A stratigraphic interpretation was carried out on the processed single-channel data. Four major sequence boundaries were interpreted; two are sub-horizontal erosional surfaces while the other two show permanent onlap. Four major sedimentary units were interpreted on the single-channel data within a time range of 730 ms. Shelf break exists at a water depth of 640±17 m on profile Fig. 2, 480±16 m on profile Fig. 3. The profiles were interpreted to show sequences of glacially prograded sediments lying underneath the outer continental shelf. These sediments were deposited by grounded ice during times of glacial maximum which caused deposition in an overall progradational style and the grounded ice must have reached the continental shelf edge many times on most parts of the Bellingshausen Sea margin. The continental shelf across the area where these lines are located is relatively horizontal and the movement of ice front was across the whole area.
The aim of this paper is to show the recurrence method for obtaining the number of inversions In(k) in input sets with different sizes n, when the information about In-1(k) is given. The proposed method is based on a simple observation that the use of recursive approach gives an elegant way for obtaining those numbers in contradiction to the so far existing approach based on binomial coefficients and pentagonal numbers. The complexity of this method is O(n3). The results of this proposal can be used for interesting exercises in education of maths and also for problem of inversions description in sorting algorithms.
Aim: To evaluate the influence of two immediate dentin sealing (IDS) techniques on the marginal microleakage of composite inlays. Methodology: Thirty human third molars received MOD preparations, with the mesial proximal box extending above and the distal box extending below the cemento-enamel junction. The teeth were randomly divided into groups (n=10): G1 – control, without IDS; G2 – IDS with Clearfil SE Bond; G3 - IDS with Clearfil SE Bond and Protect Liner F. Impressions of the preparations were made, followed by provisional restoration. ED Primer A and B were applied to the preparation followed by Panavia F for the luting procedure of the composite inlays. The samples were thermocycled 2500x between 5°C and 55°C, then placed in a 0.5% methylene blue dye solution for 24 hours. The samples were sectioned in the mesio-distal direction and evaluated for microleakage at the mesial and distal margins under a stereo microscope at 20x magnification. The dye penetration was scored as 0 (no penetration), 1 (penetration to half of the gingival wall), 2 (penetration along the gingival wall), 3 (penetration extending into the axial wall). Results: According to Kruskal-Wallis analysis (α=.05), there were no significant differences in the dye penetration between the groups in either the enamel (P=.07) or the dentin (P =.31). According to Wilcoxon, the dye penetration in the dentin was higher than in the enamel (P =.03) for group 3. Conclusion: The IDS with Clearfil SE Bond, either associated or not associated with Protect Liner F, was not capable of producing complete sealing of the enamel and dentin margins.
Aims: This, in conjunction with the diversity of the substrates and the fact that the island is home to the highest mountains in the Caribbean and with a high rate of endemic species, allows them to be differentiated into three major groups –dry forest, cloud forest and the transition between dry and cloud forests. The forests in the Dominican Republic grow in a tropical climate with ombrotypes ranging from arid to humid-hyperhumid due to the moisture-laden Atlantic winds; and infra-, thermo-, meso- and supratropical thermotypes. Establish the diversity, ecology and forest types in Dominican Republic. Methods: We identified all species through field surveys and comparative analyzes of how forest types, structure, diversity and ecology. Results: We consided these forests to be endemic to the island of Hispaniola, as the dry forest presents 81 endemic species, of which 10 are trees, 65 shrubs, 5 creepers, and 1 herbaceous species; while the cloud forest has 19 trees, 20 shrubs, 8 creepers, 4 epiphytes and 6 herbaceous species. Conclusions: We highlight the absence of endemic epiphytes in the dry forests, which are in a poor state of conservation and subject to greater human pressure than the cloud forest.
Springs of Uttarakhand, India are back bone for domestic water availability during rainy and especially during non rainy season even though they are highly ignored. A study was taken up at Chandrabhaga and Danda watersheds in the mountainous region of Garhwal, Uttarakhand to analyse rainfall and spring flow pattern and to suggest water transfer plan to supplement the water availability during lean season. Regular spring flow and automated hydro-meteorological data were collected for July 1999 to June 2010. The second order polynomial relationship is found best fit between annual rainfall and annual average spring flow. Spring wise water availability was compared with required domestic water demand and actual domestic water uses for identification of springs under water deficit /surplus for three scenarios of spring uses such as 24, 12 and 06 hrs in a day. Based on water availability of the springs, the water transfer plans, working under gravity for springs has been suggested. Study suggested a temporary storage of spring water, water transfer plan among the springs and planning to increase the infiltration and water retention power of soil. It is also recommended to promote horticulture along with animal husbandry for effective socio-economic development.
Introduction: One of the developed groups in the current society is computer users which has increased its importance taking daily development of computer among different social classes. Computer users are apt to musculoskeletal disorders; so the objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of three-month modification and ergonomic exercises based on virtual space on musculoskeletal disorder in computer users. Material and Methods: In this semi-experimental study, 75 computer users were randomly placed in control group (ergonomic) and so were the same number in the experimental group (a combination including therapeutic and ergonomic exercises). The diagnosis and treatment of musculoskeletal disorders were received through virtual space in both groups. The control group was engaged in ergonomic therapeutic exercise and the experimental group received therapeutic exercise besides ergonomic therapeutic interventions. The pain and disability rates were evaluated before and after three-month intervention through Nordik's modified questionnaire. In order to analyze the findings Chi-squared test was applied. Findings: Lumbago and neck pain decreased in the individuals suffered from waist and neck disorder in experimental group (athletic and ergonomic rehabilitation based on virtual space) comparing to control group both in 12-month and past 7 days evaluations (p<0.01). Moreover, the pain in shoulder, back, knee and ankle has significantly decreased in the experimental group comparing to control group in 12-month evaluation. Conclusion: It can be inferred from the findings of the study that the application of therapeutic and ergonomic exercise based on virtual space leads to the improvement of chronic musculoskeletal disorders in computer users. Therefore doing such kinds of exercise is advised.
