Open Access Original Research Article

Farmers’ Participation in the Services of Public and Private Extension Organizations in Southwestern Nigeria

S. O. Ayansina, R. A. Oyeyinka, A. F. O. Ayinde

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 238-245
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/10922

There is an increasing demand for a functional extension delivery services in Nigeria with a view to meet up with the food and fiber needs of the ever growing population of human and animal respectively. This study was designed to examine farmers’ involvement in public and private extension services in southwestern Nigeria, specifically to explore the farmers’ participation in the two types of organizations involved. It also evaluates the performances of personnel in the organizations. A multi-stage random sampling technique was used to select 30 respondents from each of the three selected organizations in Ogun, Osun and Oyo states in Southwestern Nigeria. Data was collected with interview schedule and analyzed both at descriptive and inferential levels. Kruskal Wallis one-way Analysis of variance was used to test the differences between the participation of beneficiaries who are farmers under the public and private extension services and the level of benefit accrued to them from the various extension organizations involved in the study. Results revealed that private extension organizations were performing better and were more preferred by the beneficiaries. Results of the tested hypotheses as shown by Kruskal Wallis test of difference (x2 = 0.709) showed no significant difference between farmers’ participation in the extension services of public and private organizations but however showed significant difference (X2 =12.074) in the benefits achieved by respondents in the two organizations. These include: increased quantity of crop produced, farm income, skill acquisition, and improved education in private extension organizations. Based on this result, it could be inferred that beneficiaries generally preferred private extension organizations because of their effectiveness and vibrancy in programme administration. Public extension is therefore recommended for general overhauling and possibly privatization in order to cater for teeming population of farmers demanding for efficient and functional extension services to better their lots in production, processing and marketing of agricultural produce.

Open Access Original Research Article

Physico-chemical Characteristics and Fatty Acids Composition of Some Selected Nigerian Vegetable Oils for Quenching Medium

J. B. Agboola, O. K. Abubakre, E. Mudiare, M. B. Adeyemi, S. B. Hassan

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 246-253
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/16177

Four vegetable oils (cotton seed oil, palm kernel oil, neem seed oil and palm oil) were characterized with respect to their physicochemical properties and fatty acids profiles with the aim of investigating their suitability as quenching media for medium carbon steels. The physicochemical properties were determined by using appropriate ASTM methods. The fatty acid ester compositions were determined by a gas chromatographic analysis procedure. The results obtained showed that the different vegetable oils exhibited different viscosity and viscosity-temperature behaviour corresponding to their varying molecular structures and level of saturation. The following values were obtained for the various physicochemical parameters measured in cotton seed oil, palm kernel oil, neem seed oil and palm oil: viscosity value at 40ºC were (34.8, 41.69, 32.41 and 39.7) cSt; viscosity value at 100°C were (6.9, 8.94, 7.89 and 8.2) cSt; the Iodine values were (115.09, 19.59, 120.16 and 35.90) g I2/100 g while the acid values were (1.80, 0.22, 12.97 and 1.23) mgKOH/g respectively. The level of saturation of the fatty acids followed the decreasing order of palm kernel oil (0.25), palm oil (0.92), cotton seed oil (1.35) and neem seed oil (1.39). The results obtained showed that the vegetable oils under study are suitable as potential quenching media for carbon steels with palm kernel oil being the most suitable followed by cotton seed oil and neem seed oil. The least suitable among the oils is palm oil.

Open Access Original Research Article

Detanning of Chrome-ladden Collagenous Matrix for Protein Recovery from Tannery Solid Waste

Fernandus Durai Manase Manavalan, Muralidharan Chellappa, Rose Chellan

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 254-266
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/17107

Aim: To optimize conditions for maximum recovery of protein from wet blue as large quantities of chromium containing biological solid wastes are generated in the tanning industry which poses environmental hazard. The chromium recovery from this acidic (pH ≃ 3.5) solid waste is necessary for environmental protection and economic reasons. This study therefore focuses on the conditions that facilitate the optimum recovery of protein from the chrome-tanned biological matrix of tannery with minimum protein loss using H2SO4.
Methodology: The Chrome-tanned skin (wet blue) specimen before and after different concentrations of acid treatment were characterized for their mechanical property and thermal stability with a view to observe chemical and morphological characteristics changes by Fourier Transform Infra-Red spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy respectively. The modification in functional group and chemical composition of the samples is correlated with that of the tensile property and thermal decomposition pattern (by Thermo Gravimetric Analysis) and thermal energy (by Differential Scanning Colorimeter) as well.
Results: A gradual change in the mechanical properties of the wet blue was observed with respect to increase in acid concentration. As the acid concentration is increased, the loss of Cr is also increased. The total Cr was estimated in the acid treated wet blue samples and a sudden fall in the Cr content of the specimen after 3% acid treatment was observed. 35% of protein loss was observed in 3% acid treated sample and the % of protein loss increased with acid concentration. FTIR results showed that the acid doesn’t aid the conversion of Cr (III) into Cr (VI).
Conclusion: The removal of chromium from chrome-tanned skin could be achieved without transforming Cr (III) into highly toxic Cr (VI), by simple acid treatment.

