##### Experimental Analyses of the Physiochemical Parameters for Concentration Distribution in a Polluted Soil Medium

Dagde Kenneth Kekpugile, Ojelade Opeyemi Abdulahi

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 10-24
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/14473

This experimental research was undertaken to show the concentration distribution of different physiochemical parameters in a soil polluted by crude oil. Various physiochemical parameters were investigated in the laboratory two months after extensive crude oil spillage using standard procedures. Five (5) soil samples were collected at different depths (0-0.1 m, 0.1-0.25 m, 0.25-0.4 m, 0.4-0.55 m and 0.55-1.0 m). The results of analyses revealed that the contamination of soil with crude oil caused PAHs, BTEX, TPH, nitrogen, and magnesium concentrations to decrease with increasing depth of the soil medium while soil PH, calcium and exchangeable acidity, hydrogen and aluminium concentrations to increase with increasing depth of the soil medium. Also, PH becomes more alkaline as crude oil contamination decreases. Predictive mathematical correlations were derived for each tested parameters from Microsoft excel charts to determine the extent of soil contamination. Therefore, the depth beyond which the soil is free from contamination can be determined from the equations correlated. This research shows different parameters that affects the growth of plants. Khana local government area (Ogoni) in Niger Delta, Nigeria is affected with the oil spillage, therefore, it implies low soil fertility, which in turns implies low agricultural productivity and reduced source of livelihood in the area. Hence, findings reveal the need for holistic and sustainable monitoring, control and remediation of the oil spilled environment.

##### Effects of Natural Building Ventilation Openings on Rabbit Does in Humid South West Nigeria

Wasiu Agunbiade Lamidi, L. A. O. Ogunjimi, S. Idowu Ola

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 25-34
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/15479

The research investigated the effects of building ventilation resulting from different combinations of building orientation and opening on some reproductive parameters. The study was 2 x 4 factorial design and carried out at rabbitry section of the Teaching and Research Farm, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria between September 2009 and April 2011. Four identical adjoining buildings, each with eight pens with three factors: building orientations, BO (45º, 90º); ventilation openings, VO (20, 40, 60, 80%); seasons (dry, rainy) at 4 replicates each (n = 32 pens) were used. There was a control experiment with n = 4 does, each in a pen. Measured were the weights of the doe before conception, weights during gestation period and weights of does just before weaning. Temperature-humidity indices-THI, of the pens were also calculated. Weight gain by litters was significantly affected (P = .05) by BO. VO had significant effect (P = .05) on litters’ percent mortality. At weaning, 80% VO had the highest litters’ cumulative weight, 26% (194.375 g), while cumulative weight, 21% (166.5 g) for 60% VO at 45º orientation. Regression analysis showed stronger association between different combinations of various building orientations and openings and the weight gains by the litters during lactation. Temperature and humidity values in rabbits’ housing when controlled to the prevailing wet season values between 24ºC-27ºC and at 80% VO in windward direction in the tropics could allow rabbit does to have increased weights.

##### Design Concepts towards Cocoa Winnowing Mechanization for Nibs Production in Manufacturing Industries

B. O. Akinnuli, O. S. Bekunmi, C. O. Osueke

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 35-45
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/16161

Cocoa beans processing for human consumption is growing into different products from time to time. Demand for it’s processing equipment is also at increase and costly to purchase. One of the processing workstations that needs urgent attention is the winnowing section, where the shell (seed coat) is removed from the cocoa beans and retains the broken cotyledons(Nibs). The mechanization of this process is capital intensive and all cocoa processing industries in Nigeria have no local substitute that can render same service at lower cost. Hence, the design of a winnower that can be produced locally at low cost and capable of producinghigh qualityproducts. The required components were identified, each of these components was designed and the designed values were used for the proposed machine drawings. The production cost was estimated, each machine component/unitmaterial required for their production were suggested for the proposed machine development in this design concept. The mechanical system was designed to have: centrifugal force of 4.8 N, motor power rating of 1.5 kW, speed of 500 rpm and process capacity of 2 tonnes per hour.It’s total estimated production cost is â‚¦470,000 which is equivalent to US$2904.32 at the current exchange rate of â‚¦162/$.

