Open Access Short Research Article

Investigation of the Effects of Partial Replacement of Coarse Aggregate with Graded Palm Kernel Shell in Asphaltic Binder Course

Adewale Olutaiwo, Adeniyi Owolabi

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/18785

This work investigated the effects of incorporating palm kernel shells (PKS) as partial replacement of coarse aggregates in hot mix asphaltic binder course. All the volumetric properties and the physical properties of the asphalt mixture were evaluated in order to determine the potential of PKS in the production of binder course for medium-trafficked roads. Percentages of PKS content rates used were 0%, 30%, 50%, 70% and 100% by weight of total coarse aggregate size of 4-8 mm. Specifically, 15 samples for control mix and 60 samples for the PKS proportions of compacted asphaltic mixture were prepared by using Marshall mixing procedure. The samples were prepared by varying bitumen content from 4.5% to 6.5% and tested using the Marshall Method.
The results of control samples and PKS-incorporated samples showed effective PKS content at 50% replacement having 5.7% optimum bitumen content. Overall, it is established that PKS is a viable agriculture waste product that can be used as coarse aggregates at a specific percentage in the production of asphaltic binder course for light to medium-trafficked roads.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Controller for Tracking Steep Glide Slopes for an Unmanned Gyroplane

Wei Wu

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/17376

This paper presents a glide slope tracking controller for an autonomous gyroplane during the final approach. This controller tracks the glide slope by adjusting the airspeed command and the collective based on the altitude error. To track steep glide slope angles, while maintaining a minimal airspeed for lateral and directional control, a feedforward airspeed command is computed based on the wind estimation. The controller performance was tested for several vehicle configurations and under various wind conditions using nonlinear simulation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Temperature and CO2 on the Growth and Accumulation Oil of Microalgae

I. V. Safarov, A. K. Abdullaev, N. A. Khujamshukurov, Zair S. Shakirov

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/18018

Strains of algae belonging to the genera Scenedesmus, Stichococcus, Chlorococcum, Ankistrodesmus, Chlamydomonas, Chlorella, Coelastrum, and Pediastrum were isolated from water samples collected in Uzbekistan. At optimum temperature (22ºC, 24ºC, 28ºC), all cultures were mesophilic algae. The results show that for these microalgae, 2% carbon dioxide is sufficient for optimal growth and development. The maximum accumulation of lipids (46,6-55,0%) was observed in cell cultures Chlorococcum sp.4, Chlorococcum sp.8, and Chlorococcum sp.37. In oils of Ankistrodesmus angustus, UT-15 detected 7 fatty acids, whereas in Pediastrum sp.1, 16 fatty acids were detected.

Open Access Original Research Article

Conductive Flow Theory of Knowledge

Syed V. Ahamed, Sonya M. Ahamed

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-17
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/14740

In this paper, we propose a methodology for quantifying the flow of knowledge based on simple rules of flow that govern the flow of current, heat or fluids. Knowledge being radically different from any of these established down-to-earth physical entities starts to display that the approach based on conduction theory soon become ineffective, if not futile to be precise for the quantification of the flow of knowledge. However, the inroads the these discipline carved out over many decades offer a rough mapping of potentials, resistances, path impedances, work-done and energies transferred. At the outset, knowledge does not abide by universal law of conservation of energy nor by the basic laws of fluid mechanics, instead knowledge needs its own laws and precepts to quantify its flow, rate of flow, and energies transferred from one knowledge centric object (KCO) to another.
The conceptual framework evolved in this paper, together with the tools of characterization of KCOs in any given discipline offers the explanation that the knowledge potential acquired by anyone depends on the differences of knowledge potentials, the duration and the quality of interaction, and the resistance to flow of knowledge between the participants. Concepts developed here are generic and they can be used most disciplines and in most places. The paper also identifies the makeup of the “source” and the “receptor” KCOs and addresses the process of knowledge transfer wherein the constitution of the KCOs is altered and adjusted by the “work done” during the knowledge energy transfer. By adapting and enhancing equations from heat- current- or fluid- flow laws of physics, electrical engineering or fluid mechanics, we propose the knowledge flow can be similarly quantified. Though simple and direct, this approach is coarse and approximate. It yields values for knowledge entities that happen at a subconscious level for human minds and for animate objects and at data- and knowledge levels in intelligent communication systems and machines.