Open Access Original Research Article

Removal of Lead Ion from Industrial Effluent Using Plantain (Musa paradisiaca) Wastes

O. T. Okareh, A. T. Adeolu

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 267-276
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/16989

Introduction: Industrial effluent often contains heavy metals which bio-accumulate in biological systems and persist in the environment, thereby constituting public health problems. Plantain (Musa paradisiaca) wastes, which are easily available, could be used to produce resource materials such as activated carbon that are of economic importance.
Aims: This study assessed the use of plantain wastes for the removal of lead in effluent from battery recycling plant.
Methodology: Plantain wastes were collected from a plantation, sun-dried and ground. These were then carbonized and activated using industrial oven at 400oC. An Acid-Lead battery recycling plant in Ogunpa, Ibadan, Nigeria was purposively selected. Samples of effluent from the point of discharge into Ogunpa River (100 m from the residential area) were subjected to physico-chemical (pH, conductivity, Total Suspended Solid (TSS), and Lead (Pb)) analyses, using American Public Health Association methods. Batch experiment was adopted in determining the adsorption isotherms of the adsorbents, using Association of Official Analytical Chemist method at varied effects of pH (2 to 12) and adsorbent doses (0.1 to 2.0 g) with treatments of Plantain Peel Activated Carbon (PAC), Plantain Leaf Activated Carbon (LAC), Plantain Bract Activated Carbon (BAC), Plantain Stalk Activated Carbon (SAC) while Commercial Activated Carbon (CAC) served as control. Initial and final concentrations of Pb were determined by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy.
Results: Means of pH, conductivity, TSS, and Pb of the effluent sample were: 2.0±0.2, 2164.7±0.6 µs/cm, 2001.7±25.2 mg/l, 31.3±0.0 mg/l. The highest quantities (94.97%) of Pb were removed at pH10. Optimum dosage of Pb occurred at 1.5 g.
Conclusion: Carbonized and activated plantain waste used as adsorbents had potentials for effectively removing lead from effluent generated from battery recycling plant. Treatment of effluent with plantain wastes should be encouraged in battery recycling plant for improved public health and safety status, and to enhance effective waste management.

Open Access Original Research Article

Borehole Annulus-Filling Materials and Enrichment of Heavy Metals in Eocene-Palaeocene Aquifer Systems in Awka, Southeast Nigeria

K. K. Nwozor, O. I. Chiaghanam, L. O. Onuorah

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 277-285
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/14955

Contamination of groundwater resources is more often associated with the infiltration of pollutants from anthropogenic activities such as waste dump sites and industrial effluents. Similar to this, reported results may be limited in its accuracy by poor sampling and analytical techniques. This study is interested in the role of geologic materials. Geologic materials, whether in-situ host rock or transported materials play a massive role in determining the quality of groundwater in any geosystem. A time-lapse evaluation of groundwater quality in Awka shows a progressive deterioration as a result of increasing enrichment in heavy metals. It is noted that Vanadium, Manganese, Arsenic and Copper increased the most over the 1993 to 2013 period under consideration. Host-rock geochemistry discounts the dominant Imo Shale as a source of the contaminants. While recognising the likely infiltration of pollutants from other common sources, it is here suggested that the high concentration of heavy metals can also be the effect of weathering products and leachates that are being derived from heavy-metal-rich igneous rock aggregates that are commonly used as annulus-filling materials in borehole construction. This calls for a more in-depth study to understand the pollution network in order to evolve a coordinated approach to protect the groundwater system and save the populace from looming health and environmental hazards.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Effect of Using YouTube on Youth Worst and Best Case

Hiyam S. Ensour

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 286-304
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/11956

YouTube and its impact on young people of the two communities (Jordanian and Saudi Arabia) is the subject of the research. Therefore it was important to present a simplified definition and explanation of what YouTube is, the extent of its impact on the youth of both the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, the reasons behind the spread of its use among young people, with a focus on the rankings of frequently-visited channels and a clarification of some of the reasons for youth attachment to this program aside from others, along with comparisons between the two communities (HKJ and KSA) to see the worst and best case in terms of the duration of use, reason for use, its impact on societies, whether we reached the degree of risk to use it, explain the mechanism involved in monitoring how to access and control the Internet, whether there are confrontations between the two communities and their respective governments on the use of YouTube. The dimensions of the research were determined scientifically and practically for the two communities depending on the statistics that resulted from a detailed analysis of the results of questionnaires using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software on both of the two communities with different age and academic groups with the use of graphic representation to illustrate the results better, identify the variables and data in the research, come up with recommendations and results that are useful for both communities in terms of the ethics of the use of YouTube and the extent of the rapid spread of crime through YouTube programs and its impact on the world of electronic and social media.

