Open Access Method Articles

Research and Realization of Vehicle Controller Algorithm Based on MotoHawk

Liu Xuejing, Li Yuanyuan

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/19365

The development of automotive embedded systems used the "V" font development process and model based development mode, in the development process, CAN bus development and test platform usually was used to develop and test vehicle controller algorithm. According to the above design requirements, the underlying MotoHawk control system is configured using Matlab/Simulink module, the overall structure of vehicle controller algorithm and specific control module is designed and the program is compiled and tested. Through the MotoTune tool for calibration of each output, the control algorithm program is more accurate. The test results show that the control algorithm has good portability, flexibility, control and high accuracy to provide theoretical guidance and strategies for tracking for independent research and development of vehicle controller algorithm.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Foundry Sand and Natural Pozzolans on the Mechanical, Durability and Micro-structural Properties of Lightweight Concrete

K. M. A. Hossain, M. S. Anwar

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/17484

This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation on the use of waste  foundry sand as fine aggregate replacement to produce lightweight concrete (LWC) with Portland volcanic ash based blended cement (PVC) and coarse pumice aggregate. The effect of foundry sand as replacement of river sand (from 0 to 30%) on fresh (slump and air content), mechanical (density, compressive/tensile strength, and modulus of elasticity), durability (drying shrinkage, water permeability, rapid chloride permeability and carbonation) and micro-structural (porosity, pore size distribution, micro-hardness, interfacial transition zone) properties is described. Other variables in the study include: water-to-binder ratio (W/B) by mass, aggregate-to-binder ratio (A/B) by mass, total binder content and cement types (ASTM type I cement and PVAC). The properties of LWC is influenced by water to binder ratio (W/B), binder content, foundry sand content and the presence of volcanic ash in blended Portland cement. The investigation leads to the production of foundry sand based LWCs for structural applications having satisfactory strength and durability characteristics. The foundry sand induces the beneficial effect of reducing drying shrinkage and water permeability as well as refinement of pore structures and better interfacial transition zone (ITZ). Results have indicated that foundry sand has potential for being used as fine aggregate in producing durable concrete. The utilization of natural pozzolan (volcanic ash) and waste (foundry sand) not only makes LWC economical, but also do help in reducing disposal problems and promote sustainable construction.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Effect of Chronic Prosopis glandulosa Treatment on Muscle Force Development and Fatigue Tolerance in Soleus Muscle

Cindy George, Daneel Dietrich, Barbara Huisamen

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/17032

Background: Muscle fatigue, which is the diminished ability of muscles to generate force, has been found to play a major role in limiting performance during physical activity. For centuries herbal remedies have been used in the plight to ameliorate fatigue and increase muscle strength, however many lacking scientific evidence.

Aims: This study was aimed to investigate the effects of Prosopis glandulosa, on skeletal muscle fatigue and muscle strength development.

Methodology: Adult, male, Wistar rats received daily oral administration of Prosopis glandulosa (100 mg/kg/day for 10 weeks). After 10 weeks the soleus muscles were excised from anaesthetized rats, weighed, measured and mounted for isometric force determination. Muscles were vertically suspended between two electrodes in Krebs Henseleit buffer solution in a water-jacketed organ bath. Isometric twitch- and tetanic force production, contraction time, half-relaxation time, force-frequency relationship and rate of fatigue were measured in response to electric field stimulation.

Results: P. glandulosa treatment had no significant effect on muscle fatigue tolerance, as both treated and untreated groups fatigued at the same rate. However, muscles from treated rats generated significantly increased force when the muscle was stimulated at different frequencies to generate a single twitch and tetanus and throughout a 2 minute fatigue protocol.

Conclusion: The use of an economical, natural and readily available substance such as the one we identified here, as treatment to increase muscle force generation could have far-reaching implications in not only the sporting arena, but also the health sector.

Open Access Original Research Article

Gender Classification and Age Detection Based on Human Facial Features Using Multi- Class SVM

Sayantani Ghosh, Samir Kumar Bandyopadhyay

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/19284

Gender classification is a binary classification problem, which can be stated as inferring female or male from a collection of facial images. Although there exist different methods for gender classification, such as gait, iris, hand shape and hair, yet the prominent methods to achieve the goal is based on facial features.

