Open Access Short Research Article

Analysis and Research on Displacement Monitoring of Operating Period of Large Span Continuous Rigid Frame Bridge

Mao Yang, M. Hu, Lei Liu, Li Xiujun

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 531-540
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/17397

Based on a large span continuous rigid frame bridge in Chongqing, this paper studies the bridge linear, the vertical displacement and offset of the pier and the deformation of the expansion joints. Firstly, the deformation data of the bridge was artificially measured. And then, calculates the theoretical values of the bridge deformation with finite element software named Midas. Finally, the author compares and analyzes the theoretical data and practical data on bridge linear, the vertical displacement and offset of the pier and the deformation of the expansion joints. It shows that the bridge is under normal working condition. The indicators of monitoring large span continuous rigid frame bridge are completed and the convenient evaluation methods of the working condition of large span continuous rigid frame bridge are put forward.

Open Access Original Research Article

Complex Extraction of Phenol, o-Cresol and p-Cresol from Model Coal Tar Using Methanol and Acetone Solutions

Dewi Selvia Fardhyanti, Wahyudi Budi Sediawan, Panut Mulyono

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 427-436
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/16693

Aims: The extractive performance of two solution solvents were studied for the complex extraction of phenols from model coal tar at varying conditions and variables.
Study Design: Ordinary solvent extraction can preferentially extract phenolic compounds from the other compositions in coal tar. In order to separate the phenolic compounds from coal tar, it is essential to choose an extractant that has a specific interaction with phenols but insoluble in coal tar. Toward this aim, methanol solution and acetone solution may be candidate for their following characteristic.
Place and Duration of Study: Department of Chemical Engineering, Semarang State University and Department of Chemical Engineering, Gadjah Mada University.
Methodology: For this research, the influence of temperature, mass ratio of solvent to feed, mole fraction of water in solvent and composition of solvent in the extractbillity of phenols were studied for methanol solution and acetone solution using model coal tar. Model coal tar is used in which the solute is a phenol, o-cresol, and p-cresol; diluent is kerosene, and solvent are water and methanol or acetone. Methanol and acetone need to be mixed with water because their polarities are not strong enough to form immiscible mixture with kerosene. The extract phase of the each extraction processes are analyzed by GC to obtain the concentration of each component in the extract phase and the concentration of each component in raffinate phase.
Results: Maximum of solute mole fraction (0.055 phenol; 0,037 o-cresol, and 0.061 p-cresol), maximum of the distribution coefficient (2.80 phenol; 3.66 o-cresol; and 4.55 p-cresol), and maximum of the yield (0.66 phenol; 0.64 o-cresol; and 0.76 p-cresol) obtained in the mass ratio of solvent-feed is 1, temperature is 308 K, and mole fraction of water in solvent is 0.2 by using an aqueous methanol solvent.
Conclusion: Even though the mole fractions of the solutes in the extract are relatively low, but since the boiling points of the solvents and the solutes are differ significantly, the solutes can be easily separated by evaporating the solvents.
Phenolic compounds in low temperature coal tar may be extracted efficiently by methanol and acetone solutions at ambient temperature.

Open Access Original Research Article

Environment and Financial Performance: The Case of the Canadian Oil Industry

Hassan El Ibrami, Paulina Arroyo, Mohamed Lamine Hocine

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 437-447
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/17607

Environmental and social responsibility has taken center stage in the corporate world. Companies operating in polluting industries are faced with stakeholders’ growing demand for environmental governance and are expected to account publicly for their environmental and social actions in annual financial statements and sustainability reports. ISO14001 and OHSAS18001: 18001 certification systems measure environmental and social performance and foster consensus-making between companies and their stakeholders. Researchers, however, are still divided as to the significance and scope of the relationship between environmental/social and financial performance. We measure this relationship in a cross-section of businesses in the Canadian oil industry.
Working with a sample of 23 certified companies consisting of six organizations identified as socially responsible by Corporate Knights magazine, a publication that issues a list of the best 50 corporate citizens in Canada, and 17 companies not recognized by the magazine, we assess the effect of certification on financial performance as measured by the companies’ ROA over five-year pre- and post-certification periods. Regressions of post-certification on pre-certification ROA are performed. The results show that certification is economically beneficial for companies, and more so for those regarded as socially and environmentally responsible.

