Aims: Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), the routine technique of molecular cytogenetics, is widely used to detect and localize the presence of specific nucleic acids sequences in chromosomes, cell nucleus space, cells and tissue samples through the use of highly complementary probes to targets sequence. Expansion of FISH method application for research purposes and medical diagnostics requires efficient and low-cost production of labeled nucleic acid probes. Methodology and Results: We developed an effective method of fluorescein hydroxyalkyl carboxamides synthesis. This modification of the basic protocol of 6-carboxyfluorescein (6-FAM) synthesis enabled the production of highly reactive conjugate perfectly suitable for terminal labeling of newly generated oligonucleotides. Efficiency of 6-FAM labeled oligonucleotides obtained by the use of modified protocol has been proved for conventional cytogenetics. Conclusion: The suggested procedure of 6-FAM labeled oligonucleotides synthesis allows obtaining the high yield of directly labeled FISH probes. The introduction of this method into practice of cytogenetic studies will improve their efficiency and reduce the cost of an examination.
This paper deals with the performance evaluation of multi-server queuing system subject to breakdowns under transient frame work. The system does not accept the queue of the waiting customers. If the new customer upon its arrival finds 'n' customers already present in the system, then it is rejected. Customers arrive to the system in Poisson fashion and are served exponentially. The main purpose of this paper is to evaluate some performance measures- the proportion of lost customers, mean number of customers in service, utilization factor of servers, mean number of broken servers and utilization of repair capacity, all at any instant. By varying different parameters, the system behavior is examined with the help of numerical illustrations by using computing software so as to show the model under study has ample practical applications.
Likert scale is applied as one of the most fundamental and frequently used psychometric tools in educational and social sciences research. Simultaneously, it is also subjected to a lot of debates and controversies in regards with the analysis and inclusion of points on the scale. With this context, through reviewing the available literature and then clubbing the received information with coherent scientific thinking, this paper attempts to gradually build a construct around Likert scale. This analytical review begins with the necessity of psychometric tools like Likert scale andits variants and focuses on some convoluted issues like validity, reliability and analysis of the scale.
The effect of soda cooking as an effective defibrillation technique of rice hull on its thermal stability has been investigated in this paper. The goal was to investigate the impact of the decomposition of lignin and silica during soda cooking on the thermal stability and kinetics of pyrolysis of the resulting rice hull products by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). Soda cooking was carried out using 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10% NaOH in the cooking liquor at 170°C for 60 minutes. The resulting crude fiber was heated from 25 to 700°C under N2 environment. The results have demonstrated that the removal of silica and lignin from the bulk structure of rice hull by soda cooking affect the thermal stability and pyrolysis kinetics of the rice hull. The final degradation temperature was reduced by 80°C from around 560°C to around 480°C and peaks of maximum decomposition temperatures of the second and third degradation steps shifted to lower temperatures by at least 50°C. The activation energies ranged from 84 to 202 kJ/mol. This revealed increasing trend of pyrolysis energies, from lower to higher decomposition steps. The pyrolysis reaction was a single order reaction since the reaction orders ranged from 0.5 to 0.98. Pyrolysis kinetics can be used to study the effect of chemical treatments of agricultural fibers e.g. by soda cooking.
An experimental study of natural fiber cones that were compressed is discussed in this work. One of the main objectives is to comprehend the deformation and its corresponding mechanism of composites under axial loadings. The results from this work included load-displacement plots, initial and maximum failures, and average failure loads, all of which will help us determine parameters associated with crashworthiness. This led us to conclude that geometry is influential upon energy absorption. The highest value of specific energy absorption was determined to be 0.276 kJ/kg, which was from a cone lacking sharp angles, rendering it suitable as parts of automobiles.
We present a novel system which intends to avoid a current limit presented by the commonly adopted method to measure the diastolic and systolic blood pressure. In particular, the system allows acquiring the measurements without bothering the patient, as is with the traditional inflatable cuff necessary to restrict blood flow. In such a way, it is possible to realize a holter system that is free from the inconvenience to wake up the patient during nighttime. With an ensemble of one simple pressure sensor, one audio-frequency microphone (adopted as recommended in literature references) and a low-cost ad-hoc designed electronic circuitry, we derived data from experiments involving 20 patient records, realized in two different days. Data allowed recognizing a Gaussian relationship between pressure and audio signals. This relationship enables taking advantage from the Korotkoff sound to determine the diastolic and systolic blood pressure values.
Aims: To determine the effect of temperature on fertilization, hatching and survival rates of Heterobranchus bidorsalis egg and fry in Jos Plateau, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: This experiment was investigated under controlled temperature hatchery. Stripping was done 9 hours after hormonal injection at 28ºC while the male fish was sacrificed and milt prepared for fertilization of the eggs using normal saline. The water temperature was controlled with an adjustable electric thermostat heater empowered by a generator while other water quality parameters were kept constant in acceptable ranges. The eggs were mixed with the milt using chicken feather and 500 of the eggs were spread on kaka ban in aquaria in 4 treatments (26ºC, 28ºC, 30ºC and 32ºC) in three replicates. The unfertilized eggs were counted after 6 hours from the time of mixing of the eggs with the milt. The kakabans were removed immediately after hatching and hatchlings were counted then and after 3 days. Results: Fertilization and hatchability of the eggs were significantly highest (p < 0.05) at 28ºC and 30ºC compared to 26ºC and 32ºC. Survival rate of newly hatched larvae was significantly highest at 28ºC. The lowest survival rate was registered at 32ºC while that of 26ºC was just within the range of 40%. Conclusion: Fertilization and hatchability of H. bidorsalis eggs are best achieved at temperature range of 28 - 30ºC while highest survival rate of the fry was attained at 28ºC.
