Open Access Method Articles

An Efficient Variational Model for Restoring Noisy Images with Gamma Multiplicative Noise

Yan Hu, Tianqiao Hu

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 616-629
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/17555

Multiplicative noise removal has been a focus of research in recent years. Aiming at solving the problem that the total variation regularization method can remove noise well but sometimes produce stair-case effect, this paper proposes an efficient variational model and gives the iterative algorithm to remove Gamma multiplicative noise. This paper also shows that the iterative sequence converges to the optimal solution of the model. Through simulation experiments the proposed model has proved highly effective. That is, this model can preserve the edges of the image well and significantly reduce the stair-case effect in the smooth regions while removing Gamma multiplicative noise effectively.

Open Access Short Research Article

An Integrated Approach to Urban Waste Management in a Developing Country: A Case Study of the Accra Metropolitan Area, Ghana

Jeffrey N. T. Squire

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 602-607
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/16999

This research explored the concept of an integrated approach to urban waste management in the Accra Metropolitan Area in Ghana. Like many cities in developing countries, the Accra Metropolis has a high urban population that contributes to the generation of massive volumes of waste on a regular basis. Yet, available evidence in the literature suggests that waste management in the metropolis is highly problematic and characterized by gross inefficiencies. Data was collected mainly through interviews, observation techniques as well as a comprehensive review of the literature pertaining to urban waste management in developing countries. The research uncovered that urban waste management in Accra is predicated in the conventional approach to waste management service delivery. In line with this ‘collect and dispose’ technique, there are no effective strategies geared toward waste minimization and in addition, the planning and decision-making process is heavily centralized, technocratic and makes no provisions for stakeholder participation. An Integrated Waste Management (IWM) approach is recommended as a suitable intervention strategy for improving the situation.

Open Access Short Research Article

Stream Water Quality Assessment for Irrigation at Nasarawa - Kakuri Area of Kaduna, Nigeria

Johnson N. Tsuzom, Isaac O. Olaniyan

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 608-615
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/13598

This study aimed at examining some physic-chemical properties of the water samples taken from Nasarawa stream in Kaduna South Local Government Area with a view to determining its suitability as a major source of water for irrigation farming of vegetables and other crops cultivated along the course of the stream in the area. Six sampling points were located to the upstream and downstream sides of the stream with the Nasarawa bridge as a reference point. Grab samples were taken in the month of January at an interval of 100 m in plastic containers each of 1.5-litre capacity after being properly washed, cleaned and sterilized. The laboratory analyses were used to determine the experimental physic-chemical concentrations of pH, electrical conductivity, carbonate, bicarbonate, sulphate, chloride, sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, boron, sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) and residual sodium carbonate (RSC) index in the stream water samples. Out of these parameters tested, four of them constitute major cause for concern. Electrical conductivity and potassium ion concentrations of the water samples exceeded the irrigation guideline values at all the six sampling points, boron ion concentration is close to guideline value at two points, while the SAR indicated severe case of potential sodium pollution at four points, hence the need for restriction in the use of the water for irrigation. This study, therefore, showed the need for the Nasarawa stream water to be subjected to some level of treatment especially during the dry season when the water will be required for irrigation, and when dilution by rain water will be totally absent. The Pearson Product Moment Correlation analysis was used to determine elemental interactions using the concentrations of ions.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prototyping an Academic Data Warehouse: Case for a Public University in Kenya

Christopher A. Moturi, Alfred Emurugat

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 550-557
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/14774

This study aimed at determining the gaps between university top decision makers in a public university in Kenya and IT personnel in accessing, analyzing and reporting data. We sought to determine an easier and quicker way to analyze data, design, and implement a solution to turn analysis into a report with little or no help from IT department. A survey showed that the University’s existing systems do not allow the top management to explore data, analyze data, and create quick reports. They depend on IT personnel to access data that they need to analyze and generate reports. As result the decision makers tend to have an uneasy relationship with IT people. The study successfully implemented a data warehouse database composed of a single multidimensional cube based on subject area of Fee Payment. By implementing a Business Intelligence (BI) program based on Excel, we turned ordinary spreadsheets into a flexible, powerful, and inexpensive BI system that gives users significant power and flexibility.

Open Access Original Research Article

Analysis of Steam Power Plant at Kaduna Refining and Petrochemical Company from Exergetic Perspective

N. A. Musa, M. S. Adam

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 558-566
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/15466

This study presents the exergetic analysis of steam power plant at kaduna refining and petrochemical company limited. The aim of this research is to analyze the system components separately, and to identify and quantify the sites having the largest exergy losses. The performance of the plant was established and detailed break-up of exergy destruction of the considered plant has been presented. Computer softwares (ASPEN HYSYS, AUTOCAD and MICROSOFT EXCEL) were used for the simulation and calculation of properties that include stream enthalpy and entropy using the flow rate, working temperature and pressure of each equipment gotten from the company, at an assumed dead state temperature of 25ºC at pressure of 101KPa. The analysis shows that The total exergy destroyed in the system is 209000kW, which makes about 18% of the total exergy entering the system The site having the largest exergy destruction was found to be in the boiler, having a 20000KW destroyed with a percentage performance loss of 36%, followed by the condenser, with 5880KW destroyed and percentage performance loss of 6%.Where as other equipments have total exergy efficiency of 2%. At end of this study, it can be suggested that the air for combustion should be properly preheated and the boilers should be properly lagged to avoid work loss. Analysis should be done periodically for each unit of the plant as a performance test; this will be helpful for maintenance and replacement decisions.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Role of Litter in Rainwater Interception