##### Corrosion Propensity of Cold Deformed 5052 Aluminium Alloy in Seawater

O. I. Sekunowo, S. I. Durowaye, E. C. Anozie

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 46-52
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/16681

Conventional 5052 aluminium alloysare known to exhibit characteristics response to deformation having a rebound effect on their corrosion propensity. This study investigates this phenomenon with a view to establishing the appropriate processing method that confers enhanced corrosion resistance to stem the incidence of facility failure in the food processing industry. Samples of the alloy were produced by casting after proper charge calculation. The cast samples were cold rolled in a two-high mill at ambient temperature to 20%, 40%, 60% and 80% size reduction. Corrosion test coupons were then prepared from the deformed samples on which electrochemical corrosion polarisation in seawater environment for 36 hours at an interval of 6 hours was carried out. Results of the corrosion campaigns show that corrosion rate increases as degree of deformation increases and this is attributed to high energy density in the deformed sample matrix which approximates initiation sites for corrosion.

##### Development of Predictive Model for Concentration Distribution of Crude Oil in Polluted Soil Medium

Dagde Kenneth Kekpugile, Ojelade Opeyemi Abdulahi

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 53-66
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/14472

This research deals with the development of predictive model for the concentration distribution of Nigerian crude oil in porous soil media. Three (3) different soil media were considered: sand, loam and clay. Oil spillage has been the most prominent source of ground water contamination, so, a model has been predicted to access the risk of ground water contamination by crude oil in Niger Delta regions. The migration of crude oil in the soil is only by diffusion and this enables us to predict a model of concentration distribution of naphthalene, benzene and toluene (NBT) using an approach called Buckingham’s π theorem. With the theorem, parameters that affect the migration of crude oil in the soil such as viscosity, density, porosity were considered. The predicted model results were compared with experimental results obtained from literature and it showed reasonable agreement. Simulations of different components with different soil types (sand, clay and loam) were performed and it showed that sand has the highest porosity followed by loam and least in clay. In all, Benzene shows the highest effect on the depth of soil followed by the double ringed naphthalene.

##### Indigenous Practices for Climate Change Adaptation among Rural Households in Imo State, Nigeria

P. C. Umunakwe, A. O. Ani, Nicholas Ozor, F. N. Nnadi

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 67-79
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/13193

Climate change has been described as among the major challenges of the twenty-first century. However, this trend cannot be completely halted but can only be slowed down through the development and adoption of adaptation practices especially among the rural people whose major source of livelihood is agriculture which is at stake. This paper examined the indigenous practices for climate change adaptation among rural households in Imo State. A multistage sampling procedure was used to select the sample. A total of 108 respondents were used for the study. Descriptive statistics were used in analyzing the data obtained from the study. Results show that a majority (78.3%) of the respondents were aware of climate change while about 40.6% knew a very little about it. The result also shows that the most effective local adaptation practices to climate change in the study area included growing drought-resistant crop varieties (M = 1.14), planting deeper into the soil to avoid heat stress (M = 1.10), increased weeding ( M = 1.29) and changing the timing of land preparation (M = 1.10). Further, the results show that major constraints to adaptation to climate change in the study area included limited access to improved crop varieties (M = 1.95), high cost of farm labour (M = 1.80), inadequate financial resources to adapt (M = 1.80) and high cost of diversification of enterprise (M = 1.78). The paper recommends the massive involvement of the extension agency and the mass media in climate change adaptation programmes so as to raise the awareness of people on the subject and thus increase their adaptive capacity.

##### Genetic Algorithm Based on K-means-Clustering Technique for Multi-objective Resource Allocation Problems

Mai A. Farag, M. A. El-Shorbagy, I. M. El-Desoky, A. A. El-Sawy, A. A. Mousa

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 80-96
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/16570

This paper presents genetic algorithm based on K-means clustering technique for solving multi-objective resource allocation problem (MORAP). By using k-means clustering technique, population can be divided into a specific number of subpopulations with dynamic size. In this way, different GA operators (crossover and mutation) can be applied to each subpopulation instead of one GA operators applied to the whole population. The purpose of implementing K-means clustering technique is preserving and introducing diversity. Also it enable the algorithm to avoid local minima by preventing the population of chromosomes from becoming too similar to each other. Two test problems taken from the literature are used to compare the performance of the proposed approach with the competing algorithms. The results have been demonstrated the superiority of the proposed algorithm and its capability to solve MORAP.

