Open Access Original Research Article

Production of Alcoholic Beverage from Ginger: Study of Fermentation Process and Final Product Quality

Magali Leonel, Lívia Maria Torres, Emerson Loli Garcia, Thaís Paes Rodrigues Dos Santos, Martha Maria Mischan

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 318-326
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/17704

Introduction: In Brazil part of the production of ginger is of inadequate quality for export. The production of spirit from felt-over rhizomes is an alternative of great interest to producers of these rhizomes.
Aim: Aiming to increase the value of felt-over rhizomes, this work aimed to study the use of ginger as a raw material for alcoholic beverage production. It was evaluated the effect of fermentation conditions on the components of fermented alcoholic, as well as, the quality of alcoholic distilled beverage of ginger.
Methods: Dehydrated ginger passed by enzymatic hydrolysis-saccharification processes. The hydrolysate obtained was analyzed for sugar profile in HPLC. The alcoholic fermentation process followed the central composite rotational design for three factors: fermentation temperature (23 to 37ºC), time of fermentation (17 to 33 h) and concentration of inoculum (0.22 to 3.00%). The fermented alcoholic obtained was analyzed in HPLC for the contents of ethanol, methanol, glycerol and residual sugars. The distillated alcoholic beverage of ginger was analyzed for ethanol, methanol, acetaldehyde, ethyl acetate and higher alcohols in the gas chromatography (GC). In addition, copper content and acidity were analyzed
Results: Sugar profile of the ginger hydrolysate revealed the presence of 77.8% of glucose. Data analysis of fermentation process showed influence of temperature on ethanol and methanol content of the fermented alcoholic of ginger. Time of fermentation had effect on glycerol content. All parameters of process had influence on residual sugars contents. The HPLC analysis has shown presence of methanol, ethyl acetate, aldehyde, acids, higher alcohols and esters in distilled alcoholic beverage of ginger.
Conclusion: Fermented alcoholic of ginger with higher levels of ethanol can be obtained under the conditions of 1.5% w/w of inoculum, 30°C of temperature and 24 hours of fermentation time. In this condition of fermentation process the beverage of ginger had good quality.

Open Access Original Research Article

Using the HEM Technique and Its Relation to the Seismic Activity to Detect the Main Structural Setting and Rock Units at Abu-Dabbab Area, Egypt

A. A. Basheer, Mostafa Toni, A. M. Abdelmotaal, Khaled Omar

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 327-337
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/17989

Abu-Dabbab area is located in the western Red Sea coast at the Eastern Desert of Egypt. This area is characterized by the presence of different geological units and high seismic activity. It is one of the seismic source zones in Egypt. The purpose of this research is the detection of the structural setting and rock units by using the Helicopter Electromagnetic (HEM) technique and its relation to the seismic activity at Abu-Dabbab area. The spatial distribution of earthquakes recorded by the Egyptian National Seismic Network (ENSN) was used to study the seismic activity along the detected structures at the study area. The results of this work show that there is a resistivity variation over the study area. This variation may be due to the difference in the rock composition and its conductivities. In addition, the places of high resistivity values clearly show sites of faults. The sites of approximated values confirm the presence and expansion of the different rock units which are mixed in their electrical properties. The sites of the detected faults are identifying with the seismic activity of the area.

Open Access Original Research Article

Development of a Technique for Restoring the Fidelity of Distorted Playback Audio Signal from Analog Cassette Tape

A. O. Atijosan, S. A. Adeniran, M. O. Sokunbi, R. A. Badru

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 338-345
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/16287

A simple yet elegant analog based technique for restoring the fidelity of playback audio signals emanating from magnetic cassette tapes is presented. The technique makes use of information from the high frequency bias signal in magnetic cassette tapes to correct for errors in the playback audio signal. Performance evaluation of the developed technique shows that the technique can correct for errors due to noise, scratches on the tape surface, clipping, and non-linear distortion. The developed technique will be valuable in restoring the fidelity of playback audio signal from magnetic cassette tapes stored in archives and private homes.