Open Access Original Research Article

Isothermal and Adiabatic Expansion Based Trilateral Cycles

Ramon Ferreiro Garcia, Beatriz Ferreiro Sanz

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 448-460
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/17350

This research work deals with non condensing mode trilateral thermal cycles characterised by the conversion of heat into mechanical work undergoing optionally isothermal and adiabatic closed process based path functions. The proposed trilateral cycles are also characterised by its ability to operate at high efficiency at relative low temperatures when compared with the Carnot factor.
An analysis of the proposed cycles is carried out and results were compared with that of a Carnot cycle operating under the same ratio of temperatures. It is determined that into a range of relative low operating temperatures high thermal efficiency is achieved, reaching 41.1% for helium when Carnot Factor is 9.1% under a ratio of temperatures of 300/330 K.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impacts of Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam on Different Water Usages in Upper Egypt

Fahmy S. Abdelhaleem, Esam Y. Helal

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 461-483
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/17252

A Large scale dam named as Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam (GERD) is currently under construction on the Blue Nile River in Ethiopia. The final report of the International Panel of Experts (IPoE) on the GERD project which was submitted to the governments of Ethiopia, Sudan and Egypt, reported that the Aswan High Dam (AHD) will reach the minimum operational level during 4 consecutive years. Consequently, this project could significantly affect the water supply to Egypt, in case if the first impounding of the GERD occurs during dry years. The present paper assesses the potential impact of the shortage of Egypt water resources that will reduce the releases from AHD due to the construction of the GERD on the Nile water in Egypt. Data was assembled and analyzed. SOBEK model was selected to be applied to the designed scenarios. The water levels so as discharges along the Nile River in Upper Egypt were produced under different water releases. Results were obtained and analyzed. The analyzed results indicated that the maximum allowable reduction in Egypt water share should not be more than 5 - 15%. So, the win–win strategy can defuse tensions between Egypt and Ethiopia over the GERD. Furthermore, Ethiopia has to agree with Egypt and Sudan on the capacity of the GERD reservoir, impounding rules of the GERD reservoir and operating rules. The results of this study most probably assist decision makers to identify possible measures to overcome water shortage problem.

Open Access Original Research Article

Bioremediation of Surface Water Contaminated with Hydrocarbons in a Non-oil Producing Area

W. O. Medjor, N. O. Namessan, C. A. Wepuaka, G. Foshen, A. Suleiman

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 484-493
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/16851

Aim: The study investigated the microbial degradation, kinetic and physicochemical studies of surface water contaminated with hydrocarbons of common interest (domestic purpose kerosene and diesel) by mixed culture of microorganism at ambient temperature (28-32°C).
Methodology: Four experimental set-ups were arranged of which two served as the control experiments. In this work, microbiological analyses were not carried out but organic supplement used have been reported by earlier investigators to contain heterotrophic bacteria, hydrocarbon degraders and fungi that are capable of utilizing hydrocarbons as carbon substrates. Bioremediation was principally monitored using reduction in TPH and the control experiments. Kinetic study and physicochemical analysis were also carried out.
Place and Duration of Study: Experiments were carried out in the Central Science Laboratory Complex, Taraba State University- Jalingo Nigeria. The study was carried out in a period of 4 months.
Study Design: In the first experiment, 37.5 g of the organic supplement that served as a source of nutrients and microorganisms was added to surface water simulated with diesel in a plastic container. In a second experiment, the diesel was replaced with domestic purpose kerosene (DPK). In the third and fourth experimental set-ups, the plastic containers had only DPK and diesel respectively without the organic amendment and served as controls. The four experimental set-ups were allowed to stand for 21 days for possible bioremediation.
Results: The results obtained for the diesel medium showed that the native microorganisms had positive response in utilizing hydrocarbon as diesel. The degradation followed a pseudo-first order kinetic with rate constant of 1×102 mg-1Lhr-1 and remediation efficiency of 59.14%. Only 23.1% of the physicochemical properties examined at the end of remediation were restored to their initial states and found to be within the W.H.O. standard. For the DPK medium, results showed that the microorganisms present had negative response in utilizing domestic purpose kerosene. At the end of the third week (504 hours) very low remediation efficiency of 39.62% was attained with a rate constant of 1×10-3 hr-1. The control experiments showed no appreciable reductions in TPH except for a small decrease by 1.5% for diesel and 2.0% for DKP, this was indicative that bioremediation had occurred in the diesel and DPK microcosms other than the controls.
Conclusion: Bioremediation of surface water contaminated with hydrocarbons using agricultural waste was found not to be very effective as a biological treatment option in a non-oil producing area. The physicochemical properties of the treated surface water samples were grossly impaired and therefore needed post treatments to make them safe for human consumption.

Open Access Original Research Article

Chemical Mutagenesis of Microalgae Nannochloropsis sp. Using EMS (Ethyl Methanesulfonate)

Mujizat Kawaroe, Agus Oman Sudrajat, Junkwan Hwangbo, Dina Augustine

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 494-505
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/16862

Microalgae ability to grow substantially in a short period of time has become a starting point in rapid biofuel production. To date, only certain microalgae species that produce large biomass, and has high fatty acid content can be turned into raw material in producing biofuel. One of the methods used in increasing microalgae biomass is the mutagenesis method. This mutagenesis research were conducted chemically by adding ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) into microalgae individual cells. The results showed the highest density among three treatments (control, 0.1 M and 0.5 M) occurred at 0.5 M EMS treatment, with a number of 60.7±11.93 x 106 cells/mL on day 6 (stationery phase). Among the three treatments, the highest specific growth occurred at 0.1 M EMS treatment (µ= 0.52/day) on day 5 (logarithmic phase), and treatment on 0.5 M EMS has highest RNA/DNA ratio (0.55±0.46), while control has the lowest ratio (0.12±0.04). In dry biomass, the highest number stationery and death phase occurred in Nannochloropsis sp. cultivation with EMS concentration of 0.1 M (1.08±0.33 and 1.11±0.07 g/l). Fat content percentage in both phase occured in EMS concentration of 0.5 M (12.17±0.30% and 18.14±0.35%). Chromatography test revealed 22 compounds of saturated fatty acid and 3 compounds of unsaturated fatty acid. Methyl palmitate (C16:0) was the saturated fatty acid with the highest concentration in three cultivation treatments. Mono unsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) with a relatively high concentration is methyl palmitoleate in two cultivation treatments. The only poly unsaturated fatty acid detected was methyl linoleate (C18:2).