Open Access Original Research Article

Application of Double-Duct Idea to Replace Conventional Bell-mouth Intakes

Morteza Abbaszadeh, Hafez Ejlali, Mina Shahrooz

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/18078

Aims: Controlling specifications of entering flow to a system is a critical issue in preventing any unexpected drop in the system efficiency. To provide the most satisfactory flow stream for internal combustion engines, jet engines, wind tunnels, air conditioning systems, water or oil intakes and thousands of other diverse applications, up until now the main interest was to design or optimize Bell-mouth intakes. Here we propose an innovative approach. Based on a novel idea proposed by Vertical Lift Research Center of Excellence in Pennsylvania State University, this investigation, for the first time, suggests replacing conventional Bell-mouth intakes by a new geometry called Double Duct (D-duct) in order to enhance performance of existing systems
Methodology: With regard to previous investigation, K-epsilon turbulence model was utilized through a Commercial Software package in this numerical investigation. Beside the reliability of the numerical method, which was declared by previous investigators working on similar applications, the method was also validated by comparing it with experimental data gained from one of the research references. An initial configuration of D-duct intake was compared to an elliptical Bell-mouth intake operating on leading edge of a pipe with a pressure intake at its end.
Results: Final results demonstrated nearly 8 percent increase in discharge coefficient and mass flow rate of D-duct system. Close observation of velocity distribution diagrams along the pipe length also proved that there is a noticeable difference between the flow in a conventional Bell-mouth system and a D-duct configuration.
Conclusion: D-Ducts could be used for improving flow characteristics in in-takes and to replace conventional Bell-mouth intake. However due to revolutionary nature of this idea and fundamental changes in the geometry a series of new investigations such for determination of vibration of the second duct etc. would be required.

Open Access Original Research Article

Analysis of Socio-Economic Factors Influencing Poultry Egg Production among Poultry Farmers in Ondo State, Nigeria

F. R. Bukunmi, H. A. Yusuf

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/12014

Poultry production is no doubt one of the important ways of alleviating the scourge of protein deficiency in Nigeria and other developing countries. Specifically, poultry eggs are rich source of high quality protein. Despite the importance of poultry eggs, majority of farmers in the rural areas find it difficult to meet up the recommended nutritional requirement especially protein. It was on this basis that this study aims at analysing the socio-economic factors influencing poultry egg production among farmers in Ondo state. The main objective of the study was to determine the factors that influence poultry egg production. The study was carried out in five (5) Local Government Areas (LGA) of Ondo State. Purposive sampling was used to select the LGA while random sampling was used to select 60 poultry farms from the LGA. Data were collectedthrough structured interview schedule. Multiple regression was used to analyse the data collected for the study. The study revealed that number of layers (X₈) significantly influenced poultry egg production at P≤0.01 level of probability; level of education (X₂) and years of experience (X₃) significantly influenced it at P≤0.05 level of probability while access to credit facilities (X₅) was significant at P≤0.1 level of probability. The result of the study showed that these variables significantly influence poultry egg production in the study area. Therefore, the study recommended that poultry egg farmers should be linked to financial institutions in order to have access to credit through extension agents so as to improve on their poultry farms. Also adult literacy classes for farmers with low education should be organized by the LGA as this will help the farmers to understand better the innovation introduced to them as regards poultry egg production. It will also help them to make good management decisions. Level of experience was also significant; hence the study recommends that farmers should have good knowledge of poultry egg production in order to improve on their production.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Glibenclamide and Glimepiride Compared in Type II DM Patients in Accordance with Lipid Parameters, ESF and Glycated Haemoglobin

