Severe Acute Malnutrition (SAM) is a major health problem in children between the age groups of 1-5 years of age. According to National Family Health Survey-3, more than 132 million children below 5 are suffering from SAM in our India. The facilities available in hospitals and other health services are not appropriate to combat this major health issue. The present study was aimed to assess the impact of hospital diet on health status of 253 selected SAM children who were admitted for their rehabilitation in the nutrition ward of a private hospital in Raipur city. All the children were examined thoroughly and necessary investigations including weight, height, BMI, hemoglobin, chest x-ray, etc. were taken to assess the nutritional status of children. The overall results after the treatment show an increase in health status. The result reveals that out of 253 SAM children (39.5%) children had gained weight>10 g/kg/day. It can be proved that continuous follow-up parent’s dietary counseling and monitoring of nutritional status will give better results for SAM children.
Aims: Rice blast disease (RBD), which is caused by the pathogenic fungi of Magnaporthe oryzae is the most devastating diseases of cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L) Although many strategies have been applied to control the RBD, chemical anti-fungal agents are the most effective solutions to minimize the severity of RBD. The aim of this study is to explore new anti-fungal agents for RBD control. Study Design: Natural products are important source of biological active compounds. We used camalexin (3-thiazol-2’-yl-indole), which is a well known phytoalexin of Arabidopsis thaliana. In the present work, we designed new imidazoles based on camalexin as a molecular scaffold and the anti-fungal activity of the synthesized compounds against Magnaporthe oryzae were determined. Place and Duration of Study: All the experiments were conducted from October 2014 to March 2015 at Akita Prefectural University, Japan. Methodology: A series of new imidazole derivatives was designed and synthesized based on the camalexin as a molecular scaffold. The antifungal activity of the synthesized compounds against Magnaporthe oryzae was determined by using in vitro mycelial growth inhibition tests. Results: Among 3 newly synthesized camalexin based imidazole compounds, we found that 3-[3-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)propyl]-1H-Indole (2c) exhibits potent inhibitory activity with an IC50 value approximately 7.8±1.2 μM. Conclusion: We discovered a new lead compound with potent activity for rice blast control.
Existing potential-field based path planning methods in the literature often do not take into account environmental constraints and robot dimensions. Moreover, they normally do not provide the shortest path either. In this paper, we develop a new repulsive potential function that incorporates robot dimensions as well as the clearance between the robot and obstacles; using this repulsive function, we mathematically prove that the robot is guaranteed to reach the goal. To avoid obstacle’s cavity, we develop our technique “virtual-obstacle”, and for local minima we modify the existing artificial goal-technique to ensure robot reaches the goal. Our algorithm renders several solutions amongst which we choose the shortest path. We consider both static and dynamic obstacles with static and moving targets and demonstrate the effectiveness of our algorithm in several simulations including narrow passages which is a difficult case. The proposed method, by considering physical and environmental constraints, is an improvement to existing path planning algorithms and is of practical use for implementation in real environments.
In the present work the effect of working fluid (Al2O3 + water nanofluid) on the efficiency of a parabolic trough solar collector was investigated experimentally. The weight fraction of nano particles was 0.1% and the particles dimension was 40 nm. Experiments were performed with and without nanofluid. The mass flow rate of nanofluid is constant at 2 Lit/min. The results shows that, nanofluid based parabolic trough collector has higher efficiency than water based parabolic trough collector. For 0.1%, the increased solar thermal efficiency was nearly 7%. From the results, it can be concluded that the nanofluid causes an enhancement in heat transfer coefficient by 32%. The paper presents the preparation of nanofluid, calculation of nanofluids properties, test result and performance evaluation of Parabolic Trough Solar Collectors with and without nanofluids.
Wide application and versatility of steel have resulted in the need to improve its mechanical properties at desired temperature and microstructure to achieve production goal and reliable service performance. Quenching, a method of improving mechanical properties of steel, is characterized with reworking and induced thermal stresses leading to defective product. This could be caused by low temperature was distributed in the steel sample to effect the desired mechanical property. This paper is aimed at rectifying this anomaly by investigating the synergetic effect of operating variables (quenching time, radial distance and immersion speed) on temperature distribution in the quenched steel using Box-Behnken design of Response Surface Methodology (RSM). Results of the investigation show the significant terms to temperature distribution with quenching time having the most influential effect on the model development. The temperature distribution of 37.24°C was obtained at optimum condition for the parameters at 100 seconds, 15 mm radial distance and immersion speed of 0.10 m/s. The coefficient of correlation (R2) obtained for water quenched gave 0.9999, Adjusted R2 of 0.99983 and adequate precision of 43.356 respectively. This indicated a good agreement between the laboratory experiment and model developed for temperature distribution.
A long series of attempts have been made to identify factors influencing the number of males per 100 females at birth, also called the secondary sex ratio (SR). Earlier studies have noted regional variations in the secondary SR, and racial differences seem to exist. Statistical analyses have shown that comparisons between SRs demand large data sets because for moderate data the random fluctuations are marked and hence, reliable results presuppose national birth data. Variations in the SR that have been reliably identified in family data have mostly been slight and without notable influence on national birth registers. In this study, we analyse the regional variations in the SR in Sweden (1749-1869). We build spatial models for the regional variations in the SR and, in addition, analyse the association between the SR and the crude birth rate (CBR) and the total fertility rate (TFR). The strong random fluctuations in the SR yielded rather poor goodness of fit. Especially, the proposed models failed to satisfactorily identify counties with observed extreme SRs.
