Open Access Method Article

Microcontroller Based Office Communication Model (MBOCM)

M. Olagunju, O. A. Alabi

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/15634

Technology has brought convenience to office activities by integrating communication model into electronics device. This work focused on Microcontroller based office communication model for establishing end to end communication nudes primarily to achieve fast message delivery without the visitor consent. An Atmel microcontroller (AT89C52) was used to design and construct the device and administrative languages were coded in numeric codes using C programming language which was compiled on keil micro-vision compiler platform. Communication model was setup using duplex communication and the interfaced keypad was used to input visitor’s request at lower officer front desk. The user (lower officer) will get quick response (Allow or Deny) from higher officer therefore, the lower officer will respond to visitor(s) using MBCOM message status. The results proved that the designed Microcontroller is efficient for running secured end to end communication broadcasted over LCD display. The performance is excellent in terms of timely response and also with respect to message delivery from both ends.

Open Access Original Research Article

Digital Beamformation Technology in Scan Radar and Its Essentiality for Achieving Predefined Surveillance under Air-borne Operations

Debasish Bhaskar, Mousumi Gupta, Saumya Das, Rabindranath Bera

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/18358

Aims: To develop a precise Digital Beam Forming control at the receiver of a Digital RADAR under clutter condition.

Place and Duration of Study: Electronics & Communication Engineering Department, Sikkim Manipal Institute of Technology, Sikkim, India, between March 2012 and May 2012.

Methodology: Under a slow motion clutter environment, the target dimension is being varied i.e., appearing different targets with descending order RCS, the receiver performance is tested in terms of detectability of the target. Then at each case it has been observed how the target peak is gradually reduced w.r.t the decreasing RCS of the target. But, after employing the precise Digital Beam Formation at the receiver towards the lowest RCS target, it has been observed that by what extent, the target peak is improved in order to get a sustainable target to clutter ratio.

Results: In Case-1, Digital Beamformation is done in an arbitrary direction & the Signal-to-Clutter Ratio (SCR) is noticed for larger as well the smaller dimension target. In Case-2, the Tx and Rx Beamformation is done towards larger dimension target. Keeping the dimension of the larger target constant, the dimension of the smaller target is gradually decreased and the decreasing SCR is noticed at the output of the receiver beamformer. At a certain decreasing value of smaller target RCS, the target gets hidden in clutter and not being detected. Under Case-3, the receiver Beamformation direction has been switched towards the smaller target so as to successfully retrieve the smaller target from clutter.

Conclusion: By the precise Digital Beam Forming control at the receiver, the Signal-to-Clutter Ratio (SCR) of the smaller target as discussed in Case 3, is improved by a great extent. Due to the limitation of the system dynamic range the smaller RCS target can’t be distinguished from clutter, but at this condition, if the precise Digital Beam Forming (DBF) towards an optimum direction can be formed, it may help at a great extent to find the smaller RCS target being distinguished from the clutter. The simulation results in this paper prove the fact with vivid depictions and clarifications.

Open Access Original Research Article

Correlation of EEG Images and Speech Signals for Emotion Analysis

Priyanka A. Abhang, Bharti W. Gawali

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/19000

Aims: The paper anticipates the correlation of EEG images and speech signals for understanding the emotions.

Study Design: The study focuses on recognition of emotions using EEG images and speech signals using various image processing and statistical techniques. For correlating these two modalities, Person’s correlation coefficient is used.

Place and Duration of Study: System Communication Machine Learning Research Lab (SCM-RL).Department of Computer Science and Information Technology, Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada   University, Aurangabad, India. 2009 - till date.

Methodology: The study was performed using the data from 10 volunteers 5 boys and 5 girls, vocally sharing the experiences for happy and sad emotional states. Image processing techniques were employed to extract features from EEG images. A Threshold and Sobel Edge detection technique is used to extract the active regions of the brain during the emotional states.  MatlabR2012 is used to calculate the active size of EEG images. PRAAT software is used to extract the features of speech signals. Pitch, intensity and RMS energy parameters were used for the analysis of speech features.  The correlation is calculated using size of active region from EEG images with pitch and intensity for said emotional state.

Results: The correlation of EEG images with speech signals is implemented using SPSS software using Person’s correlation coefficient with significance of about 95% which can further be inspected in results.

