This paper gives a brief discussion on the Multinomial coefficients. Using this notion, we obtain generalizations of the Vandermonde’s and the Chu Shih-Chieh’s identities for the Binomial coefficients, respectively. This is done through the use of two known principles in Combinatorics, namely, the Addition and the Multiplication principles. Some examples of generating functions of a sequence involving the multinomial coefficients are also derived and presented.
The work aims to provide feasible structures for the open processes based thermal cycle as well as the regenerative open processes based thermal cycle characterised by rendering high thermal efficiency at low temperatures. Both cycles differ from the conventional Carnot-based thermal cycles (Carnot, Otto, Diesel, Rankine, Brayton, Stirling, Ericsson, and variants of these cycles) in that the conversion of heat to mechanical work is performed undergoing load reaction based path functions which means an isobaric expansion process at constant load in which thermal energy absorption and conversion to mechanical work are performed simultaneously along a single transformation of the cycle, contrary to what happens in conventional Carnot-based engines, in which mechanical work is delivered by means of a quasi-entropic expansion along a single transformation. Because of the mentioned differences these cycles do not obey the Carnot statement. A performance analysis of the OPTC and the ROPTC operating with hydrogen, helium, and nitrogen was carried out and the results were compared with those for a Carnot cycle operating under the same range of temperatures. High theoretical thermal efficiency was achieved for the ROPTC, surpassing the Carnot factor under favourable conditions. These results, obtained with a structurally simple and compact engine, pave the way for a new generation of power convertors.
A software of seismic data collection was developed based on building a surface data base. The software represents a better way to manage seismic exploration data. The Browser/server (B/S) and the Client/server (C/S) are used to realize integrating the function of processing/interpreting and querying together. This study improves the methods of processing the surface seismic data on spot outdoor nowadays and accords with the demanding of digital construction of the oil field. It is very convenient to operate with this software, either on spot outdoor inputting data or querying and later processing/interpreting indoor.
This work examines the effect of process variables on the mechanical property of carburized AISI 1018 steel quenched in water and oil for improved performance. A carburizer consisting of charcoal was used for research with sea shell as energizer. Samples were carburized using weight percent of seashell (10, 20, 30 and 40%) with particle sizes of 212 µm, 425 µm and 600 µm respectively. The process was carried out at carburizing temperature of 950°C, soaked for 4, 6, and 8 hours and quenched in oil and water. The samples were further tempered at 200°C for 1hour to relieve the stress built up during quenching. Hardness test was carried on the steel samples. The results of the study showed that hardness values of the carburized and tempered steel increased with influence of soaking time, volume fraction and particle sizes of energizer. The optimal carburizing effect was achieved at 90% charcoal and 10% seashell (energizer) of 212 µm particle size at 8 hrs soaking time when quenched in water.
This research aim at investigating the flexible pavement performance of some selected Highways in Orolu Local Government area of Osun State, South-western Nigeria. In order to achieve this, the study involved interview sessions with relevant parties, administering of questionnaires, site observations, Pavement Condition Rating (PCR) was adopted to place a numerical value on the state of some selected roads and geotechnical investigative studies of the selected Highways. Laboratory determination of design parameters, namely Atterberg Limits, particle size distribution, California Bearing Ratio (CBR) and compaction were carried out in accordance with BS1377 (1997) method of soil testing for Civil Engineers. Thereafter, the soil samples that have been collected from failed portions of some of these roads to determine the structural integrity of the underlying soil strata were classified using AASHTO and USCS classifications. Compaction test with Maximum Dry Density MDD between 1730.02 kg/m3 - 1960 kg/m3 and Optimum Moisture Content OMC between 13.05%-20.0% were also carried out. The values of California Bearing Ratio (CBR) of soaked soil samples were within the range of 4.60% and 20.69, while un-soaked soil samples fall within the range of 10.13% to 65.07%, these results shows that samples T1, T3, T5, T7, T8, T9 and T10 are all good as subgrade materials, while samples T2, T4 and T6 are poor subgrade materials and they could have contributed to the failure of their roads: AFP4 (Kelebe road), AFP7 (Elder Akande road) and AFP9 (Ile- Olode road).The PCR values ranged from 61.28 and 100. The results of laboratory tests and field observation produced herein indicates that the failure of pavements in Orolu Local Government Area, Ifon-Osun, Osun State, South-western Nigeria can be attributed to the following: Poor or no design, infiltration of surface runoff into underlying course, growth of shrubs and lack of effective routine maintenance by the concerned agencies.