##### Nutrient Composition, Mineral Analysis and Anti-nutrient Factors of Oryctes rhinoceros L. (Scarabaeidae: Coleoptera) and Winged Termites, Marcrotermes nigeriensis Sjostedt. (Termitidae: Isoptera)

O. T. Omotoso

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 97-106
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/15344

Introduction: The palm beetles, Oryctes rhinoceros L. (Scarabaeidae: Coleoptera) and Termites, Macrotermes nigeriensis Sjostedt, (Termitidae: Isoptera) are prominent edible insects in Nigeria.
Aim: Nutrient analyses were carried out on the winged reproductive termites, M. nigeriensis and the larvae of palm beetles, O. rhinoceros to determine the nutrient composition, mineral composition and the antinutrient / secondary metabolites composition of the two insects.
Methods: The insects were collected from the campus of Ekiti State University Ado-Ekiti, and taken to the laboratory where they were oven-dried at 60º for 4 h. The proximate, mineral and antinutrient/secondary metabolites compositions were determined using official methods of analyses of AOAC (Association of Official Analytical Chemists) and atomic absorption spectrophotometric respectively.
Results: Results show that M. nigeriensis and O. rhinoceros are full of nutrients and minerals that are vital to health. M. nigeriensis contained 4.52% moisture content while O. rhinoceros had 5.42%. Ash content was 3.24% in M. nigeriensis while O. rhinoceros had 11.83%. The protein, fat, fibre and carbohydrate contents of M. nigeriensis are 37.54%, 48.03%, 5% and 2.06% respectively. In O. rhinoceros, the protein, fat, fibre and carbohydrate contents are 52%, 10.84%, 17.94% and 1.97% respectively. All the important mineral salts were present in both insects. Iron (Fe) was present at levels that commensurate with the daily recommended allowance (8.57 mg/00 g – 10.59 m/100 g) in O. rhinoceros and M. nigeriensis respectively. Phosphorus was highest in M. nigeriensis with a value of 103.47 mg/100 g. This mineral was followed in value by potassium (27.57 mg/100 g and the least was copper (0.01 mg/100 g). Lead (Pb) was not detected in any of the insects. In O. rhinoceros, phosphorus (75.57 mg/100 g) was highest, followed by potassium (25.44 mg/100 g) and the least was copper (0.01 mg/100 g). The levels of antinutrient/secondary metabolites are so insignificant to cause any problem.
Conclusion: M. nigeriensis and O. rhinoceros are nutrient-rich insects that can supply adequate quantities of the various classes of food to animals. The insects are also rich in minerals which are important for the normal development of the body. The levels at which antinutrient / secondary metabolites occur is not a threat to animals that feed on these two insects.

##### Speech Encryption Using Stream Cipher

Aissa Belmeguenai, Khaled Mansouri, Mohamed Lashab

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 107-125
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/14744

In this work, we have realized an efficient implementation of stream cipher algorithm for speech data encryption and decryption. The design consists of a 128-bit non linear feedback shift register (NLFSR), a 128-bit linear feedback shift register (LFSR) and a Boolean function. First of all three speeches were recorded from different speakers and were saved as wav file format. The developed program is used to transform the original speech data wav file into positive data, and then transform the positive data into positive digital data file. Finally, we use our implemented program to encrypt and decrypt the speech data. The proposed scheme is compared to a similar one of Grain-128. The results show that the proposed scheme is secure and the encrypted speech was very different than the original speech and no significant information on the original speech could be retrieved. Thus, the results given by the proposed scheme are better than the results given by Grain-128.

##### Re-emphasis on Imaging of Acute Abdomen in Surgical and Gynaecological Practice with Pictorial Depictions: A Review

Felix U. Uduma, Teddy E. Ezirim, Itanyi Ukamaka, Isaac Udoh, Catherine Eyo, Umar Aisha

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/13288

Acute abdomen is a clinical emergency with core symptomatology of acute abdominal pain and hallmark requisite of speedy intervention. There are myriads of aetio-genesis that are basically multi-disciplinary.
Radiological imaging complements clinical examinations to arrive at meaningful diagnosis. Sometimes imaging becomes the major diagnostic alternative to the encumbrances of palpating a tender, rigid abdomen.
Regrettably, despite the exploits of imaging, decision making process in some cases of acute abdomen could still be a major challenge, as no specific diagnosis may be made in these peculiar cases.
Some common cases seen in our various practice are depicted pictorially in this text to drive home some essential points of acute abdomen.