Conclusion: The correlation of both EEG images and speech signals found to be between moderate to strong relationship and is signified through p value which is in the range of .001 to .081 in happy emotional state and .000 to .069 in sad emotional state. The results can be utilized in making the Robust Emotion Recognition System (ERS). This research study can also found to be significant in research domains like forensic science, psychology and many other applications of Brain Computer Interface.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Modified Optimal Electricity Distribution Algorithm for Nigeria Machine Tools Distribution Zone

Kadiri Kamoru Oluwatoyin, Ibiyemi Semiu Bukayo, A. O. Alabi

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/16815

This paper presents an improvement of power factor on inductive loads in Nigeria machine tool plant. Due to the fact that most of the electrical loads are inductive in nature and to provide reduction in distribution losses and the electricity bill charges, a form of power factor correction device is employed, usually in the form of capacitors, which draws leading reactive current to neutralize as much of the lagging reactive component of load current as possible. To improve the power factor in machine tools industries, it is required to install capacitors of appropriates ratings as near to the load as possible. This paper presents a case of an induction machine in a factory having a power factor of 0.75 and has capacity of improving its power factor to 0.928 by connecting suitable capacitors in parallel with the inductions motors.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Comparative Study of the Periphyton on Eichhornia crassipes and Phytoplankton Communities: An Overview of Environmental Conditions at Ejirin Part of Epe Lagoon, South Western Nigeria

AI Inyang, K. S. Effiong, M. U. Dan

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-23
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/18647

Periphyton and phytoplankton communities were compared and investigated in view of the environmental conditions at Ejirin part of Epe lagoon, from Dec. 2012 – May, 2013. This was to evaluate the effect of the environmental characteristics on the biotic communities. Surface water temperature correlated significantly with rainfall (r 0.855*; P < 0.05), surface water Chl. a (r = 0.817*; P < 0.05) and with periphyton individual (r = 0.745). The water pH remained acidic throughout the study period (pH < 6.6) with a mean value of 6.39. Transparency values were high in the dry months and low in the wet months, with the strong significant correlation with the periphyton and phytoplankton individual (r =0.844*; P < 0.05) and (r = -0.887*; P < 0.05) respectively. Total suspended solids has a mean value of 61.02mg/L, and correlated significantly with periphyton individual (r=0.836*; P < 0.05), and strongly correlated with phytoplankton individual and rainfall (r =0.791 and 0.678) respectively. The micronutrients varied throughout the study periods with reactive nitrate (NO3-N ≤ 0.32mg/L), reactive phosphate (PO4-P ≤ 0.78mg/L), silicate (SiO3 ≤ 0.80mg/L), and sulphate (≤1.30mg/L). Sulphate correlated strongly with phytoplankton and periphyton individual (r=0.616 and 0.707) respectively. Five divisions were recorded in phytoplankton community with their percentage of occurrence: Bacillariophyta (82.45%), Cyanobacteria (9.99%), Chlorophyta (6.08%), Euglenophyta (1.32%), and Chrysophyta (0.12%), whereas four divisions were recorded in periphyton community with their percentage occurrence: Bacillariophyta (82.67%), Cyanobacteria (10.54%), Chlorophyta (5.64%), and Euglenophyta (1.15%). The PCA factor analysis revealed the importance of the followings: water temperature, pH, TDS, rainfall, sulphate, COD, BOD, nitrate, phosphate, salinity and, phytoplankton and periphyton individual to the future environmental analysis. Therefore, the periphyton community has shown a more promising tool in the event of environmental studies by responding significantly to most of the environmental parameters studied.

Open Access Original Research Article

A CAM (Content Addressable Memory) Architecture for Codon Matching in DNA Sequences

Parag K. Lala

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/19154

DNA sequences are long strands of four letters – A,T.C and G,  that represent the amino-acid building components of proteins . A triplet sequence of adjacent letters on a DNA sequence is known as a codon. Multiple codons represent one of the 20 possible amino acids. DNA sequence matching is used to determine the similarity between an unidentified DNA sequence with the database of other sequences with known characteristics. Those sequences displaying high levels of similarity tend to be similar in nature and thus the matching can be a useful tool in determining the nature of the new genetic sample. This paper presents the conceptual architecture of a content addressable memory that can be used to provide simultaneous comparison of a query DNA sequence with 16 stored sequences, and identifies the ones with the highest number of codon matches with the query sequence.