Open Access Original Research Article

An fMRI Compatible Touchscreen to Measure Hand Kinematics during a Complex Drawing Task

L. Braadbaart, G. Buchan, J. H. G. Williams, G. D. Waiter

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 346-353
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/17411

Introduction: The measurement of human motion, or kinematics, is becoming increasingly important. More specifically the measurement of human motor control can give important information about a number of cognitive processes. However, due to the restricted environment of functional magnetic resonance imaging most studies involving kinematics have involved simple hand movements. We used a resistive touchscreen to measure the kinematics of human fine-motor control while simultaneously determining the neural basis of that control using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI).
Methods: Eighteen participants aged 21 to 45 years (10 female) were recruited. During a 10 minute functional imaging session we recorded both the functional and kinematic response to a dynamic drawing task. We determined the impact of the active touchscreen in the MR environment by determining measures of signal drift and fluctuation. Maps of average neuronal response to the dynamic drawing task as well as measures of drawing ability were determined.
Results: We found no apparent effect of the touchscreen on signal either signal drift or fluctuation. We found significant functional activation in bilateral cerebellum, as well as the insula, and left supramarginal, postcentral and precentral gyri, consistent with previous findings.
Conclusion: In conclusion we have shown the neural responses to a dynamic drawing task performed with a resistive touchscreen within an MRI scanner are reliable and consistent with previous work and that kinematic information can reliably reproduce drawing shape.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Study of the Biogas Potential of Plantain and Yam Peels

O. A. Makinde, L. O. Odokuma

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 354-359
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/18135

The biogas production potential of the co-digestion of plantain (Musa parasidiaca) peels, yam (Discorea rotundata) peels and cow (Bos primigenius) dung was investigated. Two waste combinations of plantain peels with cow dung (A) and yam peels with cow dung (B) were used for the biogas comparison. The waste was charged into a glass type digester of 1000 ml capacity within a retention period of 4 weeks. Biogas production was determined using water displacement method. Changes in the volume of biogas produced, the bacteria associated with biogas production and the pH of the slurry before and after the biogas production was determined. Bacteriological analyses showed the presence of Pseudomonas sp, Klebsiella sp, Bacillus sp, Escherichia coli, Clostridium sp, Streptococcus sp, Micrococcus sp, and Bacillus sp, Escherichia coli, Clostridium sp from the fresh and spent slurry respectively. The highest volume of biogas (428 ml) was obtained from the yam peels treatment option (B3) followed by (297 ml) also from the yam peels treatment option (B4) while the least (0 ml) was from the plantain peels treatment option (A1). The statistical analysis revealed that there was a significant difference among the treatment options during the retention period.

Open Access Original Research Article

Dynamic Analysis of a Microgripper and Its Components

M. Tecpoyotl-Torres, P. Vargas-Chable, S. Robles-Casolco, R. Cabello-Ruiz

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 360-373
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/18042

This paper is focused on the dynamic analysis and simulation of a novel microgripper and its components: microcantilever and V-shape thermal actuator. These devices are designed on silicon and implemented on Professional Autodesk Inventor 2014. Simulations were realized using Ansys Workbench Software.
This analysis is common for cantilever, and RF MEM devices, but it is has not been widely realized for other structures, such V-actuator and microgrippers.
The analytical response was acquired with Steady-State Thermal, Static Structural, Modal and Harmonic Response modules.
The dynamic behavior, resonance frequencies of each modal shape and the harmonic behavior with different damping factors of these devices are presented. Parameters as actuation forces, displacements, natural frequencies and specific displacement corresponding to each modal shape in all devices, are also considered in the analysis.
The simulation results show the modal shapes of all analyzed devices, determining their respective modal frequencies and harmonic response. Damping factors of 1% to 10% were employed. The phase angle (±90º to ±105º) and attenuation levels due to damping were also obtained.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Rice Husk Ash Stabilized Lateritic Soil as Sub-base in Road Construction

A. B. Alabi, A. O. Olutaiwo, A. O. Adeboje

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 374-382
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/17090

Laboratory experiments were conducted and the results were analyzed for rice husk ash (RHA) stabilization of laterite soils for utilization as sub base materials in road construction. The index properties classified the soils as (A-7) under the AASHTO soil classification scheme. The soils were stabilized with 2.5% increment between 5 - 12.5% of rice husk ash (RHA) by dry weight of soil. Performance of the soil-RHA was investigated with respect to compaction characteristics, California bearing ratio (CBR) and unconfined compressive strength (UCS) tests. Addition of RHA decreased the maximum dry density while it increased the optimum moisture content at 5% RHA; the values of maximum dry density (MDD) and optimum moisture content (OMC) were 1962 kg/m³ and 24% respectively. California Bearing Ratio results showed that the peak CBR (soaked) value was 135.5% (for 7.5% RHA stabilization) which indicates 92.44% increase over the CBR value obtained for the laterite soils in their natural form. The lowest CBR (soaked) value occurred at 12.5% RHA stabilization. The unconfined compressive strength test results showed that the strength for natural soil was 107.32N/mm² and the highest UCS value for the stabilized soil was 68.82% (the value obtained for 5% stabilization using RHA). This gives 40.5% decrease in the UCS of the natural soil. This research shows little potentials of using RHA only for soil improvement, it is recommended that 5% of RHA be added to soil samples for field stabilization for the purpose of improving the soil engineering properties of the laterite soil for pavement sub-base construction. To achieve high pozzolanic behavior, it is recommended that RHA intended for use in stabilization are calcined burnt between 600ºC and 700ºC temperature [1].

