Open Access Original Research Article

Carbohydrate Concentration in ‘BRS Rubimel’ Peach Trees during the Annual Cycle

Bruno Henrique Leite Gonçalves, Sarita Leonel, Marco Antonio Tecchio, Rafael Augusto Ferraz, Jackson Mirellys Azevedo Souza, Lucas Lencioni Arruda

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 419-426
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/17846

The carbohydrate storage is necessary to support the plant growth in periods of stress, during the dormancy, in the beginning of the vegetative development and during the fruiting time. In this context, this work intended to evaluate the carbohydrate concentrations of the peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) tree ‘BRS Rubimel’, cultivated under subtropical conditions. The experiment was performed at the experimental farm Lageado, of the Faculty of Agricultural Sciences of UNESP at Botucatu/SP. The evaluated peach trees were two years old and were cultivated in the spacing of 6.0 x 4.0 m. The adopted experimental delineation was in randomized blocks, making use of four plants per parcel with four repetitions. The treatments corresponded to the period of the collection of leaves and branches, during the annual cycle, corresponding to January to May and July to December 2012. The sample collection of the roots was performed in January, April, August, November and December 2012. Four fruits per plant were collected. The concentration of starch in the roots of the peach tree were superior to the ones from the branches, from August to December. The carbohydrate with the higher storage level in the peach tree ‘BRS Rubimel’ was starch.

Open Access Original Research Article

Mass Production, Yield, Quality, Formulation and Efficacy of Entomopathogenic Metarhizium anisopliae Conidia

Lioudmila Ibrahim, Lilian Laham, Alissar Touma, Said Ibrahim

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 427-440
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/17882

Aims: The aim of this study was to develop an easy but robust method for mass production, to formulate and compare the efficacy of mass produced conidia of a local isolate Metarhizium anisopliae against aphids and oil-formulated conidia against whiteflies.
Study Design: The randomized complete block design with replications.
Place and Duration of Study: 2012-2014, Laboratory of Crop Protection Department, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering and Veterinary Medicine, Lebanese University.
Methodology: Isolate of fungal entomopathogen M. anisopliae (Metschn.) Sorokin (LIM1) was grown on cooked rice, wheat, vegetable peels and burgul in roasting bags to produce and harvest spore powder. The cultures were dried and total yield of harvested conidia was determined. After harvesting, spores were submitted to quality control to assess concentration, germination, purity, moisture content and pathogenicity against rose aphid, Macrosiphum rosae L., mealy plum aphid, Hyalopterus pruni and melon aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover. Formulated in different oils, conidia were stored at different temperatures for 16 weeks. Oil-formulated conidia were tested against whiteflies under field conditions.
Results: Among the substrates studied, burgul had the highest yield (21 g/100 g substrate). The optimum time for harvesting was 3 weeks. C:N ratio was also the lowest for conidia produced on burgul which caused the highest mortalities and thus appeared the most virulent against all tested insects. Sunflower oil formulated conidia retained viability for at least 16 weeks at room temperature. The preliminary results indicated some but not significant control of whiteflies in the pot experiments.
Conclusion: M. anisopliae could be mass produced in large quantities on burgul substrate. The quality of produced inocula as measured by endogenous C:N ratios would be largely affected by substrate used for mass production. The quality would also influence the efficacy against target insects. Mass produced conidia could also be stored as dry or formulated in sunflower oil at room temperature up to 16 weeks. Use of endogenous C:N ratio as quality control indicator for high quality inocula is highly recommended. Use of vegetable peels as potential substrate for mass production combined with a recyclable oil as formulant could be a low cost and environmentally sustainable technology for future mass production of entomogenous fungi.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence, Etiology and its Seasonal Prevalence of Clinical and Subclinical Camel Mastitis in Saudi Arabia

Abdulla M. Al-Dughaym, A. Fadlelmula

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 441-449
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/17593