Open Access Original Research Article

Ways of Achieving Stable and Uninterrupted Power Supply of Electricity in Nigeria

Kadiri Kamoru Oluwatoyin, Alimi Maryam Odunola, A. O. Alabi

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/17043

The supply of stable power supply of electricity to consumers is the backbone of socio- economic growth of any nation and Nigeria is not an exception. The Power sector in Nigeria has multidimensional problems such as: use of overloaded power transformers in the grid substation, Altitude of top Management, Government altitude and contractors’ altitude toward power generation, corruption and mismanagement of funds. These factors affects the performance indices (efficiency, number of consumers connected to distribution line per unit transformer, transmission losses and maintenance cost) of electricity utilities in the country. Electric power is the engine that drives industrialization, which improves communication, helps innovation in science and Technology, provides sound healthcare delivery system and improve citizens standard of living. The review revealed that the total grid capacity of 7,139.60 MW with 3,572.6 MW (peak generation), 3,091.8 MW (lowest generation), 80,308.49 MWH (energy recorded), 49.232 Hz (lowest system frequency), 51.18 Hz (highest system frequency), 347 Kv (highest voltage recorded), 300 Kv (lowest voltage recorded) as at February 18, 2015 and 3,490.7 MW (generation at 06:00 Hrs) as at February 19, 2015. Hence, this paper investigated into the causes of unstable power supply of electricity in Nigeria and proffers solutions to the problem. One of the solution proffers in this paper is the use of alternative means of generation which will go a long way in solving stability of electric power problem in Nigeria. Aim of this paper is to ensure efficient, safe and adequate production of electricity, evolve stable and equitable rates thereby ensuring reasonably profits in power sector.

Open Access Original Research Article

Inclination to Superstitious Knowledge in Decision Making among the Annangs in Farming Communities of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

Valerie A. Solomon, Ifiok D. Ekong

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/19363

The study analyzed the inclination to superstitious knowledge in decision making among the Annangs in farming communities of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Primary data from 150 randomly selected respondents from Ikot Okoro, Ikot Ubo, Ikot Ekang and Ikot Okubara villages of Abak and Oruk Anam Local Government Areas were collected using questionnaires and key informant interview guide. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and multiple regression. The study revealed that 94% of the respondents were aged between 21-60 years, 94% had acquired some formal education, all respondents were Christians, 61.3% of the respondents were married, 92% earned at least NGN 50, 000 monthly (about $250) and about 52% of the respondents have farming as their primary occupation. Three indexes of luck, malevolence/benevolence, and omens/soothsaying were used to measure the belief in superstition. The study revealed that respondents believed less in luck (with a mean score of 22.9533) than they did in malevolence/benevolence (24.9332) and omens/soothsaying (27.3066). The study recommends that education with a focus on the enlightenment, re-orientation, and counseling of individuals on the subject matter be initiated effectively by agents of social change to reduce the levels of inclination to superstition in decision making among respondents. This will support the adoption of innovations to bring about increased agricultural productivity, rural development and a smooth rural transition.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Exponentiated Kumaraswamy-Exponential Distribution

Jailson de Araujo Rodrigues, Ana Paula Coelho Madeira Silva

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/16935

A new continuous distribution called exponentiated Kumaraswamy-exponential that extends the exponential distribution and some other distributions is proposed and studied. Several structural properties of the new distribution were investigated, including the moments, hazard function, mean deviations and Rényi entropy. Moreover, we discuss the maximum likelihood estimation of this distribution. An application reveals that the model proposed can be very useful in fitting real data.

Open Access Review Article

Identification and Review of Common Challenges Militating against the Attainment of Health-related Millennium Development Goals in Rural Nigeria

H. Wankasi

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-18
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/16885

Aim: To ascertain common challenges militating against the attainment of the health related Millennium Development Goals in 2015 in Brass Local Government Area of Bayelsa State and to make policy recommendations. 

Methods: A systematic qualitative review of related studies aimed at identifying common challenges facing the implementation and actualization of health related Millennium Development Goals was carried out through electronic database, books, and primary data from relevant institutions in the State. Purposeful sampling was done due to the peculiarity of the subject matter. Data were selected and reviewed from 2000-2014, except few included that dated back were relevant to this study. From the search, eighty [80] materials were accessed, but fifty [50] were selected for the review based on pertinent. A thematic analysis was done. The documents accessed were read through, cod-able areas were highlighted, extracted and collated into themes in a coding template. After re-grouping, the units of analysis were identified.

Findings: Six outstanding issues were seen as factors militating against the actualization of the health related millennium development goals as viz; leadership 33%, finance 16%, corruption 10%, crisis 6%, man-power, 8% and inaccessibility 6% amounting to 79% of the eleven identified themes. Out of these six, due to word limit, four are discussed.

Conclusion: The aim of this article was to elicit common challenges facing the implementation process. 11 were identified, out of that number, 6 were selected as they were peculiar to the setting under review and 4 were discussed due to word limit. What seemingly militate against the implementation in the area under review are leadership and its related variables.