Open Access Short Research Article

Relationship between Body Mass Index and Percent Body Fat among Females of Raipur City

V. Verma, A. Soni, A. Joglekar

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 213-218
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/16546

Obesity is the major risk factor for the development of many diseases. BMI is widely used as a deputy measure of obesity, but underestimates the prevalence of obesity, defined as an excess of body fat. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and body fat percentage (BF%) in females. The study was a cross-sectional design. A selected sample of 70 females aged 25-50 years participated in a detailed height and weight measurement were taken using standard methodology and body fat percent estimated by bio - electrical impendence analysis (BIA). Results to the present study body fat were found to be higher in female subjects and 70 percent of subjects had body fat more than 30 percent. According to BMI 68 percent subjects were found to be overweight and obese subjects were having lower range increased the percent BF of subjects also increased. 

Open Access Short Research Article

Microbial and Physico-Chemical Analysis of Water from Boreholes in Mosimi and Environs, Ogun State, Nigeria

A. A. Ayandele, A. Umon, J. A. Amao

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 219-225
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/16941

This study was carried out to determine the microbiological quality of borehole water in Mosimi area in Ogun state. Microbiological and physic-chemical analyses of eleven boreholes in the area were determined and mean standard error was used to compare the results obtained. The study was carried out within a period of 3 months. Microbiological and physico-chemical analyses were carried out on water samples from eleven boreholes in Mosimi and environs in Ogun State, Nigeria. Membrane Filtration Method was used for the determination of Total Plate Count, Total Coliform Count and E. coli Count. Microbes identified include Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, Citrobacter sp, Pseudomonas sp, Micrococcus sp, Bacillus sp, Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella sp. The Total Plate Count ranged from 0 cfu/ml to 102 x 102 cfu/ml. The Total Coliform Count ranged from 0 cfu/ml – 15 x 102 cfu/ml, while the E. coli count ranged from 0 cfu/ml – 5 x 102 cfu/ml, some of which are above the WHO and the Nigerian Standard for Drinking Water Quality; analysis of variance was carried out for the microbial analysis using SPSS 16.0. The physico-chemical analysis showed that all the parameters were within the WHO limits except for pH which ranged from 5.7 – 8.0. Water samples from four of the boreholes were faecally contaminated but there was no chemical contamination of the ground water. There is the need for treatment of the boreholes water samples especially the contaminated samples to make the water potable.

Open Access Original Research Article

Two Different Methods of Botulnium Toxin A Injection for Releasing of Hip Adductor Spasticity in Diplegic Children

Rasha A. Mohamed, Ragab K. Elnaggar

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 126-138
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/16313

Aim: To compare the effects of Botulnium Toxin A injection of hip adductor muscles (adductor longus and brevis) and gracilis muscle on motor function, balance and gait parameters of the children with diplegic cerebral palsy.
Study Design: Prospective, randomized controlled study.
Place and Duration of Study: National Institute for Neuro-Motor System, Out-patient Clinic, Faculty of Physical Therapy, Cairo University and Kasr El Aini Hospital from June 2013 to September 2014
Methodology: Thirty diplegic cerebral palsied children of both sexes were selected. Their ages ranged from 8 to 10 years. They were assigned randomly into two equal study groups. Group I received Botulnium Toxin A injection of bilateral adductor longus and brevis muscles, while group II received Botulnium Toxin A injection of bilateral gracilis muscles. In addition, both groups received the same designed physical therapy program three times per week for three successive months. Gross Motor Function Measure-88 standing and walking subsections, stability indices, kinematic gait parameters were evaluated before and after three successive months of treatment.
Results: Significant differences were observed in both groups when comparing their pre and post treatment mean values of all measuring variables (P <0.05) except non significant differences of mediolateral stability index in group I was recorded (P > 0.05). Also, significant differences were recorded when comparing the post treatment mean values of all measuring variables of both groups in favor of group II (P <0.05).
Conclusion: Botulnium Toxin A injection of the gracilis muscle is an excellent supplement to regularly scheduled physical therapy intervention for children with diplegic cerebral palsy.

