Open Access Method Article

A Novel Model for Removing the Mixture Noise and Blur of the Image

Xue-Gang Hu, Fan Cheng

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 280-288
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/15910

In order to deal with the problem of the mixture noise removing and deblurring, a new model based on partial differential equations is proposed in this paper. We analyze some basic properties of the model, such as the existence and uniqueness of the solution of the model. Furthermore, we use an alternating minimization algorithm to find out the minimum of the proposed model. The experimental results show that the proposed model can restrain the stair-case and edge blurring effectively while removing the mixture noise and blur of the image.

Open Access Original Research Article

Do Boundary Conflicts between the Roles of the Hospital Ward Pharmacist and The Medical and Nursing Team Still Exist?

Cecchi Adriana, Carchietti Elio

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 253-262
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/14625

The hospital ward role of the pharmacist has developed in the last few years due to the necessity to improve the use of drugs. The Increasing complexity of drug therapy, particularly in hospitals, has highlighted the need to integrate the role of the pharmacist into the healthcare team.
The aim of this paper is to verify if, after the Italian experiences of clinical pharmacists, there have been conflicts among pharmacists, physicians and nurses.
Materials and Methods: After about 6 months from the introduction of a ward pharmacist into the surgery department at the Hospital of Udine, at a specific meeting, a questionnaire was given to the participants about the roles and responsibilities of physicians, pharmacists and nurses.
Results: 30 nurses and 25 physicians out of 62 participants filled in the questionnaire completely; 4 nurses and 3 physicians didn’t answer all the questions. Only about 19% of the nurses and 23% of the physicians considered the ward pharmacist strategic in ensuring safety in medication therapy. Moreover, only about 6% of the nurses would contact the ward pharmacist in the case of an obvious risk of drug interactions due to a wrong prescription.
However, all the nurses (100%) and 92% of the physicians considered the pharmacist a useful consultant.
It is a contradiction which highlights the difficulty in establishing the equilibrium in the ward healthcare team and recognizing the specific competences of each single member.
Conclusion: The role of the ward pharmacist, in particular regarding safety and medication errors prevention, seems still not to be fully recognized by nurses and hospital physicians.

Open Access Original Research Article

On the Plasma Parameters in Co-sputtering Discharge

Mahdi Hasan Suhail, Kadhim A. Adim, Ahmad Hammed Wanas

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 263-279
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/14876

In this work, a DC planar sputtering system has been successfully designed, manufactured and assembled. The glow discharge plasma chamber was made of stainless steel with a length of 40.5 cm and a diameter of 28 cm. This chamber consists of two Co- planar sputtering magnetrons adapted with copper and Aluminum targets each of diameter of 4.8 cm. The systems have been tested with the pressure of 6x10-5 mbar. The plasma parameters like electron temperature Te, electrons density ne, ions density ni, plasma potential VP and floating potential VF were measured using single Langmuir probe with different gas pressures and distances between the electrodes. It is found that the electron temperature decreases and electron density increased with increasing the argon gas pressure and varying distance between electrodes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Alteration in the Balance between Type 1 and Type 2 Immune Responses among Lead Exposed Population

Yehia A. Zakaria, Amal M. K. El Safty, Essam E. Abdel-Rafaa, Mai M. Sherif

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 289-294
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/15000

Immunotoxic effect of lead was reported in several studies. However, overt cytotoxicity of major immune cell types was not evident in such studies and it was suggested that lead might rather affect the balance between T-helper 1 (Th1) and T-helper 2 (Th) immune responses cytokines. Such hypothesis was investigated in the current study.
Aims: To Study the effect of environmental exposure to lead on blood lead (B-Pb) level and to investigate the balance between interleukin-4 (IL-4, one of Th2 cytokines) and Gamma interferon (IFN-γ, one of Th1 cytokines) and its relation to lead exposure and B-Pb in the study subjects.
Study Design: The study was designed to be cross-sectional case-control study.
Methodology: The study was conducted on 80 subjects, 46 of them were environmentally exposed to lead (exposed group) as a result of living near a secondary lead smelter and the other 34 socioeconomically matched subjects (control group) were recruited from a rural area and were not exposed to lead, neither environmentally nor occupationally. All subjects were interviewed, clinically examined and tested for whole B-Pb level, serum interleukin-4 (IL-4) and Gamma interferon (IFN-γ) levels.
Results: A statistically significant higher B-Pb (P = .006) and serum IL-4 levels (P < .001) were observed in exposed group (when compared to the control group). On the other hand, serum IFN-γ was of significantly lower levels (P < .001) in exposed group than control group. A statistically significant negative correlation was found between B-Pb level and serum IFN-γ (r = -0.284, P = .011) in all subjects.
Conclusion: Our results suggest that environmental exposure to lead alters the balance between Th1 and Th2 cytokine with a bias towards the later.

