Many sources of formation damage exists which normally contribute to a reduction in well productivity by introducing an extra positive skin near the wellbore. The main objective of matrix stimulation treatment is to remove this damage. Such treatment was a new approach in Amal formation contained within Sirt basin. The challenge faced was the need to inject Break-Down Acid Job (BDAJ) technique without inducing fractures in the formation (safety margin bottom-hole pressure value should be not be exceeded), mean while, the formation was depleted and applying high injection rate was essential to ensure that the acid reaches the targeted zone. This paper details a combination of techniques, implemented in Sirt basin, which have proven to enhance the overall operations’ economics and well deliverability. Furthermore, the paper describes a novel approach for Gas Lift Analysis. A proper design was achieved following the proposed techniques resulting in a successful stimulation treatment. Certain measures were required to avoid causing any damage and to deal with unexpected events. The formation responded positively to the acid treatment. A significant increase in flow rate was observed indicating a successful treatment and that the well restored its natural undamaged inflow performance successfully. In this study a detailed economic impact was done to confidently prove the profitability of the treatment over the production life of the well. The results obtained from this case study suggest that several wells producing from Amal formation can benefit from the proposed new techniques.
In the paper UHMWPE coating with different materials is analysed. Such coatings are made using magnetron sputtering method. The friction tests of these coatings are accomplished. SPM surface morphology images of coatings are analysed before and after the friction test. It was determined that Co+TiO2 coating altered the least after the friction tests. For this reason, its durability and wear resistance is the highest in comparison with all the analysed coatings.
Aims: To evaluate and compare the fracture resistance of three commercially available resins for provisional restorations. Study Design: The fracture resistance of three commercially available resins for provisional restorations (DPI Dental Products India, SNAP, PROTEMP4) have been tested for three point bend test using Universal Testing Machine and the mean fracture resistance of each specimens were tabulated and subjected to statistical analysis. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Prosthodontics and Crown and Bridge, V.K Institute of Dental Sciences, KLE University, Belgaum, Karnataka, India and Gogte Institute of Technology, Belgaum, Karnataka, India between March 2013 and December 2013. Methodology: A Ni-Cr alloy master model with a 3-unit FPD, (Fixed Partial Denture) (abutment teeth 45 and 47) was fabricated. Provisional 3-unit FPD’s (5 samples each of DPI, SNAP, PROTEMP4) were produced by direct fabrication using the master model. Maximum force at fracture was determined using a universal testing machine. Results: Comparison of the mean fracture resistance between the three groups was done using one way ANOVA. Statistically significant difference was present between the groups (p<0.05). Bonferroni test was applied and statistically significant difference was seen between DPI and Protemp4 but not between DPI and SNAP or between SNAP and Protemp4.Hence this suggested that Protemp4 significantly has higher fracture resistance when compared to DPI. Conclusion: Bis-acryl composite resin (Protemp 4) was significantly superior in fracture resistance to ethyl methacrylate (SNAP) and methyl methacrylate (DPI) as a provisional restorative material for provisional restorations in fixed partial dentures.
Aims: To explore the sensitivity and specificity values for aspiration with the blue dye food test (BDFT) in tracheotomized patients undergoing inpatient rehabilitation and explore what impact, if any, the accumulated oropharyngeal secretion level has upon the accuracy of the BDFT.
Methodology: Simultaneous BDFT and fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES) procedure were conducted with 21 tracheotomized patients. The patient’s accumulated oropharyngeal secretion level was evaluated first using a 5-point secretion severity scale. The patients then received ice chips and various boluses which were dyed blue. The BDFT was considered positive for aspiration when blue tinged material was present upon tracheal suctioning, around the stoma site, or on the tracheotomy tube upon its removal. The FEES was considered positive for aspiration when the bolus passed through the vocal folds as observed by nasal endoscopy. In cases where no blue material was observed on the BDFT, the additional step of subglottal viewing through the tracheostoma was performed. Results: Results revealed the sensitivity of the BDFTfor the detection of aspiration was only 0.4 when compared to the FEES during simultaneous examinations. Statistically significant differences were observed between secretion severity level and a positive BDFT as Group 1 (true positive BDFT) mean secretion level was 4.5, Group 2 (false negative BDFT) was 2.33, and Group 3 (true negative BDFT) was 2.0 (F=8.143, p=0.003). Conclusion: Results further support that the BDFT demonstrates poor sensitivity for aspiration detection in patients with a tracheotomy. Results reveal for the first time the potential influence accumulated oropharyngeal secretions may have upon the likelihood of a positive BDFT. Results do not support use of the BDFT in isolation for definitive detection of aspiration. Potential uses for the BDFT in a clinical setting are discussed.