Open Access Original Research Article

Heavy Metal Concentrations in Some Vegetables Grown in a Farm Treated with Urban Solid Waste in Kuru Jantar, Nigeria

Nimyel D. Nanven, J. N. Egila, Y. N. Lohdip

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 139-147
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/14779

The use of dumpsite soils as organic manure is wide spread in developing countries like Nigeria. This study investigates the concentration of some heavy metals in vegetables grown in a farm treated with dumpsite soils in Kuru Jantar, Nigeria. Soil samples and vegetables from the farm were collected and prepared using standard analytical procedures. The concentrations of metals in both soil and vegetables were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). The results showed that the farm was polluted with the metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Mu, Fe, Pb, Zn, Ni) determined. The Enrichment Factor (EF) showed that some metals had minimal enrichment while Cd (13.93) had significant enrichment at the farm. The Pollution index (PI) calculations showed that at the farm, the contamination pollution ranged from very slight to very severe. The overall order of the metals at the dumpsite was Fe> Mn> Zn> Cu> Cr> Ni> Pb> Cd while the order of the metal concentrations at the farm was Fe> Mn> Zn> Ni> Cd> Pb. The data obtained in the study were analyzed using Pearson correlation analysis. The results showed perfect positive correlation values above 0.9 between the farm and the dumpsite, which indicated that there was a strong association or similarity between them. The metal concentrations in the vegetables analyzed showed that spinach decreased in the order Fe>Zn>Mn>Cd>Pb while in Cabbage, the order was Mn> Fe> Zn>Cu>Cd; in Radish, the order was Fe>Mn>Cu>Cr>Zn while in pepper, the order was Fe>Cu>Mn>Ni. In general, the metal concentrations were below the recommended limit of USEPA and FEPA standards for agricultural soils and vegetables except for Cd in vegetables. The concentrations were however higher in the farm than in the control. Thus, the farm was polluted with heavy metals from the dumpsite soils.

Open Access Original Research Article

Isotropy of Some Potassium, Sodium and Rubidium Compounds

Fae`q A. A. Radwan

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 162-164
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/12563

The norm of elastic constant tensor and the norms of the irreducible parts of the elastic constants of potassium, Sodium and Rubidium compounds are calculated. The relation of the scalar parts norm and the other parts norms and the anisotropy of these compounds are presented. The norm ratios are used to study anisotropy of these compounds.

Open Access Original Research Article

Simulation-based Assessment of the Thermal Performance of High-rise Office Buildings in Ghana

Barbara Simons, Christian Koranteng, Joshua Ayarkwa

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 165-179
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/16700

The lack of empirical data and practical advice on thermal performance and efficient use of energy in our buildings are gradually becoming a burden to the country. Amidst the recent development in the usage of curtain walls for office buildings, high utilization of energy and poor thermal comfort issues have become paramount. Given the warm-humid climatic characteristics of Ghana, energy requirements for cooling of office buildings represent a growing burden for the environment and the economy. The current paper explores the implications of alternative design options for the thermal performance of four high-rise office buildings in Accra, Ghana. Multiple design alternatives were considered involving various glazing types, shading and shading schedules, thermal insulation options, lighting, various ventilation options and thermal mass. A numeric thermal simulation application was used to model the performance of these alternatives parametrically. Simulation results were expressed in terms of annual cooling loads (active building operation scenario) and mean overheating (passive building operation scenario). Careful combination of improvement measures (such as efficient glazing, thermal mass, façade insulation, night ventilation, efficient electrical lighting, form and orientation) has a significant potential to reduce buildings' cooling loads (31% – 49%) in the climatic context of Accra. Over-heating tendencies were also reduced from 8.6K to 3.9K depending on the air-change-rate per hour (ACH).

Open Access Original Research Article

Synthesis, Characterization and In vitro Cytotoxicity Assessment of Eggshell-derived β-CaSiO3 Nano Biomaterial

Boniface Tiimob, Vitus Apalangya, Tsemesgen Samuel, Shaik Jeelani, Vijaya Rangari

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 180-193
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/16811

This study explored the conversion of bio waste into a valued bioceramic material for potential tissue regeneration application. Calcium silicate (β-CaSiO3) nanomaterial was synthesized from waste egg shells (CaCO3) and silica (SiO2) precursors using noninvasive but sustainable and industrially scalable ball mill and sonochemical techniques. The development of the β-CaSiO3 NPs was monitored with Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), transmission electron microscope (TEM), field emission scanning electron microscopy / energy dispersive spectroscopy (FESEM-EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results revealed the formation of polycrystalline nano-β-CaSiO3 with 100% peak at 2θ° = 30.0 in the (320) crystal planeand sizes less than 50 nm. In vitro cytotoxicity studies on human osteoblast cell line CRL 11372 suggests biocompatibility and non-interference with cell growth at concentrations ranging from 0.0781-1.250 mg/mLof β-CaSiO3.