Aims: ‘Nasi lemak’ is one of the most favourite rice-based products for Malaysians. One of the main ingredients used to prepare ‘Nasi lemak’ is coconut milk. The aim of this study was to develop ‘Nasi lemak’ where coconut milk was substituted with soymilk to provide healthier choice for consumers. Study Design: In this study, five formulations of ‘nasi lemak’ with different percentages of ratio between coconut milk and soymilk (100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75, 0:100) were studied. Place and Duration of Study: The experiments were conducted under controlled environment in the Food Service Laboratory and Food Microbiology Laboratory, University Malaysia of Terengganu, from July 2011 to April 2012. Methodology: The work scope of this study was to examine the effects of the coconut milk to soymilk substitution on sensory preference and shelf life of ‘nasi lemak’. In terms of shelf life study, Aerobic Plate Count, Yeast and Mould Count, and Bacillus cereus Count were determined throughout storage of samples for 24 hours at ambient temperature (28º±2ºC) and 7 days at chilling temperature (4º±2ºC). Results: Fresh ‘nasi lemak’ samples were subjected to preference test and it was found that up to 25% of substitution of coconut milk with soymilk, there was no significant difference (P>0.05) found with control sample. For shelf life studies, there were no significant differences (P>0.05) found for Aerobic Plate Count and Yeast and Mould count among samples stored at ambient temperature, except for B. cereus Count. However, significant differences (P<0.05) were found in all three counts: Aerobic Plate Count, Yeast and Mould count and B. cereus Count among samples stored at chilling temperature. Conclusion: The sample with 75% coconut milk ratio with 25% soymilk is highly recommended to obtain good acceptance compared to control sample (100% coconut milk) with acceptable shelf life (21 hours) at ambient temperature and 6-days at chilling temperature.
One of the major problems of ruminant production in the tropics is the scarcity of quality forage all the year round. Gliricidia sepium which remains green even during drought has been extensively used for forage during forage scarcity. However, there is need to screen more browse species to broaden the feed base to improve ruminant animal production. Ten common but less utilized browse plants (Ficus polita, Ficus cogensis, Daniella oleiveri, Prosopis africana, Parkia biglobosa, Gliricidia sepium, Ecliptaalba, Albizia odoratissima, Polyalthia longifolia and Moringaoleifera) were evaluated for their nutrient composition. Results showed that crude protein content was highest (29.60%) in Moringa oleifera and lowest (15.84%) in Daniella oleiveri. Crude fibre compositions ranged between 13.87% - 29.33% in Albizia odoratissima and Parkia biglobosa respectively. A range of 3.25% - 6.30% and 6.68%-9.45% values were recorded for EE and ash respectively for the ten browse plants. The values reported for mineral content showed that M. oleifera had the lowest value of Ca (0.68%), P (0.15%) and Mg (0.25%). Eclipta alba was observed to be richest in mineral elements amongst the browse species with the highest concentrations of Ca, Mg, P, K, Zn, Fe, Cu and S. The fibre contents of the forages showed a range of 42.41 to 61.31, 29.51 to 49.58, 5.71 to 9.27, and 10.98 to12.90 for NDF, ADF, ADL and hemicelluloses respectively. The non-fibrous carbohydrate (NFC) contents of the browse species were observed to vary widely ranging from 6.59 (Pakia biglobosa) to 22.16% (Gliricidia sepium). The values reported for anti-nutritive factors (tannin, saponin, phytate and oxalate) were low in all species. The results of this study showed that the browse species in general contained high levels of nutrients and hence have potential as good feedstuffs for ruminant animal feeding.
Aims: The study ascertained the information needs of indigenous chicken (Gallus domesticus) farmers. Study Design: Multistage sampling technique was utilized in selecting respondents. Place and Duration: Nsukka and Enugu-Ezike agricultural zones of Enugu State, Nigeria between November 2012 to May 2013. Methodology: Simple random sampling technique was used to select four blocks from each of the two agricultural zones and five cells from each of the selected blocks. This gave a total of twenty cells. One hundred indigenous farmers were then selected across the twenty cells. Interview schedule was used to collect data. Descriptive statistics such as percentages, frequency counts and mean scores were used in presenting data. The statistical package used for data analysis was SPSS. Results: Majority (93.0%) of the respondents were females, married (67.0%). About 42.0% had no formal education while up to 95% had no extension contact for the past one year. Sixty one percent of the respondents had no access to credit and majority (89.0%) participated in rural social organizations. The respondents indicated that they needed information on the specification of drugs, availability of day old chicks, pests and disease control and methods of vaccination, among others Also, respondents carried out management practices such as provision of supplementary feeding, drinking water, use of various disease control measures and reared their chicken using the extensive system of production. Seventy percent of the respondents sourced information on indigenous chicken management practices. Out of the 70%, 58% and 10% sourced such information from family/friends and other farmers, respectively. Adequate information on poultry production practices should be disseminated by extension agents so as to improve indigenous chicken production.