Open Access Original Research Article

Ergonomic Evaluation of Post Biomechanical Effects of Lifting Maximum Loads Using Male Subjects

Sesan Peter Ayodeji, Osayi Richard Idada, Basil Olufemi Akinnuli

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 295-301
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/15743

The post biomechanical effects of performing lifting tasks using male subjects was investigated to know the body parts most disposed to pains and the degree of pains and injuries that occur as a result of lifting maximum loads. A field approach was adopted involving six industries performing different kinds of lifting tasks. A questionnaire showing a body discomfort chart was administered to 209 respondents. The data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics to determine the mean and standard deviation while Kaiser’s rule of retaining factors were used in determining the most affected body parts predisposed to discomfort and to analyze workload assessments. High values were reported for thigh discomfort. Shoulder discomforts were significantly prevalent while most respondents reported discomforts in the mid to lower back regions. 51% of the respondents consider their work to be hard while 23% consider their work very hard. The average mass of materials lifted in the study is 32 kg. The average age, height and weight of subjects are 26.24 years, 169.59 cm and 65.08 kg respectively. Subjects involved in lifting maximum loads are prone to shoulder tendinitis and could suffer spinal kyphosis and spinal lordosis.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Effect of Activation Method on the Adsorption Performance of Saw-Dust Activated Carbon

Amina A. Attia, Reham M. M. Aboelenin, Soheir A. Kheder, Ghada M. Mohmed, Shaymaa E. El-Shafey

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 302-315
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/15664

Aims: The present study was conducted to evaluate the ability of modified saw dust to remove para-nitrophenol (PNP) from aqueous solution.
Methodology: Batch adsorption studies were carried out under varying conditions of initial pH, contact time and temperature. The performance of saw dust activated carbon was characterized by BET surface area FTIR and SEM. Three simplified kinetic models including pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order and intra particle diffusion were selected to follow the adsorption process.
Place and Duration of Study: Experiments were carried out in the National Research Center, Department of Physical Chemistry at laboratory of Surface Chemistry and Catalysis.
Study Design: The adsorption abilities of saw dust after thermal and chemical treatment were investigated for its efficiency in removing para-nitrophenol (PNP) from aqueous solution.
Results: The Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin models were used to describe the adsorption equilibrium studies of saw dust activated carbon. Results showed that the Langmuir isotherm showed better fit than Freundlich and Temkin isotherm. The kinetic data were found to follow the pseudo-second order model. Intraparticle diffusion is not the sole rate controlling factor. The negative values of ΔHËš and ΔGËš revealed the feasibility of adsorption, spontaneous and exothermic.
Conclusion: It is thus concluded, high quality carbon can easily be produced from saw dust through chemical and thermal activation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Dynamic Programming Method for Optimizing Stock Allocation Using Chebyshev Polynomial Approximation

C. E. Emenonye, C. R. Chikwendu

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 316-324
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/13514

Stock allocation is a system used to ensure that goods and services reach the ultimate users through efficient stocking in warehouses close to the consumers. The dire need for optimum distribution of goods to both retailers and consumers has cost a reasonable drift from ordinary allocation to developing a mathematical model that ensures efficient allocation of goods and services. This paper presents a method of optimizing stock allocation using the Chebyshev polynomial approximation of an n- warehouse inventory model. The features of Chebyshev polynomial are enumerated and used on stock allocation environment to obtain good approximation that would ensure high yield to the firms. It has been shown that this method is efficient, stable and provides quick access to obtaining optimal allocation. The model of the method is given, relevant algorithm and theorems are included while illustrative examples are provided.