Open Access Original Research Article

Growth and Phytohormones Production by Thermophilic Aspergillus fumigatus 2 and Thermotolerant Aspergillus terreus 8 Strains in Salt Stress

Mokhichekhra A. Pattaeva, Bakhtiyor A. Rasulov

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 305-312
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/12292

Few investigations have been made the biodiversity and biological properties of fungi in natural high salt and thermal environments. Halophilic and thermophilic fungi belong to extremophiles, which can survive in salt-affected habitats. Thermophilic and thermotolerant fungi are little known for indole-3-acetic (IAA) and gibberellins (GAs) production and their growth, development in salt-affected (salt-stress) environments. Aim of the current studies was to investigate the IAA and GAs synthesis by the thermophilic A. fumigatus 2 and thermotolerant A. terreus 8 strains, and their behavior in salt-stress. These fungal strains exhibited maximum IAA and GAs production and growth under different salt (NaCl and Na2SO4) concentrations. Furthermore, the fungal strains were able to synthesize the phytohormones in elevated temperatures – Aspergillus fumigatus 2 in 55ºC, Aspergillus terreus 8 in 45ºC. Salt tolerance estimations showed that Aspergillus terreus 8 was salt tolerant and exhibited ability to produce the phytohormones in the presence of salts. This is a first report on the isolation and description of thermophilic and thermotolerant Aspergillus, which synthesize IAA and GAs in the presence of NaCl and Na2SO4. In relatively low salt concentrations A. terreus 8 synthesized the phytohormones nearly as the same as in the control, but in presence of 0.5-1% salts, the synthesis of both metabolites sharply reduced, first of all, the production of GAs.

Open Access Original Research Article

Correlation Effect of the Van-der-Waals and Intramolecular Forces for the Nucleotide Chain - Metallic Nanoparticles Binding in a Carbon Nanotube Matrix of Periodic Boundaries

M. A. Khusenov, E. B. Dushanov, Kh. T. Kholmurodov

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 313-323
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/16619

Using molecular dynamics simulation method we investigated the correlation effects between the weak Van der Waals forces and intramolecular vibrations for the molecular system consisting of a small nucleotide chain, gold nanoparticles and carbon nanotube with periodic boundaries. The molecular system represents a great interest in many aspects of modern research and applied sciences. For example, in bio-nano-technologies the application aspects include the development of electronic mobile diagnostic facilities, nanorobotic design for a drug delivery inside living cell, and so on. For the molecular system we have built up a series of the models with different configurations and performed their analysis. The entire system was allowed to interact with each other by the only VdW forces. The Lennard-Jones short-ranged interaction was assumed between the nucleotide chain, nanoparticles and carbon nanotube. For the carbon nanotube a many-body Tersoff potential having a quantum-chemistry nature was used. So far, the so-called hybrid MD approach was realized, where the quantum-chemistry potential in combination with a classical trajectory calculation applied. The peculiarities of the nucleotide chain – nanoparticle interaction and bond formation inside of a carbon nanotube matrix of the periodic boundaries were investigated along with the structural and dynamical behavior.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Combined Genetic Algorithms-local Search Engine (GAs–LCE) in Constrained Nonlinear Programming

Faiz A. El-Qorashy, Hossam A. Nabwey, A. A. Mousa

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 324-333
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/17059

Evolutionary optimization provides robust and efficient techniques for solving complex real-world problems. The aim of this paper is to present an enhanced evolutionary algorithm for solving constraint nonlinear programming problems NLPPs, which based on concept of co-evolution and repair algorithm for handling nonlinear constraints. Our proposed approach is made of two phases, firstly, phase I is a classical genetic algorithm, which based on the ideas of repair strategy and co-evolution. Secondly in phase II, Based on the k-means cluster algorithm, the search space is shrunk after phase I to the generated rectangular-atom with highly rate and concentrating the optimal solution region, so local search techniques will implemented in order to get more accurate optimal solution. Finally, the results of various experimental studies using a suite of benchmark functions have demonstrated the superiority of the proposed algorithm to finding the global optimal solution for constraint nonlinear programming problems.

Open Access Review Article

A Review of Models for Evaluation of Climate Change Impact on Water Resources

A. W. Salami, A. A. Mohammed, D. O. Olukanni

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 226-237
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/16886

The use of models to simulate or predict impact of climate change on water resources management is very vital due to continual increase in global warming which invariably affects most important natural resources in the environment. This paper provides an overview of the existing models used for evaluating climate change impact on water resources management. It also compares their relative advantages and drawbacks. It was found that no model can perform satisfactorily the assessment of climate change impact; hence it may be necessary to use one model to compliment the weakness of another. Global Circulation Model (GCM) is not easily accessible in developing countries due to sophistications and processes involved in running it. Moreso, the nature of available data and cost of acquiring it is high. The main advantage of Water Balance (WATBAL) model is that it can model climate change impact in water resources but its major drawback is that it requires many inputs of hydro-meteorological parameters. Regression and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) models are readily available and not too expensive. They can model climate change impact on water resources and hydropower operation. However, the drawback is that enormous data are required for ANN model calibration and operation. It is imperative therefore to anticipate and efficiently prepare for future water resources management and suggest necessary measures to mitigate the effect of climate change.