This study deals with the evaluation of the behavior of viscosity evolution of the Milk Protein Products (MPPs) solutions in different concentrations used in different conditions of thermal processing by means of Rapid Visco Analyzer (RVA). Skimmed milk powder (SMP), whey protein concentrate (WPC), milk protein concentrate (MPC), whey powder (WP) and demineralized whey powder (DWP) were analyzed; the evaluated solid-liquid ratio solutions were 0.1 gâˆ™g-1 to 0.45 gâˆ™g-1 of dry solids in water (DSW) for the MPC, 0.1 gâˆ™g-1 to 0.4 gâˆ™g-1 of DSW for the WPC and 0.5 gâˆ™g-1 to 0.8 gâˆ™g-1 of DSW for SMP, WP and DWP. Brazilian industrial heat treatment set ups were used, with temperatures ranging from 65°C to 95°C and retention time from 5 to 30 minutes. The results were interpreted according to the viscosities during heating and cooling, being possible to optimize the MPPs different parameters conditions with the interpretations of the viscographic profiles based on the thermal behavior of proteins, especially for the SMP, MPC and WPC. The data showed similarity in viscographic characteristics of the solutions when evaluated at 65°C for 30 minutes, at 85°C for 15 minutes and 95°C for 5 minutes, for the MPC and WPC at 95°C for 5 minutes, all of them for different concentrations of proteins in water.
In the future, south Florida will be flush with water due to sea level rise and increased storm intensity, meaning there are three options to deal with this problem – retreat, offshore discharges or finding a use for the water. The first is not an option so the others must be evaluated. To do so, the first task needed to identify solutions to this problem is to define the severity of the problem through a vulnerability analysis so the appropriate decisions can be made. Aims: The objectives of this research were to develop an accurate methodology for predicting impacts of sea level rise and rainfall patterns at the local level by identifying how existing topographic, groundwater and tidal data sources can be utilized to identify infrastructure vulnerable to sea level rise and flooding. Study Design: Based on a study of monitoring well water levels on Miami Beach, it was noted that during the year, groundwater levels fluctuate due to tidal levels and rainfall, with the Fall king tides creating the highest vulnerability to infrastructure and property. Once vulnerability is defined a toolbox of options can be developed to deal with local issues. Results: The research found that the tides create a much larger vulnerability than current sea level rise analyses suggest and that the king tides drive the level of service for the community, while altering the dynamics of future stormwater planning efforts. To mitigate the impacts of flooding will require new ideas for dealing with excess waters. A toolbox of options was developed. Conclusion: One item that arose was that there is potential to use stormwater adaptation strategies to create future water supplies.
Aim: This study explores the potential of scatter plots as a tool in validating proposed structures for novel Eudesmane Sesquiterpenes. Methodology: Substituents on the skeletons of several Eudesmane compounds were coded and plotted against the 13C chemical shift values for each Carbon position on the skeleton (C1-C15). Results: The range of chemical shift values (for each Carbon position) over which each substituent type may be obtained was determined from the scatter plots. The results imply that when the carbon atom C1 on a novel eudesmane compound is assigned any chemical shift value between 26.1 and 54.0, then that position should definitely be without a substituent. Chemical shift values between 68.1 and 91.3 (on C1) would indicate that β-OH as the most likely substituent (with 23.29% probability) while values within the 121.7 – 160.4 range indicate with 100% certainty that the substituent is âˆ†1. Similar conclusions can be drawn for all the chemical shift ranges for the different carbon positions. Conclusion: These chemical shift ranges could be useful in validating proposed structures for novel Eudesmane sesquiterpenes.
Proximate and Ultimate analyses of biocoal briquettes were undertaken with the aim of presenting the analytical results and ascertaining the optimum biomass composition for use as composite domestic fuel. Coal samples from 2 coal mines of Ogboyaga and Okaba in Kogi state of Nigeria were collected. The samples were pulverized and blended with sawdust at various mixing proportions of 0:100, 10:90, 20:80, 30:70, 40:60, 50:50 and 100:0 sawdust: Coal. Cassava starch was used as binding agent while calcium hydroxide was used as a desulphurizer for the briquettes. Briquettes of various blends were produced. Proximate and ultimate analyses were carried out to ascertain the elemental composition of the raw materials and the biocoal briquettes. Experimental tests, which involved the determination of calorific value was also determined. This study revealed that biocoal briquettes from Okaba and Ogboyaga coal mines are suitable for the production of environmentally solid fuel that can be used for domestic heat applications. It showed further that all the 50/50% biocoal briquettes of the two coal samples are good as fuel. All the 50/50% biocoal briquettes compositions have better characteristics than other blends while Ogboyaga, OG90/10 biocoal briquette exhibits the best quality with the highest calorific value of 29.55 MJ/kg.
Heat sinks are integral components of high-powered computing system (HPC) microchips which are extensively used in modern electronics and power supply circuitries with intelligence and effective control capability. Integrated circuits typically generate large amount of heat sufficient to damage the chip and other sensitive electronic components of the circuitry. Heat sinks are applied to accomplish a continuous cooling of the microchip by conducting thermal energy away from it and dissipating same into the environment. Suitable materials for the heat sink are therefore important for effective protection of the microchip. In this study, material selection for heat sinks applicable in microchip-based circuitries was carried out using the CES EduPack software. Over 3,000 candidate materials were first screened using design constraints after which shortlisted ones were ranked using design objectives. Appropriate trade-offs were applied to select the final material which was an alloy adjudged most suitable for the defined function, objectives and constraints.