Open Access Case Study

Automated User Interface Design for HEPA Filter Recertification

Charles Edeki

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 652-656
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/15044

In the pharmaceutical manufacturing industry, there is a need to create an aseptic environment. Part of creating an aseptic environment is having HEPA filters installed and working properly. Many regulatory agencies, including the Federal Drug Administration (FDA) require strict controls over the factors that allow for a manufacturing facility to be aseptic. One of these factors is the use of High Efficiency Particle Air (HEPA) filters. The HEPA filters must be certified or recertified. This occurs as frequently as monthly, but in some cases six months are allowed. This paper addressed the process for recording and storing information for the HEPA filter recertification trials using an automated user interface system. 

Open Access Short Research Article

Effect of Processing Treatments on the Proximate, Functional and Sensory Properties of Soy-Sorghum-Roselle Complementary Food

Olajide E. Adedeji, Damilare E. Jegede, Khadijat O. Abdulsalam, Uchenna E. Umeohia, Oluwafemi A. Ajayi, Joseph E. Iboyi

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 635-643
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/14707

Aim: The objective of this work was to produce complementary foods from germinated/fermented sorghum, germinated/roasted soybean and dried roselle calyces.
Methodology: Complementary foods were formulated from sorghum, soybean and roselle calyces by varying the processing methods (fermentation, germination and roasting) applied to them. Proximate, functional, colour and sensory properties of the complementary foods were determined.
Results: The protein contents for the seven formulations were significantly different (p≤0.05) from each other. The sample consisting of sorghum flour, germinated soybean and roselle flour (SFGS) had the highest protein content followed by the sample made from germinated sorghum, germinated soybean and roselle flour (GSGS). The ash content ranged from 2.00% to 4.50%. Fat content ranged from 4.95% to 16.35%. Fat was significantly different for all the formulations. FSRS made from fermented sorghum and roasted soybean, had the highest fat content followed by SF. The moisture content of the formulations ranged from 6.28-10.75%. From the values obtained, there were significant differences (p≤0.05) in the water absorption capacity, oil absorption capacity, loosed and packed bulk density as well as swelling capacity among the samples. Swelling capacity (SC) values ranged between 2.60% for GSRS and 6.95% for SF. Water absorption capacity (WAC) of the flour mixes ranged from 1.20 ml/g to 2.40 ml/g for FSRS and SFGS respectively. The values for oil absorption capacity (OAC) were between 0.84 mL/g for SFRS and 1.67 mL/g for SFGS. From the result obtained, there was significant difference (P≤0.05) in loosed and packed density of the complementary foods. Packed bulk density (PBD) was between 0.71 g/cm3 for FSRS and 0.86g/cm3 for SF. The samples varied significantly (P≤ 0.05) from one another in all the colour parameters evaluated. FSGS and FSRS scored highest in L* (64.14 and 59.44 respectively), a* (12.06 and 11.23 respectively) and b* (17.88 and 14.18 respectively). There were significant differences (p≤ 0.05) among the complementary foods in colour, aroma, and taste, while there were no significant difference (p≥ 0.05) among them in mouthfeel and overall acceptability.
Conclusion: The results from this study showed that processing methods employed had marked effect on the proximate, functional and sensory properties of the complementary foods produced from soybean, sorghum and roselle calyces.

Open Access Short Communication

Seedling Tolerance of Three Eucalyptus Species to a Short-term Flooding Event: Tolerance and Physiological Response

E. Farifr, S. Aboglila

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 644-651
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/13756

Research was conducted at Curtin University (Western Australia) to assess the seedling tolerance of three species Eucalyptus, gomphocephala DC (Myrtaceae) (common name ‘Tuart’), Eucalyptus marginata Sm. (common name ‘Jarrah’) and Corymbia calophylla (Lindl.) K.D. Hill & J. A. S. Johnson (common name ‘Marri’) to soil-induced stressor, namely water loggings (flooding). Flooding treatment was achieved by filling the tubs with water, approximately 1 cm above the soil surface and control treatment had the same method except with drainage holes. Study assessment was attained by statistical change in seedling growth, leaf allocation and leaf physiology after 70 days of seed germination. Tolerance was assessed by measuring changes in seedling growth, leaf allocation and leaf physiology after 70-80 days. C. calophylla was the most tolerant to prolonged waterlogging (80% survival, no difference in transpiration rates); E. marginata was the least tolerant (10% survival, 95% decrease in transpiration rate). E. marginata was the least tolerant to the three soil stresses. E. marginata prefers habitats that are not excessively wet on well-drained soils. C. calophylla was the most tolerant, occurring and tolerating wet, well-drained soils and thus demonstrated better tolerance to prolong waterlogging. Knowing the seedling growth and physiological responses of three prominent studied eucalypts to soil-induced stresses provides us with invaluable knowledge for rehabilitating and restoring urban bush land. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of the Adsorption Kinetics and Equilibrium for the Potential Removal of Congo Red Dye From Aqueous Medium by Using a Biosorbent