Open Access Original Research Article

EEG Feature Extraction in Brain-Mobile Phone Interfaces

Azeemsha Thacham Poyil, C. R. Hema

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 506-520
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/14781

Aims: The paper describes four methods for extracting features of brain signals in frequency and time domain that can be used as parameters for identifying the face images of people.
Place and Duration of Study: Human Computer Interface Lab, Karpagam University, India (July 2012-June 2014)
Methodology: The subject is asked to remember different known face images like father, mother and so on and the corresponding Electroencephalogram (EEG) signals are captured. Wigner Ville Distribution and other spectral methods are used for studying the features. The data was collected from 15 subjects having good mental health condition. Real EEG records from different subjects are taken for duration of 10 seconds in each trial. 10 such trials are taken from each test subject.
Results: It is noticed that the band of frequencies in the range 0-40 Hz shows higher spectral variations, due to “remembering” or retrieving memories possibly due to the presence of Alpha or Beta waves. Using Fourier spectrum analysis it is found that, the EEG signals corresponding to the face image of one person (e.g: Mother) was always giving a different range of values for the number of spectral crossings, in comparison to the second face image (eg: Father). During the Wigner Ville analysis the peak value of instantaneous power in one case was seen in the range of 2x105 to 3x105 for father’s face whereas for mother’s face in the range of 0.5x106 to 1x106. In the Power Spectral Density based analysis, the frequency range of 10-20 Hz showed a higher average value in case of mother’s face than in father’s. When the mean signal power was calculated from PSD for different trials, it is noticed that the signal power is significantly different in cases of father and mother and gavea 70-90% of correct classification result.
Conclusion: After identifying the features that are unique for a face image, the same is proposed to be used for the address book dialing in a smart phone which can be further used for helping physically disabled as well as normal people to interact with external world.

Open Access Original Research Article

Professionalism or Clienteism: An X-ray of Valuation Practice in Southwestern Nigeria

T. A. Ashaolu, M. O. Olaniran

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 521-530
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/17623

Aim: The study seeks to examine factors that do stir up a professional valuer in initiating influence of his client on reported value figures.
Study Design: A review of relevant literature, followed by an exposition of methodological approach and then a discussion of findings.
Place and Duration: Department of Estate Management and Valuation, The Federal Polytechnic, Ilaro, Nigeria between December, 2014 and February, 2015.
Methodology: A questionnaire survey of 63 Valuers randomly drawn from two major cities in Southwestern Nigeria – Abeokuta and Ibadan - was undertaken. The findings were examined using descriptive statistics and correlation analysis.
Results: The study revealed that though the longer the experience and the more exercises a valuer handles, the greater his propensity to overcome challenges on data and methodology, his willingness to unduly satisfy clients also increases. Thus, the pursuit of ‘clienteism’ as against professionalism bothers as much on personal integrity as on incompetence and inadequate experience.
Conclusion: Real estate professional bodies must be proactive in ensuring that those to be registered for the more sensitive valuation services truly possess needed skills – such as of investigation, documentation and analysis – as well as attributes like integrity.

Open Access Review Article

Action of EM Disturbances on the Availability and Range of Indoor PLC Transmitters and Impact of Radiation on the Environment around Channel

Jamal Belkadid, Ali Benbassou, Mohammed El Ghzaoui, Achraf Liakouti

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 414-426
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/16615

The use of power lines for transmission of broadband data for applications such as Internet access or home automation, is certainly very attractive, but the problem of electromagnetic interference and radiated caused by these new systems. Risk of interference to radio reception is mainly approached in the frequency band ranging from 1 MHz to 30 MHz allocated to power line communication (PLC) and covers including HF.
The experimental study throughout this work show that the coupling factor has a strong dependence relative to the measurement location, to the topology of the electrical network and to a lesser degree, relative to the level of the load impedance. Thus, we made possible an estimate of the radiated field for a known injected signals. Experimental characterization of the indoor measurement also showed that the field values are dispersed; against for outdoor a proportional decrease relative to the distance can be observed.
The different results permit to deduct a few orders of magnitude as well as some simple rules of use for minimizing exposure while allowing normal operation of the application level. In all cases, measured or simulated covered by the study, the required levels are met. In situ measurements show that human exposure to the electric field radiated by the PLC network is very small (< 1 V/m) compared to the reference limits.