Open Access Original Research Article

Development of Palm Nut Dimensional Relationship by Empirical Method

Orua Antia, Aniekan Offiong, William Olosunde

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 325-332
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/15130

Aims: This paper attempts to develop the relationship between the three dimensions of palm nut. The relationship could be utilized with other relevant engineering formulae to aid in the design of nut silos and determination of impact energy and speed required for cracking nuts to release high percentage of whole kernels in centrifugal nut crackers.
Study Design: Possible combinations of the three main axes of palm nut into two variables, denoted as x and y; were employed with equations of approximating curves.
Place and Duration of Study: Sample: Ideas Oil Mill, Ibesikpo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Study between January and June 2014.
Methodology: Fresh palm nuts of the Dura and the Tenera varieties were obtained and classified into large, medium and small size ranges. Each of the same classified size range of the Dura and the Tenera were put together to form a fair representative of large, medium and small size ranges of mixed nut variety. Each size range of the mixed nut variety was air oven dried at temperature of 105°C. The major axis dimension (d3), intermediate axis dimension (d2) and minor axis dimension (d1) of each nut were measured at 4-h intervals until bone dry mass of the nut was achieved. The data generated were analyzed.
Results: An empirical equation was fitted to relate the three dimensions of a nut.
Conclusion: Empirical equation developed is reasonably valid irrespective of nut moisture content and nut sizes.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Novel Alkali and Alkaline Earth Silicate Glass for Marine Applications

Burcu ErtuÄŸ

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 333-341
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/15782

Aims: To test the corrosion properties of a novel alkali and alkaline earth silicate glass.
Place and Duration of Study: Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, between 1999-2001.
Methodology: We included a glass which contains 75% mole lithium disilicate (Li2O.2SiO2-LS2) and 25% mole barium disilicate (BaO.2SiO2-BS2) phases. 1 mole% of P2O5 was used as nucleating agent. The scanning electron microscope (JEOL JSM-330) was used to observe the glass microstructures. X-ray diffraction (XRD) was carried out on the samples using a diffractometer (Philips PW1820) employing Cu Kα. In the chemical durability tests, the corrosive environment was boiling solutions of 0.625N HCl and 5% wt. NaOH along with boiling water. Another reference composition was also used, which included equal moles of LS2 and BS2, for the corrosion tests.
Results: When A and B glass were compared, the basic and boiling water corrosion value of B glass in terms of weight loss, (3.12; 0.38) is higher than that of A glass (4.2; 0.70). Slight differences were observed in the corrosion properties in basic and boiling water environment when A and B glass were compared. However, the weight loss of A glass in acidic environment, was 3.55% wt whereas that of B glass was determined to be 0.4% wt.
Conclusion: The chemical durability of A and B glasses against acidic environment was comparable to that of soda-lime glass. It was concluded that this novel composition is a candidate for the substitution of soda-lime glass in marine applications.

Open Access Review Article

Automatic Patent Analysis Used to Improve Innovation and Development in Developing Countries

Dou Henri, Manullang Sri Damayanty, Kister Jacky, Dou Jean-Marie Jr

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 237-252
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/14000

The improvement of an industrial policy is a key focus in developed countries as well as in countries in development. The efficient use of competencies and knowledge of the research laboratories is one the strategies that can lead to the creation of new products and services linked to market’s needs. The management of natural resources and the development of new offers based on local resources can become for some countries a strategic lever in the setting of their economic policy. This paper presents an easy way to provide key information enabling the people engaged in these processes to be informed about what is going on in their area of interest: Who is doing what, when, where, what technology is involved, etc. To fulfill this objective we will use the APA (Automatic Patent Analysis). Most of the time patents are used to protect an invention but in this paper we will focus on the use of patent information to promote innovation and to facilitate regional development. Most of laboratories, regional decision makers, have various questions about new areas of research, new developments, valorization of local resources, etc. Patent information because it deals with real applications and products and is validated by patent examiners is one of the best sources of data to be explored. Moreover, in scientific papers patents are poorly cited even if the information provided by this source is most of the time not published elsewhere.
Methodology: The APA is an analysis methodology based on patent information which permits by screening a technical subject or from a company or inventor names from a natural resource or technology, to map in details technological strategies and trends, major players and corporate collaborations... For the purpose of this papers APA will be performed with Matheo Patent software. The software will help us to research patents from the European Patent Office (EPO) worldwide database, to download the relevant information, and to perform analysis (simple and combined) of the Patent Assignees, the technological classification of patents, the inventors, and basically of all the technical information provided by a patent. All these added value materials will highlight: possible collaborations, innovative ideas, main trends. The level of necessary technological knowledge to develop patent applications is also available through the patent classification combined with the invention description.
Results: All the outputs of the patent analysis can be used either to help innovative thinking in SMEs (Small and Middle Size Industry) for instance or to engage the local decision makers in a policy to prepare the development of clusters or to indicate to the researchers what new directions they may take with their today knowledge. In this paper the method will be presented as well as various examples dealing with Indonesia, Thailand and the valorization of “Moringa oleifera”.