Sugeng Prijono, Sukma Yulianti

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 567-575
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/17502

Aims: The function of plants litter on the soil surface in the hydrologic cycle, which is decreasing evaporation, protect of rain interception and surface runoff control. The research aim to know function of plant litter in the rain interception.
Place and Duration of Study: The research was done in Tawangsari village, Pujon district, Malang regency, Indonesia in lands cover disturbed forest, productions forest, agro forestry and coffee monoculture.
Methodology: Experiment done in Randomize Blocks Design with 3 replications. For litter observations done on the plot size 40 x 5 m and the interception of rain was measured by using the Rainfall Simulator at high, medium and low intensity. The amount of interception measured by soil water balance approach and gradient of litter moisture.
Results: Disturbed forest land (HT) produce the thickest litter and the highest interception value (both by water balance approach and gradient of litter moisture) than the other plot. The thickness of litter have a positive correlation with interception value (R2=0.70). Interception value have a negative correlation with runoff (R2=-0.99), while it have a positive correlation with soil moisture (R2=0.79).
Conclusion: Land cover is influence the production of litter and soil moisture by increasing the rainwater interception. The thickness of litter can intercept more rainwater but reduce surface runoff so it could be increase the soil moisture.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Engineering of an Undergraduate Nuclear Education Program in Jordan

Ned Xoubi

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 576-582
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/17091

Recognizing the vital importance of nuclear knowledge and that human capacity building is the first step in ‎the effective planning and implementation of a successful nuclear power program, in 2006/2007 Jordan made the ‎decision to establish a nuclear engineering education program. The establishment of such a program was the first step in Jordan’s efforts to develop its nuclear infrastructure and to introduce nuclear power as part ‎of its energy mix.‎
The Nuclear Engineering department at Jordan University of Science and Technology ‎‎(JUST), is the first and only such department/program in Jordan. To provide top quality nuclear education that will lead to ‎realistic teaching instruction this department was engineered and designed based on four factors; curriculum, ‎faculty, facilities and students. This paper presents the establishment of nuclear engineering education in Jordan and the department role in building Jordan’s human capacity to ensure the proper implementation of its nuclear power ‎program; it further evaluates the department challenges and current status.

Open Access Original Research Article

Simulation and Comparison of the Performance of Refrigerant Fluids in Single Stage Vapour Compression Refrigeration System

T. S. Mogaji

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 583-594
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/16778

This paper presents reports on simulation and comparative analysis of single stage vapour compression refrigeration system performance for comparison of refrigerant fluids. A mathematical model was devised by applying the concept of energy balance in the thermodynamic cycle to the components of the vapour compression refrigeration system. The developed model implemented in MATLAB [1] software was used to compare the performance of the system using Hydrocarbons, R134a and ammonia as refrigerants in place of refrigerants 12 and 22. Simulation data was generated over a wide range of evaporation and condensation temperatures of −25 to 15ºC and 30 to 60ºC respectively for the selected working fluids considered in this study to observe the performance of the system in terms of refrigerating effect, coefficient of performance (COP) and overall efficiency of the system. In the present study, close match of COP and the system overall efficiency values for R134a, R290 and R600a are observed with that of R12 and R22 counterparts under the similar operating conditions. Moreover, among the refrigerants simulated in the system under the similar operating conditions, the system with the use of ammonia yields highest COPs and are of up to 6.3 and 7.5% increment compared with those of R12 and R22 respectively. It can be concluded that R134a, R290, R600a and ammonia may act as substitutes for R12 and R22 without affecting the energy efficiency of vapour compression refrigeration system, provided the safety issues are addressed in terms of manufacturing, handling, storage and servicing so as to prevent flammability and corrosive/toxic natures of both hydrocarbons and ammonia refrigerants respectively, thus helping to solve the ozone depletion potential (ODP) and global warming potential (GWP) problems regarding environmental issues.

Open Access Original Research Article

On the Reality of the Self-field Lorentz-Force Accelerators

A. M. Tahsini

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 595-601
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/17533

The electromagnetics is a source of plasma generation and acceleration in magnetoplasmadynamic thrusters. The Lorentz force and the Joule heating are the momentum and energy sources which act on the flow field there. In the present study, their effects are analyzed theoretically and numerically. It is shown that the effect of the Joule heating is much more than the Lorentz force effect especially in the self-field thrusters. Also the effect of the Lorentz force depends on the Mach number beside the direction of action. The results show that it is almost impossible to have the self-field Lorentz force accelerator.

Open Access Review Article

The Role of Reactive Oxygen Species in Initiation and Progression of Periodontal Diseases

Luay Thanoon Younis, Mohamed Ibrahim Abu Hassan, Siti Aishah Anuar, Fathien Adnin Yunus, Norahayati Yusof

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 541-549
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/17520

Periodontal diseases are widely prevalent diseases and negatively affecting the quality of life of young and adult population. They are inflammatory conditions result in destruction of the supporting structure of the tooth. Periodontal diseases are associated with phagocytosis and increased oxidative stress which could generate oxidative burst during the process of killing and phagocytosis. Plaque bacteria and their by-products could initiate neutrophils recruitment to the area of bacterial invasion in the periodontal tissues that would result in stimulation of free radical generation. Usually, reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by phagocytes will be used utilised for killing of the invading pathogens. Prolonged release of ROS and increases matrix metallo-proteinases activity causes bone resorption and degradation of connective tissue surrounding the teeth. In this paper, we review the oxidation and its effect in periodontal tissue destruction which in severe cases would lead to the loss of teeth.