Open Access Original Research Article

Strong Consistency of a Kernel-type Estimator for the Intensity Obtained as the Product of a Periodic Function with the Power Function Trend of a Non-homogeneous Poisson Process

Ikhsan Maulidi, I Wayan Mangku, Hadi Sumarno

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 383-387
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/17391

In [1], a kernel-type estimator for the intensity obtained as the product of a periodic function with the power function trend of a non-homogeneous Poisson process has been formulated. In addition, asymptotic approximations to the bias, variance and mean squared error of this estimator have been established. In this paper, we construct a proof of strong consistency of the estimator proposed in [1].

Open Access Original Research Article

Performance Evaluation of a Prototype Solar Dryer against the Conventional Sun-drying System in Nigeria

Jackson Akpojaro, Matthew Oyeyemi

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 411-418
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/16308

Aims: The objective of this paper is to develop a rectangular solar dryer box in which grains are dried by direct radiation through the transparent walls and roof of the cabinet and by the heated air from the solar collector. The temperature development of the dryer is also evaluated.
Study Design: For the development of a rectangular solar dryer system and analysis of its performance against a conventional sun-drying system in the rural communities in Nigeria.
Place and Duration of Study: Department of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, College of Basic and Applied Sciences, Samuel Adegboyega University, Ogwa, Edo State, Nigeria; between July and December 2014.
Methodology: The dryer is made of wood with a box-like drying chamber with the top cover plate made of tempered glass of 5 mm. This is where the solar energy is trapped and channeled into the drying chamber. Air passing through the collector is heated. The collector consists of a glass cover plate, an absorber plate and insulator. A colorless glass of 5 mm thickness is used for the cover plate. It is 30 cm long and 15 cm wide. It traps heat from the sun and prevents it from escaping. It is placed 4 cm above the absorber plate, this collects solar radiation. The absorber plate is made of aluminum sheet painted black measuring 30 cm by 15 cm. It is placed below the cover plate to absorb incident solar radiation transmitted by the glass cover plate and heats the air passing between it and the cover plate.
Results: We evaluated the constructed solar dryer performance using 5kg of maize cobs. Savings in time were achieved as against open conventional sun drying, it took 2 days for the maize cobs to dry to a stabilized moisture content of 24.3 g from 30.3 g using the constructed passive solar dryer while it took 6 days to dry the same cobs to 25.4 g under the open conventional sun drying system.
Conclusion: The passive solar dryer dries grains faster than the open conventional system i.e. sunlight. Since the developed dryer does not use electricity, it can be used by farmers in rural communities. Physical observation showed that, the maize cobs in the dryer looked cleaner than those that were sun dried.

Open Access Review Article

Stress Fields and Concentrations around Circular Discontinuity: A Methodological Review with Principles of Elasticity

Sunil Bhat, Vijay G. Ukadgaonker

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 388-410
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/17762

A comprehensive review on the methodology to obtain two dimensional stress field around a discontinuity in the form of a circular hole in the plate subjected to various types of, uniform, axisymmetric and non-axisymmetric monotonic loads at infinity viz. uni-axial tensile, equal bi-axial (tensile-tensile and tensile-compressive) and pure shear is presented with the help of the basic principles of elasticity. The material of the plate is considered to be homogenous, isotropic and linear elastic. Effect of the difference in the type of far field load over the nature and the magnitude of stress fields is examined. Fundamental bi-harmonic equation involving Airy’s stress function is used. The stress function, determined by assuming it in the form of trigonometric series and by employing suitable mathematical substitutions, is made to satisfy the bi-harmonic equation. Constants of the stress function are found from the boundary conditions. Stress concentrations at the surface of the hole and at locations away from the hole are obtained for all the investigated load cases. Criteria of failure and fatigue life estimations of the plate made of linear elastic or elastic plastic material are touched upon. Stress solutions in cases of bi-axial loads of unidentical magnitudes are also presented.