P. R. Patil, Yogesh V. Marathe, V. S. Shrivastava

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 557-573
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/12590

Activated Mangifera indica Saw Dust (AMSD) has been investigated as low cost and eco-friendly biosorbent prepared for the removal of Congo red (CR) in aqueous solution. Various adsorption parameters such as effect of contact time, adsorbent dose, effect of pH and initial concentration of Congo red on the adsorption capacity of the adsorbent were studied. The adsorbent was also characterized by FTIR, XRD and SEM Analysis. The equilibrium data followed both Langmuir and freundlich isotherm. The kinetic parameters of adsorption such as Lagergren Pseudo first order, Pseudo second order have also been studied. These studies suggest that the AMSD Could be used as a low cost alternative for waste water treatment for dye removal.

Open Access Original Research Article

Investigation of Multipoint Spark Ignition Engine Using CFD Code

Osama H. Ghazal

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 574-582
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/14755

The main aim of this research is to utilize the emerging combustion process technology in order to develop the combustion process inside spark internal combustion engine which is very important factor for engine performance and emissions, which will be achieved by better understanding of this process. For this purpose a simulation model will be developed. The proposal is an attempt to control the combustion process to occur near or as close as possible to TDC which will improve engine’s performance. This is to be achieved by a control of the multipoint combustion using multipoint spark in the combustion chamber and in co-ordination with control of engine speed (piston speed) to avoid knock; it is hoped that the use of a higher compression ratio may be possible. The multipoint ignition system is to be arranged between the cylinder head and the piston to cover most of the combustion chamber. The research concerned the influence of spark plugs number and location on the engine performance and emissions. CFD is also exploited to deal with some specific problems like turbulent flame speed model, flame-wall interactions and viscous model. The project also will present a modeling of the combustion process in this engine, which was performed with CFD code.

Open Access Original Research Article

Seismic Early Warning Foundation Conditions Evaluation Survey for Civil Engineering Constructions in Akpabuyo Local Government Area of Cross River State, Nigeria

V. I. Obianwu, J. T. Udoh, A. M. George, N. J. George

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 583-596
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/14930

Seismic refraction method was used to study the rock/soil conditions for civil engineering construction in Akpabuyo Local Government Area in Cross River State, Nigeria. Akpabuyo was chosen for this research because it is a rural countryside with high potentials of future rapid increase in developmental activities due to its closeness to the State capital. The aim is to provide information on foundation materials, which would serve as an early warning data base for avoiding sites that are vulnerable to structural failures. This approach is in contradistinction to the conventional approach which seeks to find solutions to structural failures when the damage has already been done. The results of the survey show that soil/rock in most parts of the study area have good engineering strength and are suitable for the construction of civil engineering works. A few of the locations are suspected to be vulnerable to structural failure under high stress conditions, due to the anomalous values of their elastic constants, hence should be avoided if possible, otherwise detailed investigations should be carried out before any significant civil engineering work is sited there.

Open Access Original Research Article

Aflatoxin M1 in Milk and Milk Products in Jordan and Methods for its Reduction: A Preliminary Study

Khalaf S. Al-Delaimy, Iman F. Mahmoud

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 597-605
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/13622

Aims: The aim of this study was to assess Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) levels in liquid and powdered milk and other dairy products in Jordan using ELISA technique and antiaflatoxin M1 (AFM1 reduction) effect of fermentation, high heat treatments and the addition of plant extracts during milk fermentation.
Place and Duration of Study: Department of Nutrition and Food Technology, The University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan during July 2006 and March 2007.
Methodology: A total of 22 samples of milk and dairy products were randomly collected from local markets and were grouped as follows: Raw (n=3), pasteurized (n=4) and powdered milk (n=3), infant formula (n=3), yoghurt (n=3), labaneh (low moisture sour yoghurt) (n=3) and jameed (traditional dry yoghurt) (n=3). Dairy products were analyzed for their AFM1 content. Anti-aflatoxin treatments of fermentation, high heat, garlic (Allium sativum), black cumin (Nigella sativum) and carrot (Ducaus carota sativus) water extracts were studied to determine their influence on AFM1 content.
Results: The results show that AFM1 was detected in 81.8% of tested samples with varying levels ranging from 25 ppt to no detection. The highest levels were found in 2 labaneh samples purchased from local brands (25.8 and 22 ppt of AFM1). Levels of AFM1 of 19, 15.5, and 14 ppt were detected in a yoghurt, raw milk, and jameed samples respectively. No AFM1 was detected in imported infant formula samples, pasteurized milk and one labaneh brand. Carrot water extract had the highest impact by decreasing AFM1 by 72% of the total toxin followed by heating (56%) and fermentation (40%).
Conclusion: These AFM1 levels found in milk and dairy products in Jordan are considered low and within the European maximum limit of 50 ppt. An important finding for AFM1 reduction was our finding that a natural product such as carrot extract can be effective in lowering AFM1 in milk samples.