K. Chandra Mouli Krishna, B. Sowmya, Bandopadhyay Mamata, M. Prasad Naidu

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/17537

The population of Indian adults suffering from diabetes is expected to increase threefold, from 19.4 million in 1995 to 57.2 million in 2025. The objective of the study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of antidiabetic drug and to find out their cardio protective action in patients with diabetes mellitus. In all, 60 patients who were newly diagnosed with Type II diabetes mellitus or who were already on treatment for Type II diabetes mellitus were enrolled in our study. The study was conducted on patients suffering from Type II diabetes mellitus for a period of 6 months from December 2011 to June 2012. These were patients attending the Medical and Surgical OPD’s of Maharajah’s Institute of Medical Sciences (MIMS) Hospital, Nellimarla, Vizianagaram district, Andhra Pradesh. Estimations of Hb%, FBS, HbA1C, Lipid Profile, ECG and Ejection Systolic Fraction (ESF) were done and compared, where HbA1C concentration was lower in the glimepiride group. Significant reduction in the total cholesterol, serum triglyceride and LDL cholesterol was observed in the Glimepiride + Metformin combination. It also increased the HDL cholesterol levels which were not observed with Glibenclamide + Metformin for the study period of 12 weeks. Thus, the Glimepiride/Metformin combination may be considered to be a better combination in patients with increased lipid parameters in comparison with Glibenclamide/Metformin combination in patients with Type II diabetes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Normal Load on Nanotribology of Zinc Sulphide (Zns) and Cadmium Sulphide (Cds)

Sunday Isaac Olisakwe, Azubike J. Ekpunobi, Peter I. Ekwo

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/17446

Energetic losses in systems especially miniaturized systems are presently a global challenge. In this work, four new models were developed through a combination of bond orbital model, Tomlinson’s model and Sang’s equation. Using Jump energy models, which is the energy that prevents the tips jump was calculated for Silicon (Si), Zinc Sulphide (ZnS) and Cadmium Sulphide (CdS). Through a combination of Tomlinson model and Sang’s equation, temperature model was developed. This model was modified to obtain normal load model. This final model was used to investigate the effects of normal load on nanotribology of silicon. The results obtained compare favourably with experimental results for Si found in literature. Hence the model was used for zinc sulphide and cadinium sulphide. The results show that friction at nanolevel increases with increase in normal load. There are no experimental results for zinc sulphide and cadmium sulphide. Hence, we are predicting experimental results for these semiconductors for the first time using our models.

Open Access Original Research Article

Heavy Metal Concentrations in Soil from Selected Rice Farms at Cheju, Zanzibar

Najat K. Mohammed, Rashid K. Makame

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/17548

Advancement of science and technology has enhanced the use of chemical products, such as fertilizer and pesticides, into agriculture to improve yield. Normally, these products contain metals which are detrimental to human health. These metals may be absorbed by plants and hence be introduced into food chain. In this study, samples of soil from Cheju rice farms were analyzed for heavy metals associated with agrochemicals using Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) Spectrometry. Sixty soil samples were collected from Cheju rice farms and 10 control samples were collected from Mwera about 25 km from Cheju. T-test to compare the mean concentrations of elements in fertilized and control soils showed that the soil samples from Cheju farms had significantly higher concentrations of most of the determined metals compared to the control sample. Higher concentrations of these elements in fertilized soil may be attributed to the repeated use of agrochemicals in farming. Analysis of rice grains from the field and other samples from the neighbouring ecosystem is recommended.

Open Access Original Research Article

Validation of Grid Formulas Using a Scaled Model of Earthing Grid System

Ignatius K. Okakwu, France O. Akpojedje, Emmanuel S. Olowasogo, Abel E. Airoboman

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/18626

The main objective of a safe grounding design is to carry current into earth under normal and fault conditions without exceeding operating and equipment limits or adversely affecting continuity of service,  also, to ensure that personnel within the vicinity of the grounding facilities are not exposed to the danger of electric shock. To attain these objectives, accurate determination of grid resistance is of paramount. This paper presents the comparison between grid formulas (analytical methods) used to calculate grounding resistance and experimental measurement. Also, variation of grid resistance with number of meshes was also examined.