In this paper, novel methodologies has been proposed to achieve the goal of (1) gender classification and (2) age detection in three step process. Firstly, input image set are pre- processed to perform noise removal, histogram equalization, size normalization and then face detection is performed. Secondly, Feature Extraction from facial image is performed. Finally to evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithm, experiments have been performed on various image set that contain equal proportion of male and female by using suitable binary SVM classifier which will classify the data set into two categories i.e male or female. To achieve the second goal, Multi- class SVM have been employed which will generate three classes i.e child, adult and old. The age of the input images are detected and classified into one of the three category.

Open Access Original Research Article

Application of House of Quality Matrix to Material Selection for Engineering Designs

Ogedengbe Tunde Isaac, Olugbade Temitope Olumide, Olagunju Olasoji Rasaki

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/19105

Aims: The paper developed a strategy that apply the house of quality (HOQ) matrix for selecting appropriate engineering materials for use in engineering designs. The HOQ matrix provides a means for translating customer needs into appropriate technical requirements for effective product planning.

Study Design: Development of strategy for material selection and comparison using HOQ Computer Assisted Materials Selection (HCAMS) Software.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Mechanical Engineering, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria, between January 2014 and May 2015.

Methodology: The HOQ concept was used for determining and selecting the best material available that is suitable and which can adequately be used to manufacture a designed component. It was employed for screening and ranking of materials in a quantitative manner, within the strategy developed prior to selection. The strategy was then  implemented through a software that was  developed using Visual Basic programming language nested with Python. The software was developed to run on microsoft windows operating platform and to be interractive and user-friendly. It processed specific informations supplied by the users in respect of a designed product into standard requirements useful in quantitatively determining the materials that are best fitted for the manufacture of the product.

Results: Recommendation of materials best suited for the manufacturing of the designed product was provided by the material selector software developed. The software was validated and evaluated using practical examples from past engineering design work. Also, a comparison of the time it takes to finish the process of material selection using manual approach to the one when HCAMS is used revealed that the software is two hundred and three times faster.

Conclusion:  Materials recommendations for design by the software in respect of the case studies are the same with the ones recommended from manually conducted material selection exercise using the developed strategy.

Open Access Original Research Article

Obtained Yield and Financial Parameters of Organically Grown Mint in the Republic of Macedonia

Ljupcho Mihajlov, Vasko Zlatkovski, Natalija Markova Ruzdik

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/17970

Aims: The objective of this paper is to present the soil and weather conditions, applied production technology and to demonstrate the economic viability of irrigated and organically grown Mint (Mentha piperita).

Methodology: The obtained yield results are in reference to the open field growing conditions. In order to present the results in clear and understandable manner, standard methods for cost calculation were applied, usual for organic plant production. In order to obtain comparable results, the processed data in this paper are from the two-year production trials (2009 and 2010), of a new-established mint plantation planted in October 2008, in the region of Ovche Pole - central part of the Republic of Macedonia.

Results: In the first year of utilization (2009), two cuttings were performed yielding 3500 kg/ha of above-ground dry mass.  In the second year of utilization (2010), there were three cuttings yielding 5155 kg/ha of above-ground plant dry mass. Economic analysis proves that profitability in organically produced Mint (Mentha piperita) is obtained in the second growing season year, recording profit of € 8125 per hectare.

Conclusion: Based from the obtained results the benefits of growing Mint are: opportunities to optimize yield and achieve uniform high quality product. Organic way of growing Mint, can be a great business idea for the farm and family business.

Open Access Original Research Article

Anthocyanin Degradation and Colour Kinetics of Cornelian Cherry Concentrate

Şelale Kara Yalçinöz, Emine Alben Erçelebi

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/19193

Aims: The purpose of present study is to analyze the physicochemical properties (pH, total acidity, total monomeric anthocyanin, total phenolics and, total antioxidant activity) and to investigate thermal degradation kinetics of anthocyanins and Hunter colour parameters of cornelian cherry (Cornus mas L.) concentrates at 60, 70 and 80°C. 