Aims: Building cost more currently, and a significant amount of such cost may be caused by increased expenditure on building security. However, various factors constituting the cost of building security are yet to be established. This lack of knowledge has led to an investigation to discover the determinants of building security cost within the built-environment. Study Design: The study used quantitative phase of sequential exploratory research and employed phenomenological research design for it data collection and analysis. Place and Duration of Study: This study is part of an ongoing PhD research project in School of Housing Building and Planning, Universiti Sains Malaysia, between 2013 and 2015. Field work was conducted in Nigeria between October 2013 and March 2014. Methodology: The study employed quantitative research technique and relies on questionnaires to source 297 samples at 88% response rate, primarily from respondents. The validation was carried through panel of experts, while analysis of data was conducted with the aid software package for social science (SPSS 20). Results: The Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) measure of sampling adequacy of all items met the minimum requirement of 0.5, and the diagonal measure of sampling adequacy (DMSA) for all items under each factor were greater than 0.5. The Cronbach’s alpha value ranges from 0.6 to 0.8 and above, while skewness and kurtosis were within the stipulated given ranges of ±2.0 and ±10.0 respectively. The results indicate that the instrument is reliable and the data depicts reasonable normality. Conclusion: Therefore, this study has gone to some extents in enhancing the understanding of determinants factors of building security cost. It reveals that building security cost is influenced by security measures and building characteristics. It provides an evidence that evaluation and control of building security cost relies on giving due consideration to security measures and building characteristics.
The inhibitory effect of PASAC1, PASAC 11 and PASAC13 on the corrosion behavior of brass in cooling water system at temperature of 25°C was studied by potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), FTIR spectroscopy and metallurgical microscopy techniques. In the present paper, three types of organic inhibitors obtained by radicalic polymerization, i.e., PASAC1 (urea and maleic anhydride at molar rapport 1:1.5 at temperature of 140°C), PASAC 11 (polyaspartic acid and H3PO4 molar ratio 1:0.05 at temperature of 170°C), PASAC13 (polyaspartic acid 0.07 M and H3PO4, gravimetric ratio 1/1.5 with trisodium citrate at temperature of 200°C) was selected. The result of these polymers concentration on inhibition efficiency, the corrosion rate and surface coverage is investigated. Results show that these organic inhibitors exert a strong inhibiting effect on brass corrosion and acts as a mix-type inhibitor. The inhibition efficiency of organic polymers may be due to either the adsorption of inhibitor molecules building a protective film or the formation of an insoluble complex of the inhibitor adsorption obeys the Langmuir model. Further, characterization using FT-IR demonstrates the adsorption of organic inhibitors and the development of corrosion compounds at brass surface. EIS results confirm its corrosion inhibition ability.
Study Design: Decision making process involves the best choice among the alternatives. Decision makers come across many problems and take decisions by choosing the suitable alternative. The process of decision making carries great importance in terms of the administrators. The administrators of today make various decisions in the dynamic environment. For these decisions to be rational and accurate, administrators need to have wide and trustable information about the factors that affect the decision making process. In this case, the establishments of today also need to consider the different variables that can affect the decision making process. Aim: In this study an attempt has been made to study the environmental and organizational factors affecting the decision making process of administrators working in 36 different hospitals in the province of Ankara and how these factors affect the decision making process? Also, an attempt has been made to identify and analyse the potential variables involved in the decision making process. Methodology: Within the scope of the study, questionnaires have been conducted to a total of 160 administrators from 36 hospitals. Out of these administrators, 30 are senior administrators (e.g. general director, deputy director general) and 130 are unit administrators (e.g. chief physician, head nurse, administrators of financial and administrative affairs). A statistical software program has been used in the analysis of the data obtained. A t test has been used to state the decision making process and the environmental and organizational factors affecting this process. The reliability of the factors has been determined according to the Cronbach Alfa coefficient and the relationship between the factors has been conducted through a correlation analysis. Also, regression analysis has been used in order to test the research hypotheses. Conclusion: At the end of the study, it has been concluded that there is a meaningful relationship between decision making and environmental and organizational factors.
This review revealed that there are several evidences of environmental impact of urbanization in Nigeria. The linkages between urbanization process and the environment are profound that the major components of the environment-air, water and land are adversely affected by the daily anthropogenic activities of urban residence and in the process of exploiting the natural resource base. The goal of ensuring environmental sustainability is greatly threatened by urbanization, which has created several serious environmental problems, such as pollution, deforestation and wetland destruction, erosion and flooding, urban sprawl, slum and squatter settlements, heat island and aesthetic degradation that have had negative impacts on man and other living organisms in the environment. If the threats posed by urbanization in Nigeria are not adequately managed, the capacity of the environment to continuously support life may be jeopardized with dire consequences on human life.