A cross-sectional study to investigate prevalence, seasonal prevalence and causative agents of clinical and subclinical dromedary camel mastitis in Saudi Arabia (KSA) was conducted. The prevalence of acute mastitis was 3.6% and of chronic mastitis was 2.2%. Physical tests, California mastitis test (CMT) and somatic cell count (SCC), were done in normal and infected milk specimens to draw a borderline between clinical and subclinical mastitis; a good correlation was detected between them. The average SCC in normal camels was 478,153 cells/ml which corresponds to negative score in CMT. Based on physical tests, subclinical mastitis has a prevalence rate of 44.4%.
Many bacterial and fungal species have been isolated from mastitic cases; for a portion of them this constitutes the first report from camel mastitis. From camels’ acute mastitis the most prevalent isolates were Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae with fungi constituting 10.8% of all isolates. From chronic mastitis, highest rates were for Staph aureus, coagulase-negative Staphylococci and Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis; fungi at 20.1%. From subclinical mastitis, Staph aureus and coagulase-negative Staphylococci were most prevalent with fungi at 12.4%. Seasonal prevalence of mastitis pathogens showed that environmental pathogens prevailed in winter and contagious pathogens in summer. From the findings of the study, the importance of mycotic mastitis is stressed. Improvement of diagnostic techniques to facilitate treatment according to etiology was highlighted. Results were discussed and conclusions drawn to improve mastitis control.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Behaviour of Some Working Fluids Applied on the Trilateral Cycles with Isothermal Controlled Expansion

Ramon Ferreiro Garcia, Beatriz Ferreiro Sanz

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 450-463
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/18624

This work studies the behaviour of some working fluids to be applied on trilateral thermal cycles characterised by the conversion of heat into mechanical work undergoing controlled isothermal expansion path functions. The considered trilateral cycles are relevant because of its ability to operate at very high efficiency when the working fluid operates within the vicinity of its critical point. Strategies to keep a constant temperature along the expansion stroke of a single effect reciprocating engine undergoing a corresponding pressure to ensure the desired path function are proposed and validated.
An analysis of the trilateral cycle undergoing isothermal expansion has been carried out and the thermal efficiency compared with that of a Carnot engine operating under a similar ratio of temperatures. Results revealed that for some working fluids, there exists a special region in the vicinity of the critical point that exhibits the best conditions to achieve high thermal efficiency when the conversion of heat to mechanical work is carried out undergoing an isothermal expansion.

Open Access Original Research Article

Handwritten Arabic Characters Recognition Based on Wavelet Entropy and Neural Network

K. Daqrouq, M. N. Ajour, A. Alkhateeb, A. Morfeq, A. Dobaie, M. Badarin, A. Rihawe

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 464-474
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/15512

The presented work proposed a wavelet packet and Shannon entropy (SEWP) technique for handwritten Arabic characters recognition system. Entropy has been applied in many applications. However, the combination of Shannon entropy with wavelet transform (WT) is proposed in this study of handwritten Arabic characters recognition. The investigation procedure was based on feature extraction and classification. For feature extraction, the distinguished features of handwritten Arabic characters were extracted using the SEWP technique. And for classification, probabilistic neural network (PNN) was applied because of its better performance and speedy processing. In the experimental investigation, the quality of wavelet transform in conjunction with Shannon entropy were studied. In addition, the capability analysis on the proposed system was studied by comparing with other systems. In response to our experimental results, the PNN classifier achieved a better recognition rate with SEWP as a feature extraction method.

Open Access Original Research Article

Hydrogeology and Water Quality Assessment of the Middle Aquiferous Horizon of Onitsha and Environs in Anambra Basin, Eastern Nigeria

Moses I. Isikhueme, Osakpolor Marvellous Omorogieva

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 475-483
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/16279

