the upper trapezius and fifteen normal healthy women (aged 23.30±1.6 years) participated in this study. Participants were asked to stand on the force platform for 10 seconds in an erect comfortable standing position. To investigate muscle reaction time, time interval of first stimulus presentation and muscle force generation onset were measured. The target muscles were anterior deltoid (AD), cervical Paraspinal (CP) lumbar Paraspinal (LP), upper trapezius (UT), sternocleidomastoid (SCM), medial head of gastrocnemius (GC). Participants were asked to flex their arms in response to a sound stimulus preceded by warning sound stimulus.

Results: There were significant differences between test and control subjects in reaction and motor time (P < 0.001). There was no significant difference between these groups in premotor time.

Conclusion: The present study showed that patients with active MTP needed more time to react to stimulus. Firstly, patients had less compatibility with environmental stimulations, and secondly, they responded to a specific stimulation with variability in Surface Electromyography (SEMG).

Open Access Original Research Article

Creating a Disability Variable for Children with Disability Using the WHO ICF-CY Classification System

Niels Ove Illum, Kim Oren Gradel

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-19
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/19635

Aims: To create a single disability variable in 332 children with different disability severities, ICD-10 diagnoses, and ages by employing the WHO ICF-CY body functions coding system.

Study Design: Open field pilot research study.

Place and Duration of Study: H. C. Andersen Children’s Hospital and Centre for Clinical Epidemiology, Odense University Hospital, Odense Denmark, between October 2010 and November 2011.

Methodology: We included 332 children (144 boys and 188 girls; age range 1.0–15.9 years) with spina bifida, spinal muscular atrophy, muscular disorders, cerebral palsy, visual impairment, hearing impairment, mental disability, and disabilities following treatment for a brain tumour. A set of 47 body function codes (b codes) representing a broad spectrum of functions in daily living and with five qualifiers each was scored during interviews with parents. Psychometric and Rasch data analyses were performed.

Results: Mean code score for each child was 32.17 (range 0–159). The corrected code-total correlation was high (0.70). Inter-code correlation was mean 0.50 (range 0.01–0.97), and Cronbach´s alpha 0.98. Following Rasch analysis and due to disordering of Andrich thresholds (τs) and infit and outfit mean square values >1.5, the number of codes was reduced from 47 to 33. Retained codes all had ordered τs and mean square and corresponding Z-standardised values within the recommended range of 0.5–1.5. The t-statistic for differential item functioning across codes and diagnosis group, age, and gender was between 2.0 and 3.0. Graphical data for disability variable, the child-code map, paralleled clinical expectations across the total population of children.

Conclusion: WHO ICF-CY b codes can provide a coherent measure of the severity of disability in children across various diagnoses, age, and gender and add important information to WHO ICD-10 diagnosis codes when employed in daily clinical practice.