This article presents, for the first time, the detailed functionality of 0-3 Paint/PZT composite films concerning their dielectric and electrical transport properties. Ferroelectric Paint: Lead Zirconate Titanate (Paint/PZT) composite films have been fabricated by the conventional cost effective paint brushing technique. The dielectric parameters of the composite films were calculated by the measurement of capacitance and dielectric loss. The properties investigated include, dielectric constants, ε' and ε'' as a function of temperature, frequency and composition. From the foregoing parameters, it is indicated that the dielectric constant and A. C. conductivity (σAC) increase with increase of filler content, temperature and frequency, implying functionality of the films. The results reveal that σAC obeys the relation σAC = Aωs, and exponent s, was found to decrease by increasing the temperature. It was found that, the correlated barrier hopping (C. B. H.) is the dominant conduction mechanism in nanocomposite films fabricated.
Changes in rainfall patterns continue to affect pastoralism as practiced by the Maasai community in Kajiado County. The Maasai community is vulnerable to effects of the changing rainfall patterns induced by climate variability. The community has tried to cope with these changes by altering livestock feeding practices but knowledge gaps exist as to whether these characteristic responses adequately respond to the problem posed by changing rainfall patterns. Thus, this study established how changes in rainfall patterns influence livestock feeding practices of the Maasai community in Kajiado County. A sample size of 136 household heads was used for the study. Results indicated that most of the respondents had noticed changes in rainfall patterns (99%), 58.09% reported that onset of rains was no longer predictable and 43.4% reported that rains lasted for an average of three months in a year. Analysis of rainfall data for last two decades indicated variations in both amounts and the number of rain days. The Maasai community has continued with traditional seasonal movement of livestock despite observed changes in rainfall patterns which poses a great danger to pastoralism in the area. Interventions proposed to assist the community cope with effects of changes in rainfall patterns include harvesting and preservation of natural hay for feeding livestock during the dry season, rehabilitation of the existing water pans and construction of new ones to enhance water harvesting during the rainy season, and promotion of alternative sources of livelihoods for the community due to threats posed to pastoralism as a result of increased land subdivision, growth of private ownership and change in land use patterns.
In this paper we introduce and study special types of magic squares of order six. We present the property preserving transformations. We list some enumerations of these squares, which are computed using codes based on parallel computing.
Aim: In this study, we determine the effects of the supplementation of sardine protein, Citrus latifolia extract and the combination of both on lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase and paraoxonase-1 activities in hypercholesterolemic rats. Place and Duration of Study: Laboratory of Clinical and Metabolic Nutrition, Department of Biology, Nature and life Sciences Faculty, University of Oran, Algeria, between February and September 2012. Study Design: Forty male Wistar rats weighing 150-190 g were divided into 4 groups: Hypercholesterolemic (HC) fed a 20% casein diet enriched with cholesterol (1%), HC supplemented with sardine proteins (20%) (HC-Sp), HC supplemented with Citrus latifolia extract (1%) (HC-Ci) and HC supplemented with both Sp and Ci (HC-Sp+Ci), for 4 weeks. Methodology: Serum and tissues lipid concentrations were estimated. High density lipoproteins (HDL2 and HDL3) were separated and their contents and composition in lipids and apolipoproteins were analyzed. Lecithin: Cholesterol Acyltransferase (LCAT) and paraoxonase 1 (PON 1) activities were determined. Results: In the HC-Sp, HC-Ci and HC-Sp+Ci groups compared with the HC group, plasma, liver, kidney and aorta TC levels were reduced, whereas HDL-cholesterol was increased. In addition, plasma and HDL-TG concentrations were decreased. However, in tissues, TG contents were lower only in the HC-Sp+Ci group vs HC. HDL2, HDL3 and tissues lipid peroxidation levels were decreased in HC-Sp, HC-Ci and HC-Sp+Ci vs HC. In the hypercholesterolemic rats fed with Sp, Ci extract and Sp+Ci, LCAT activity was increased compared to HC group. Furthermore, PON 1 activity was elevated in HC-Ci and HC-Sp+Ci group vs HC. Conclusion: In hypercholesterolemic rats, the supplementation with sardine protein, Citrus latifolia extract and the combination of both ameliorates tissues and plasma lipid profile and decreases lipid peroxidation in tissues and lipoproteins. Moreover, it improves reverse cholesterol transport by enhancing LCAT activity leading to anti-atherogenic effects. This effect is partially enhanced in HC-Ci and HC-Sp+Ci groups by a high PON 1 activity which protects lipoproteins from oxidation.
An engineering geophysical assessment of the permanent site of the Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki has been carried out to determine the stability of the site for construction projects. Vertical electrical soundings were carried and their interpretation revealed existence of six layers which comprise of laterites, clays and shales; limestone and sandstone occur as lenses within some portions of the campus. From the school gate to about 200 m along the tarred road, towards the university roundabout, the resistivity and thickness of the surface layers suggest a stable surface which is competent enough to carry foundations. However, investigation shows that clays of low stability underlie the area around the faculty of arts and would need to be geotechnically stabilized or foundation in the form of pilling to a depth of 17 m. For foundations in the areas around the Faculty of Management Science and about 200 m after the University roundabout, the topsoil would also require treatment or piled to a depth of about 15 m. Clay deposits occur in most of the areas of the campus; hence deep foundations should be adopted in the form of pilling up to 15 m to avoid the thick pile of clay in the area down to the stable sandstone layer.