In the present work Stilbite (Natural Zeolite), Na-Zeolite are exchanged with Sr(II) metal ion to study the removal of heavy metal ions from the industrial waste water. The analysis of the parent zeolite and the exchanged derivative has been carried out using Inductive Couple Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES). The exchanged derivative is then used to prepare adsorbed derivatives with Sr(II) metal ion. The structural changes are studied by IR spectroscopy. The exchange percentage of Sr(II) metal ion with natural zeolite is maximum than Na-zeolite. In this study Scan Electron Microscopy (SEM) analysis for morphological structure and XRD technique is used to determine the unit cell structure of synthesized and natural zeolite. Also thermal studies of natural zeolite and its exchanged derivative are carried out using TGA (Thermal Gravimetric Analysis). For the same samples FESEM (Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope) and EDAX analysis is also carried out. We successfully exchanged Sr(II) metal ions with Stilbite-natural zeolite and doped Na-zeolite.
Aims: The objective of this study is to create an experimental model of intestinal endometriosis in pigs, which might allow better understanding of deep infiltrating endometriosis and development of new treatment techniques. As secondary objective, we intend to create endometrial implants accessible by transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS). Study Design: Surgical experimental study in swine. Place and Duration of Study: This study was performed at the Instituto de Ensino e Pesquisa do Hospital Sírio-Libanês, São Paulo, Brazil, between January 2012 and December 2012. Methodology: Two sexually mature female minipigBR pigs underwent two laparotomies (each animal). The first laparotomy was performed to implant two fragments of autologous endometrium in the rectal wall. The second one was performed thirty days later to visualize, measure and obtain tissue of the site of the implants for histopathology study. A TRUS study was performed prior to the second surgery. The Institution’s Animal Utilization Study Committee approved the study. Results: In the first laparotomy a 5-cm segment of right uterine horn was resected. The endometrium was separated from the myometrium through sub-endometrial saline injection. Two endometrial fragments (1.0 x 2.0 cm) were dissected and sutured in the intra peritoneal anterior rectal wall of the animals. Thirty days later, all implants were identified during preoperative TRUS. “En-bloc” resection of the intestinal segment with the implants was performed during the second surgery. The autologous implants of endometrium invaded the muscular layer in one of the two animals. Conclusion: We demonstrated that the creation of an animal model of deep infiltrating endometriosis with intestinal involvement is feasible through a simple surgical technique. We believe that this model can be applied in experimental and clinical studies but further studies are necessary to refine the technique.
Aims: The objective was to investigate the effect of copper at low concentrations in an Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) reactor performance under continuous conditions and its geochemical distribution in anaerobic sludge through sequential extraction. Study Design: Continuous operation. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Basic Science, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana -Azcapotzalco, between July 2013 and December 2013. Methodology: A lab scale UASB reactor was inoculated with sludge from a full-scale UASB reactor treating brewery wastewater and it was allowed to acclimate during two months. After acclimation period, three different copper concentrations were added to UASB influent: 0.25, 0.65 and 1.35 mg l-1, during one month each one. At the end of the experiment, freeze-dried samples of inoculum and UASB reactor sludge were treated with a series of solvents to perform sequential extractions. pH, temperature, oxidation reduction potential (ORP), total chemical oxygen demand (COD), the ratio between partial and total alkalinity, total suspended solids and volatile suspended solids were measured in UASB reactor influent and effluent. Results: Sequential extractions showed that the fraction with the major affinity with copper was organic/sulfide bound, with a percentage distribution of 96%. Regarding UASB performance, copper caused a total alkalinity diminution in the effluent; however, the system buffer capacity was enough to overcome such instability, as partial alkalinity/total alkalinity ratio results confirmed. COD removal decreased 15% when 1.35 mg l-1 Cu was added in comparison to acclimation period. Conclusion: Copper addition in UASB reactor influent at low concentrations affected adversely its performance; though, did not cause complete inhibition to anaerobic microorganisms. Metal speciation results in the inoculum and the UASB reactor evidenced that the fraction which had the major affinity with copper was the organically/sulfide bound fraction, however, further studies are needed to establish which is the weight of organic matter and sulfide in copper binding.