Onitsha is a commercial, ecclesiastical and administrative city located on 6º49′30″E and 6º8′30″N in South-Eastern Nigeria with a high population density. The study area is close to a confluence and occupies a landmass of 300 km2 and geologically belongs to the Ameki group in Anambra basin. The lithology of ten (10) wells labeled W5, W7, W9, W12, W16, W20, W21, W22, W23, and W24 were obtained from which a geologic fenced diagram was generated; four aquiferous horizons were detected which range from shallow (15-24m), upper (30-32m), middle (<90m) and the deep (>90m). The study revealed that the flow direction of the groundwater is multidirectional which was influenced by the piesometric heights; the study also revealed that there is a depression (sinkhole) at the middle aquifer occasioned by the massive extraction of groundwater from the aquifer; this is as result of the population density of the study area with several functional boreholes taping its water from the middle aquifer on an hourly basis.
Biogeochemical analyses were carried out on the groundwater from these wells and the result obtained when compared to WHO standard shows that the water was severely polluted particularly with coli form count, for example the an average of 14.7 total coli form count was recorded against 0 recommended by WHO. The cations and the anions were analized using acceptable method such as American Public Health Association, Allem et al; 1974 and Adeleke and Abegunde 2011, while the heavy metals were analized with AAS model PYE Unicam SP 2900. The pH value of the groundwater was found to range between (6.5–7.05); other parameters measured include total hardness (TH), total dissolve solid (TDS), Electrical Conductivity (EC) and alkalinity has the following range of values (64–120 mg/l), (10–40 mg/l), (71–109 s/cm) and (56–220 mg/l) respectively. The cations and anions were obtained as follows; Ca2+ (1.46–8.62 mg/l), Mg2+ (0.72–2.57 mg/l), Cl- (153.8–449.7 mg/l), PO42- (7.5-61.5 mg/l) and NO3- (6-21.6 mg/l). The heavy metals includes; Fe (0.27-0.65 mg/l), Zn (0.04-1.16 mg/l), Mn (0.03-0.52 mg/l) and Ba (0.02-0.26 mg/l). The Chemistry of the water was traced to anthropogenic activities due to high chloride and heavy metals measured; this is influenced by the countless number of septic tanks, open dumpsite, battery manufacturing companies, and effluent from pharmaceuticals and textiles industries amongst others present in the area. The authors recommend that drillers and borehole contractors should therefore drill deep into the deeper aquifer that is capped with clay/shale body for potable water while the water from the middle aquiferous horizon should be well treated before consumption by applying Adsorption and Osmosis filter method etc.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prediction of Paroxysmal Atrial Fibrillation through Spectral and Statistical Techniques

Azeemsha Thacham Poyil, Hedi Khammari

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 484-498
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/17451

Aims: The paper describes some methods based on statistical tools and time-frequency analysis for extracting features in frequency and temporal domain that may be used as predictors of Paroxysmal Atrial Fibrillation
Place and Duration of Study: Department of Computer Engineering, College of Computers and IT, Taif University, Saudi Arabia (Jan 2014-Feb 2015)
Methodology: The main focus of the work was on the investigation of useful tools emerging from statistics or quadratic transformations that can predict the possible onset of PAF in order to provide a prompt remedy. Our study was based on a database of two-channel ECG recordings which has been created for use in the Computers in Cardiology Challenge 2001. Real ECG records from 10 normal subjects and 10 subjects having PAF were studied. The specific features from the surface electrocardiogram immediately prior to the onset of Paroxysmal Atrial Fibrillation (PAF), showed that the occurrence of PAF can be predicted to some extend by analysing the spectral components, statistical and time-frequency parameters. The presence of PAF in p-records made the signal spectrum rich in energy. Alternatively, the variance and standard deviation of signals prior to the occurrence of PAF also gave valuable information which indicated the possible occurrence of PAF in the subsequent signal part.
Results and Conclusion: The specific features from the surface electrocardiogram immediately prior to the onset of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (PAF) proved that the occurrence of the latter can be predicted to some extent by analyzing the statistical and spectral parameters.

Open Access Original Research Article

Studies of Medicinal Herb Extracts for Controlling the Aspergillus niger and Trichoderma reesei (Fungi) on Organic Cotton and Bamboo Knitted Fabric for Health Care Textiles

S. Sumathi, Ancy Thomas, E. G. Wesely

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 499-503
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/17709

Aims: This study investigates the antifungal activity of green tea, neem leaf and aero root medicinal herbal extracts on organic cotton and bamboo knitted fabrics against Aspergillus and Trichoderma reesei.
Study Design: To evaluate the antifungal activity of treated fabric using AATCC test method. To develop an end products using the microencapsulated fabrics for health care textiles.
Place and Duration of Study: Research and development centre, Coimbatore, tamilnadu, india between august 2014 and January 2015.
Methodology: Agar well diffusion test, exhaust method, AATCC-30.
Results: The zone of inhibition of the herbal extracts of green tea, neem leaf and aero root is 24, 26,28 mm for Aspergillus niger (ATCC 6538) and 42, 41, 43 mm for Trichoderma reesei (ATCC 8739) by well diffusion method. The antifungal assessment of finished organic cotton and bamboo fabric is 69, 67 mm for A. niger and 83, 80 mm for T. reesei. antifungal activity of the finished organic cotton fabric after 10th and 20th washes are 75, 71 mm for A. niger and 82, 80 mm for T. reesei and for bamboo fabric 68, 63 mm for A. niger and 80, 76 mm for T. reesei.
Conclusion: The results show promising use of these herbal extracts as source of antifungal finishing of organic cotton and bamboo natural fabric. Finished fabric shows excellent activity against A. niger and T. reesei. Durability of the herbal finishing is increased by microencapsulation methods. The outcome showed that maximum anti fungal effect even for the washed fabrics.