Methods: Monomeric anthocyanin degradation fitted to a first order reaction kinetics. Hunter L*, a*, b* values were measured to characterize colour; total colour difference (TCD*), lightness (L*), chroma (C*), and hue angle (h*°) were calculated from those values and, fitted to zero-order, first-order and combined kinetics model.

Results: The half-life values for anthocyanin degradation were 5.7, 4.3 and 2.1 h in cornelian cherry concentrate at 60, 70 and 80°C, respectively. Temperature dependence of anthocyanin degradation rate constants was expressed as activation energy, Ea, and Ea was calculated as 48.38 kj/mol between 60-80°C. TCD*, L*, C*, and h*° gave best fits with combined kinetics model.

Conclusion: Cornelian cherry fruits are important source of phenolic compounds and anthocyanins, which are also good source of natural antioxidants. Anthocyanin degradation followed first order reaction kinetics, while changes in L*, C*, h*° and TCD* followed combined kinetic model. The degradation rate increased as temperature increased.

Open Access Original Research Article

Hardware Efficient Scheme for Indoor Environment Using Grid Mapping

M. C. Chinnaiah, T. Satya Savithri, P. Rajesh Kumar

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/18607

This paper addresses the mobile robot navigation using grid mapping. The proposal is to introduce dedicated Hardware scheme for robot navigation and it is deployed on Spartan 3E FPGA. The environment is divided into the grids, where landmarks are considered as grid points. Landmarks are RFID tags, among RFID system the reader is placed on the robot and interfaced with FPGA using UART protocol. The proposed path planning is also developed with obstacle avoidance mechanism to overcome the obstacles in robust environment. The robot navigation efficacy improves with the landmarks and hardware scheme. The hardware scheme is developed with NI lab view. Simulation and experimental results are furnished for proposed navigation algorithm in our laboratory. 

Aim: Navigation of FPGA based Autonomous robot efficiently towards the target using grid mapping technique.

Study Design: The study of path planning methods. Among that efficient path planning is proposed with landmark by using grid mapping. Developed the  hardware scheme for proposed algorithm. Place and Duration of Study: Padamasri Dr B V Raju Institute of Technology, Narasapur, Medak (Dist), Telangana, 502313. Duration of study in 2014-15.

Methodology: Hardware scheme for autonomous robot navigation.

Results: Simulation results of proposed algorithm and experimental results with snapshots.

Conclusion: Navigation of Autonomous fpga based robot with a hardware scheme by parallel processing and using grid mapping methods.

Open Access Original Research Article

Determination of Load Demand Using Load Estimate Method (LEM) Suitable for Industrial Environment, A Preview of Load Demand Rate at Prototype Engineering Development Institute, Ilesa, Osun State

S. A. Joseph, S. O. Fajoye, K. A. Ajise, A. M. Yakubu

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/17892

This paper presents the Load Demand Rate of Prototype Engineering Development Institute in the year 2009 when operation actually started and compares to the load demand in the year 2014 as the institute continues  in its growth drive, since more electrical equipment have been procured by the institute for effective operation. The power rating, in watts, of the electrical equipment on ground in 2009 were taken and tabulated as well as those of equipment acquired after 2009 till year 2014. The loads demand of each unit were tabulated and ground total of load for the years under review were obtained in two separate tables from where conversion to KVA ratings of each year were obtained. This comparison shows that there is large difference between the load demands of the two years under consideration, of which the existing transformer may not be able to cope with the present load demand. This study illustrates the application of load estimate method to determining the maximum load demand of an installation with a view to planning against unexpected system’s collapse that could arise from overloading of the substation’s transformer. Load demand Rate for the year under review is 451.87 KVA compared to the Installed transformer rating of 300KVA meaning that load demand rate has increased by 50%. Having obtained the load demand rate of the years under review, conclusion reached was to upgrade the substation’s transformer that supplies the Institute to be able to cope with the present load demand and for future expansion. This research work could be needed in holistic design of all industrial layouts.