Open Access Original Research Article

Forward and Inverse Problem Formulation of Optical Tomography Based on Equation of Radiative Transfer

Raheel Muzzammel, Muhammad Sarwar Ehsan

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 194-203
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/16526

Optical tomography is non-invasive diagnostic technique. Mathematically, it is related to the evaluation of optical parameters from the equation of radiative transfer with diffused boundary measurements. Since the radiative transfer equation in expressed in the form of phase space, it is quite challenging to solve it computationally. In this paper, reconstruction is based on equation of radiative transfer in frequency domain and termination criteria for forward problem is proposed as ratio of residues. Directional and spatial variables of equation of radiative transfer are discretized with discrete ordinate method and finite volume method respectively. The sparse structure of matrices of complex valued algebraic equations is formulated.

Open Access Original Research Article

Storage Stability of Deep-fried Cowpea Products (AKARA) Incorporated with Soy-flour and Aframomum danielli

Comfort Funmilayo Ajibola, Adekunle Filani

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 204-212
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/16478

Aims: To investigate the effect of incorporating soy-flour and Aframomum danielli on quality characteristics and keeping qualities of deep-fried cowpea products (akara).
Study Design: Two-way ANOVA.
Place and Duration of Study: Department of Food Science and Technology, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria, between January 2014 and November 2014.
Methodology: Four different samples of akara were prepared using 20% soy-flour and 3% Aframomum danielli. The choice of these levels was based on their acceptability during the preliminary trial. The fried akara samples were packaged in foil paper and stored at room temperature over a period of 4 days. Effect of soy-flour and Aframomum denielli on proximate composition and sensory quality of akara were evaluated. Changes in microbial load, free fatty acid value (FFA), peroxide value (PV) and thiobabarturic acid value (TBA) during the storage period were also determined.
Results: The protein content ranged from 23.5±0.4 to 26.2±0.3; ash content ranged from 3.1±0.2 to 3.57±0.3; crude fibre ranged from 3.27±0.3 to 3.63±0.4; crude fat ranged from 23.21±0.6 to 26.14±0.4 and carbohydrate ranged from 43.32±1.3 to 44.24±0.3. The results showed that at 20% substitution, soy-flour lowered the fat content of akara by 8.2% and increased the protein content by 10.7%. Addition of Aframomum danielli did not significantly (P≤0.05) affect the proximate composition of akara samples. Incorporation of soy-flour at 20% produced acceptable akara without affecting the sensory attributes of the akara while on the other hand, akara samples spiced with 3% Aframomum danielli were significantly (P≤0.05) rated lower than non- spiced samples in term of taste, colour, texture, aroma and overall acceptability. The results of storage stability of akara over a 4- day of storage period showed that akara samples spiced with 3% Aframomum danielli had lower microbial load, PV, FFA and TBA values when compared to non-spiced samples.
Conclusion: Acceptable akara with low fat content and high protein content were produced by substituting cowpea flour with 20% soy-flour. Aframomum danielli has the potential to be used as preservative ingredient in the production of akara. Hence, utilization of soy-flour and A. danielli in the production of akara would produce good quality akara with low fat content and elongated shelf life.

Open Access Review Article

Waste Generation and Management in Lesotho and Waste to Clay Brick Recycling: A Review

I. Hapazari, V. Ntuli, B. M. Taele

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 148-161
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/11224

Waste management remains a matter of concern even in the most industrialized countries. The symbiotic relationship between industrialization and population growth on one hand and waste generation on the other hand, is undeniable. In developing counties the scourge of waste management has reached endemic levels; and only innovative and economic ways of waste management can serve as a sustainable solution. Municipalities and local authorities in developing countries spent in the order of 30% of their budgets on waste management, yet their efforts yield no salient fruits as random dumping, burning and illegal land filling remain dominant. The accompanying health and environmental hazards can never be over-emphasized. Research works, past and present, continue to reveal the possibility of turning waste into valuable raw material inputs to suitably identified products and processes. This paper focuses on reviewing the waste management situation in Lesotho, using Maseru city as base line, and results of research works on incorporation of waste materials in clay brick manufacture. Clay brick making is a key industry in Lesotho accompanying environmental issues notwithstanding. Suffice to say, a deliberate attempt has been made to streamline the attention towards those waste materials known to be available or generate in Lesotho in significantly large quantities.