A study was conducted to investigate the effect of varying dietary levels of processed orange peels on the performance of broiler finisher birds. A total of 60 4-week old Anak broiler birds were allocated into four treatment groups of 15 birds each. The experiment lasted for four weeks. The groups were randomly assigned to four iso-nitrogenous (20.01-20.04% CP) and iso-caloric (2.88-2.95 Mcal/kgME) diets containing four levels (0, 5, 10, and 15%) of processed orange peels. Each treatment was replicated three times with five birds per replicate. The Response parameters studied were body weight, feed intake, body weight gain, feed conversion ratio and protein efficiency ratio. The results showed that significant (P<0.05) differences existed in average daily feed intake (ADFI), feed conversion ratio (FCR), daily protein intake (DPI) and protein efficiency ratio(PER). Increasing levels of processed sweet orange peel significantly (P>0.05) decreased the average final body weight, average daily weight gain, ADFI, DPI and PER, and increased FCR as the level of processed orange peels increased in the diet. Based on the results obtained in the present study, it was therefore concluded that inclusion of processed sweet orange peels had adverse effect on the growth rate and nutrient utilization by broiler finisher birds.
Nowadays; there are many higher educational institutes are established for education purpose. The main aim of higher education institutions is to provide standard and quality education to their students. There are many ways present to get the standard and quality education. To achieve of quality in educational system is by finding knowledge for prediction regarding the internal assessment and end semester examination. The internal assessment is evaluated by the faculty, which is based upon performance of student in educational task such as midsem, seminar, class attendance and so on. The end semester marks are based on scored (marks obtained) by the student in semester examination. In this paper, the classification task is used on student database by using the decision tree to extract knowledge that describes Prediction of performance of the students at the end of the semester, By using of previous database like Attendance of student in class, midsem and pervious academic records such as 12th and Graduation marks were collected from the student’s database. And to identify those students which are weak in study, so that faculty member give the extra and special attention on those students and they could better perform in the next semester exam.
Aim: This paper tends to put a different perspective for the reasons that had contributed to the drop in interest for further development of organic farming in Macedonia. Anno Domini 2001 is the year considered as official beginning of organic farming in the Republic of Macedonia. Trainings were conducted, farmers associations were established and an umbrella National Association was established too. In 2005, organic farming got under the national subsidy program, but the very next 2006 was abandoned. But since then without interruptions organic farming enjoys steady and increasing governmental support. Since 2007, two National Programs were developed while the area under organic and number of organic growers recorded steady growth. Up to 2012, when first signs of losing the pace is recorded by having a drop in number of ha under organic was recorded and the number of organic growers too. The next year, 2013 was another disappointment for the sector, since the government had reduced the volume of support from € 2113000 in 2012 to € 1089430 in 2013. Reasons for the drop in interest are naturally various but one of the most significant is insufficient competent support farmers were receiving. Unfortunately, the national advisory service has very limited human capacity on this matter, and private advisors are much too small in number to cover the demand for advice. Methodology: In order to obtain real-case data number of farms were interviewed for the practice they apply in their daily operations, in order to check their understanding of what organic farming is all about. The area of intervention was the East Planning Region in Macedonia. Then, subject of analysis were the advisors at the National Extension Agency who were asked to express their opinions on answers listed in a carefully designed questionnaire, which needed to provide answers on the level of knowledge advisors possess on organic farming. Results: the results analysis on both of the surveys are driving to a conclusion that Ministry’s opinion for the drop in interest has little value, since the amount of subsidies is quite high, yet farmers are giving up. Conclusion: Specially designed program for introducing the principles of organic farming to the farmers is imperative before they would be invited to join this kind of agricultural production. Furthermore, in order to provide best possible competent support, advisors need to go through a carefully designed training procedure in order to increase their knowledge in the principles of organic farming.
The use of medicinal plant to prevent and or cure liver problems is a practice not peculiar to developing countries. This research work evaluated oral LD50 and hepatoprotective properties of aqueous stem bark extract of Khaya senegalensis (ASBEKS) in rats. The rats were grouped into six groups (GI – GVI) of six rats each. GI served as normal control, GII served as CCl4 control, GIII was administered with only ASBEKS at a dose of 2.10 g/kg body weight per day for two weeks, while GIV, GV and GVI were administered with the extract at a dose of 1.05 g/kg, 2.10 g/kg and 3.15 g/kg respectively for two weeks. At the end of the first week, three rats from each group were selected and rats in groups II, IV, V and VI were attempted to be induced with liver damage using 120 mg of CCl4 administered subcutaneously. The animals were euthanized after 24 hours of CCl4 administration and liver function indices (ALT, AST, ALP, total protein, Albumin and Bilirubin) were assayed. The treatment was continued for the remaining three animals from each group, and at the end of second week of extract administration, liver damage was induced to groups II, IV, V and VI using 120 mg of CCl4 as above. The oral LD50 of ASBEKS was found to be 4200 mg/kg body weight, which is slightly toxic according to standard scale of toxicity. A significant decrease (p<0.05) was observed in the mean serum ALT, AST and ALP of GROUP IV animals treated for one week when compared to GII. This shows that ASBEKS at a dose of 1.05 g/kg daily for one week may protect hepatocytes against CCl4 hepatotoxicity. Contrary observation was recorded at higher doses of the extract for one week and two weeks of administration. A significant increase in liver function indices was recorded in GV and GVI as compared to GII in one and two weeks of extract administration, it may therefore speculate the aggravating effects of the extract to CCl4 hepatotoxicity. The finding of the study reaffirmed the LD50 established and conclusion. The hepatoprotective and hepatotoxicity effects of the plant could be due to its secondary metabolites contents and it should be used with caution in the management/ treatment of aliments.