Field experiments were carried out during 2012 and 2013 cropping seasons on an Alfisol (Oxic Tropuldalf) at Owo in the forest–savanna transition zone of southwest Nigeria to evaluate the effect of different tillage systems (zero tillage (ZT), ploughing plus harrowing (P+H) and ploughing plus harrowing twice (P+2H), and with or without Tithonia diversifolia mulch (TM) on soil properties, growth and yield of cocoyam. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design in a factorial combination of six treatments that were replicated three times. Among the tillage systems, zero tillage had the highest soil moisture content (12.3%), lowest soil temperature (31.8°C) and lower soil bulk density (1.36 Mg m-3) and higher total porosity (48.7%) that was similar to P+H. ZT also produced the best values of soil chemical properties, growth and yield of cocoyam compared with P+H and P+2H. P+2H had the highest soil bulk density (1.56 Mg m-3) and temperature (34.6ºC) and lowest soil moisture (9.6%) and total porosity (41.1%) and also produced the least soil chemical properties and hence poor growth and yield compared with ZT and P+H. ZT increased cocoyam corm yield by 15 and 33% over the P+H and P+2H respectively. The corresponding increases in cormel yield were 12 and 28%, respectively. Application of 7.5 t ha-1 tithonia mulch in combination with tillage system significantly reduced soil bulk density and temperature, increased soil moisture content and total porosity, soil organic matter, N, P, K, Ca and Mg, growth and cocoyam yield than their sole tillage systems. Among the tillage – tithonia mulch combinations, the most satisfactorily corm yield (9.1 t ha-1) and cormel yield (13.3 t ha-1) was produced by zero tillage plus tithonia mulch (ZT+TM) while the lowest corm yield (7.2 t ha-1) and cormel yield (11.1 t ha-1) was produced by ploughing plus harrowing twice plus tithonia mulch (P+2H+TM).
This research work involves a study of the physico-chemical properties, fatty acid composition of oils of sheanut (Vitellaria paradoxa), cocoa (Theobroma cacao) and the effect of roasting on these properties. The data obtained were subjected to one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) using the Statistical Package for Social Scientists (SPSS) 15 and the means were separated using the New Duncan’s Multiple Range Test. The physicochemical properties of the extracted oils were quite comparable, with roasting having little or no effect on them. The oils were found to be composed of both saturated (palmitic, stearic, arachidic, behenic, lignoceric fatty acids) and unsaturated (palmitoleic, oleic, linoleic) fatty acids. The study showed that sheanut samples contained higher percentage of linoleic acid, (5.67-6.43%) when compared with linoleic acid content of cocoa samples of 0.01%. Linoleic acid is one of the essential fatty acids required by the human body for various physiological functions. The total saturated fatty acids in the cocoa samples were found to be higher than that found in sheanut samples, while the total unsaturated fatty acids were found to be higher in sheanut samples than in cocoa samples. The results revealed that sheanut will be a suitable substitute for cocoa in industrial applications.
It is known that the vast majority of malignancies are the result of genetic and environmental interactions. Fuel (diesel and petrol) constitutes a complex mixture of benzene, toluene and xylene and other monocyclic, aromatic, aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; benzene being the most hazardous because of its carcinogenic potency. This study aims to evaluate the genotoxic effects of occupational exposure to benzene through cytogenetic analysis at low levels of exposure also to investigate the possibility of liver and kidney affections. The studied group comprised 40 workers from 3 different petrol stations occupationally exposed to benzene and 20 control subjects. The two studied groups were matched regarding age and sex. Results show significant difference between exposed workers and control group in chromosomal abnormalities regarding mitotic index, gap, isogap and break. Regarding period of exposure, the frequency of different types of chromosomal aberrations was relatively high during first few years of exposure and decrease with increasing duration. Regarding liver function tests, levels were within normal ranges but higher in workers with statistically significant difference between exposed workers and control group and they were significantly correlated with the duration of exposure (p value= .05). Occupational exposure to mutagenic and carcinogenic agents creates a significant impact on the health status of gasoline station attendants. Identification and prevention of possible health problems related to such exposure would help in maintaining good health of workers; prevent reduction in working capacity and loss of working hours besides reducing the cost of medical care for affected workers. Further studies are needed to assess DNA status in the lymphocytes that might be a predictor of future cancer risks and might help to prevent further deterioration in the health of these workers.