Open Access Original Research Article

Structural Behavior of Weirs with One Bottom Circular Opening

Ahmed Younis Elsayed, Hany A. El-Ghazaly, Ayman G. Awadallah

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 504-516
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/17358

Weirs are important hydraulic structures which are widely used for various purposes. Recently, the need for irrigation water increased due to the expansion of agriculture areas, and hence a need to increase the discharge capacity of canals evolved. In canals with weir systems, as in Fayoum region in Egypt, water distribution to sub-channels depends on their upstream water head (i.e. any change in water levels will reflect on the water distribution to sub-channels). Moreover, changes in the flow affect the water levels over weirs and consequently the backwater curves in their upstream. Hence, to increase the discharges, weirs should be reconstructed to ensure that the water levels over sub-channels' intakes would provide the required flows. As this would be very costly; it was decided to study, from hydraulic and structural points of view, the possibility of making openings in weirs, to increase the discharge running through them.
Aims: This research studies the structural behavior of the rectangular Fayoum standard type weirs, with one bottom circular opening at their middle. The main goals of this research is to predict the maximum tensile, maximum compressive, maximum shear stresses on the weir body to evaluate the feasibility of constructing a bottom circular opening in the middle of the existing weirs to increase the flow.
Methodology: The research is based on numerical analysis of weirs with various dimensions using ANSYS Fluent and ANSYS Mechanical applying Fluid Structure Interaction techniques. Results of the model were validated with the experimental results of previous studies. The research results were used to develop regression equations between weir dimensions, opening diameters and flow discharge with maximum tensile stress, σt-max, maximum compressive stress, σc-max, maximum shear stress,τmax, and maximum deformation,δmax, occurring to the weir body.
Results: There are clear correlations between the stresses on the weir, including maximum tensile, maximum shear and maximum compressive stresses, and the dimensions of the weir and its opening diameter. Hence, the multiple regression analysis was applied to predict the maximum stresses and the maximum deformation based on the dimensions of the weir, the pipe diameter and the discharge passing in the channel.
Conclusion: Four formulae were developed to predict the values of maximum tensile stress, maximum shear stress, maximum compressive stress, and maximum deformation around circular openings in Fayoum type weirs. By comparing the stresses values with the allowable strength of concrete, the maximum allowable opening diameter could be determined for each case.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Various Processing Methods on the Pasting and Functional Properties of Aerial Yam (Dioscorea bulbifera) Flour

I. L. Princewill-Ogbonna, N. C. Ezembaukwu

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 517-526
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/17915

Aims: To determine the effects of various processing methods on the pasting and functional properties of Aerial yam (Dioscorea bulbifera) flour.
Place and Duration: Department of Food Science and Technology, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, between June 2012 and November 2012.
Methodology: Red and green cultivars of Dioscorea bulbifera were given tree treatments: boiling (1:10 w/v for 30 mins), roasting, soaking in 0.2% sodium Meta bisulphite (1:10 w/v for 7 hours), and untreated sample (control). Each of the samples was processed into flour. Pasting and functional properties of the flour samples were determined using standard methods.
Results: Boiling, roasting and soaking significantly (p ≤ 0.05) affected the pasting properties of the flour samples. Roasting, boiling and soaking significantly decreased (p ≤ 0.05) final viscosity (319 to 126 g) and (331 to 145 g), Trough (225 to 70) and (239 to 67), Peak time (5.66 to 4.88) and (5.58 to 4.96), Peak viscosity (267.75 to 119.67) and (278.17 to 108.58) for green and red cultivar respectively. Roasting significantly (p ≤ 0.05) decreased the breakdown values of both cultivars while boiling significantly increased the breakdown values of the two cultivars. The various treatments significantly (p ≤ 0.05) decreased the amylose content and increased the amylopectin values. There was no significant difference (p ≤ 0.05) in the in the bulk density of the samples. The roasted red cultivar had the highest gelatinization temperature (80°C) and significantly (p≤ 0.05) differed from the rest of the samples. Oil absorption Capacity (p ≤ 0.05) increased from 2.20 to 2.80 g and 2.30 to 2.80 g in green and red cultivars respectively.
Conclusion: Boiling, soaking and roasting affected the amylose and amylopectin ratio, pasting and functional properties of the flour samples. The functional and pasting properties of Dioscorea bulbifera studied showed that it can be used in both food and pharmaceutical industries.