In this paper a genetic algorithm to solve the problem of load balancing in green cloud computing environment was proposed. For a specified total load on N clouds, the proposed algorithm finds an optimal load vector of length less than or equal to N. It helps in avoiding overheating by balancing the workload across all the clouds, hence reducing the amount of energy consumed. In addition, the proposed genetic algorithm may converge to a number of clouds less than or equal to N, so that a substantial reduction in energy consumption can be made by powering down servers when they are not in use.
Aims: This paper presents an approach for predicting the fiber orientation distribution in plastic injection composites. Methodology: By introducing fiber orientation tensor, the average distribution of fibers in the composite is acquired through injection molding simulation with Autodesk Moldflow Simulation Insight version 2014. Quantitative fiber orientation distribution along thickness at specific spot is obtained by image analysis on microscopic photos of samples. The proposed approach is demonstrated by a car instrument panel made from injection molding of thermoplastics with glass fibers. Tensile test samples are cut from the instrument panel with an angle of 0º, 45º, 90º to the fiber orientation at sites where fibers are highly aligned for measuring tensile modulus. The fiber orientation distribution and its effect on the tensile modulus are investigated. Results: It is shown that the car instrument panel is heterogeneous in mechanical properties. The fibers are roughly distributed into three layers along the thickness with each layer having roughly aligned fibers. Conclusion: It is necessary to consider the effect of fiber orientation and thickness layer distribution on the mechanical properties during numerical analysis of plastic injection composites.
An outdoor study on the photoelectrochemical performance of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) with extracts of leaves of Acalypha wilkesiana ‘Haleakala’ and flowers of Hibiscus sabdariffa as sensitizers was undertaken in which the latter was used as a bench mark. Three extraction methods of natural dyes, namely; aqueous, cold ethanol, and Soxhlet hot ethanol, were employed to investigate their impact on the performance of the dye sensitized solar cells. Aqueous and Soxhlet hot ethanol extracts performed the best for Hibiscus sabdariffa and Acalypha wilkesiana ‘Haleakala’ respectively. Hibiscus sabdariffa yielded the averaged photoelectrochemical performance of light-to-current conversion efficiency (η) of 0.07%, open circuit voltage (Voc) of 0.44 V, short circuit current density (Jsc) of 0.23 mA/cm2; and Acalypha wilkesiana ‘Haleakala’ yielded 0.06% efficiency, Vocof 0.40 V, Jsc of 0.26 mA/cm2. The study for Acalypha wilkesiana ‘Haleakala’ further included varying dye concentrations by dilution. It was found out that the dilution factor Df of 10 (ratio of 1:9) was optimum at which the best efficiency was achieved.
Pineapple and cashew juices were subjected to foam–mat drying to investigate effect on the physical, nutrient and sensory properties of the juice powder. Improved pineapple and Brazilian cashew varieties, soybean and fresh eggs as raw materials were obtained from Anyigba, Nigeria. The fruits were separately prepared into pulpy juice (30 – 35% solids). While soybean and egg were prepared into soy protein isolate and liquid egg albumin respectively as foam agents for each juice at 2 concentration levels (1.0% and 2.0% of pulpy juice). The mixture of juice and foam agent in each case was whipped in food mixer for 10mins, as well as control sample. Stablefoam obtained was dried (60°C) in tray dryer, milled into powder (375 ï size), packaged (HDPE) and kept at ambient not longer than 2 weeks for physical, nutrient and sensory evaluation and statistical data analysis using standard methods. Foam-mat dried pineapple and cashew powder with added soy protein showed higher hydration capacity (2.0–7.4 mL/g powder) than similar samples containing egg albumin, regardless of the concentration (1–2%), while control samples had highest hydration values (7.4–8.5 mL/g powder). Bulk density (0.30–0.45 g/mL) decreased as foam agent level increased. Pineapple powder has lower reconstitution ratio (powder: water being 1:4) than cashew powder (1:5) which was not affected by the foam agent. Cashew juice powder had lower wettability values (39–40s) than pineapple (44–59s) and therefore cashew powder is more wettable at ambient temperature, 28ï‚±2°C. Similarly, pH values of reconstituted cashew juice (4.4–4.7) were lower than those of pineapple (4.9–5.1). Ascorbic acid contents of 209–230 and 87–112 mg/100 g powder of cashew and pineapple respectively were obtained. The beta carotene contents of 0.19–0.34 and 0.05–0.06 mg/100 g powder for cashew and pineapple respectively were obtained which did not experience any loss. Reconstituted cashew juice powder with added soy protein and control had mean colour scores 5.7 – 6.6. Also, reconstituted pineapple powder samples with egg albumin (2.0%), soy protein (1.0%) and control had similar colour; with mean scores 6.2–7.0, while powder with no foam agent was significantly different (p<0.05). The taste and flavour of foam–mat dried cashew juice (2.0% soy protein) and control were similar, pineapple (2.0% egg white, 1% soy protein) and the control had similar high mean flavour and taste scores (6.2–7.0) and other samples are significantly different (p<0.05). Both cashew powder (2% soy protein) and pineapple (2.0% egg albumin) were adjudged most desirable.
For the control of nonlinear robot dynamics a centralized design method so called the method of the exact linearization and decoupling by state feedback is often used. This method has the disadvantage in that an extra out-loop robust control design is needed to handle varied operating conditions such as payload variations. In this research a new control model design based on fictitious linear dynamic of decentralized structure called nonlinearity estimation and compensation is described in which coupling effects and other nonlinearities are estimated by an extended state observer and counteracted using the concept of disturbance rejection control. The controller is structurally robust against the varied operating conditions. Simulation for nonlinear positions and forces results on a PUMA 560 robot manipulator  shows the advantages of this approach.