Open Access Original Research Article

Characteristics Study of Wood Wastes from Sawmills

A. O. Akinola, O. P. Fapetu

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 606-612
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/12930

The availability of energy in wood wastes is evaluated in this work. Biomass from seven tropical wood species; Obeche (Triplochiton scleroxylon); Iroko (Melicia excelsa); Danta (Nesogordonia papaverifera); Mahogany (Khaya ivorensis); Omo (Cordia platythyrsa); Mansonia (Mansonia altissima) and Afara (Terminalia superba) retrieved from sawmills across Akure and its environment in South West Nigeria were pyrolysed in a fixed-bed batch thermal reactor. Laboratory experiments revealed that the wood wastes possess energy that can be converted for use in other forms such as fuels and chemicals. The volume of the three products of pyrolysis – char, pyro-oil and pyro-gas were evaluated for every kilogram of wood biomass pyrolysed. Wood off-cuts prepared into 50 x 20 x 20 mm were used, and it was found that wood has an average energy content of 21.7544 MJ/kg, made up of 8.52 MJ (39.15%) in the char, 8.76 MJ (40.26%) in the liquor, and 4.48 MJ (20.59%) in the pyro-gas; low ash content of 4.15% and electricity equivalent of 6.06 kWh, made up of 2.37 kWh (39.12%) in the char, 2.44 kWh (40.26%) in the liquor, and 1.25 kWh (20.62%) in the gas. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Characterization of Raw, Semi-processed and Completely Processed Palm Oils

Erepamowei Young, A. K. Inengite

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 613-620
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/14691

Knowledge of the acid value (AV), peroxide value (PV), iodine value (IV) and iron concentration (quality-index variables) in oils is an indication of the edibility of the oil because these are parameters of oil-deterioration. The semi-processed oil is used to prepare a delicacy called “banga soup” in the Niger Delta region (Bayelsa State, Nigeria) in the ratio of 7:3 of the oil and other components. It is also a common practice to eat raw oil directly from the fruit. In this work, the edibility of raw, semi-processed and completely-processed oils were tested by measuring the quality-index variables. The raw oil (R-OIL) was obtained by scrapping the oil-bearing out part of the fruit with plastic knife. Semi-processed oil (SM-OIL) was the skim resulting from the mixture of milled fruit and hot water. The skim was heat-purified to give the completely processed oil (CP-OIL). 5g of oil was used for each analysis but the sample for FAAS was digested with aqua regia. Analyses were done by titrimetric methods for acid value, peroxide value, and iodine value and FAAS was used to determine the concentration of iron. In the raw oils from both samples (E. guineensis and E. oleifera), the acid values, peroxide values, iodine values and concentration of iron were above the recommended maximum Codex Standard for edible oils but values were within recommended range for the semi- and completely processed oils. The results indicate the non-edibility of raw oil. 

Open Access Original Research Article

The Influence of Multiple Welding Repairs of Pipelines in Residual Stress Assessment Related to Stress Corrosion Cracking

A. Contreras, S. L. Hernández, R. Galvan, O. Vega

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 621-634
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/14931

The effect of residual stress of multiple welding repairs in seamless API 5L X52 on the stress corrosion cracking (SCC) susceptibility was evaluated. Four repairs of the girth weld were evaluated through X-ray diffraction (XRD) on the internal face of the pipe to measure residual stresses in longitudinal and circumferential direction. Residual stresses in the circumferential and longitudinal direction reach values of about 77% and 58% of the UTS (460 MPa) respectively, approaching to the YS of the steel (360 MPa). It was observed that its magnitude increases as move away from weld center line. SCC susceptibility of X52 steel welded joints with the residual stresses generated was evaluated through slow strain rate tests (SSRT) in a soil solution at low and high pH. Relation between mechanical properties and residual stresses on the SCC susceptibility was analyzed. SCC index obtained from the mechanical properties of SSRT indicate good SCC resistance of X52 steel exposed to soil solution at low and high pH. From these results, it is suggested that the region with high residual stresses before to generate cracks in the steel surface due to the combination of soil solution and the strain applied, should favor pitting formation and not cracking. Initiation of micro-cracks from these pits will depend on the geometrical form of the pit and the stresses state can be established at given pitting. It is suggested that initiation of micro-cracks from these pits may depend on the dissolution rate and morphology of the pitting and stresses on the bottom of the pitting. This favorable condition could appear increasing the soil exposition time of the steel and reducing the strain rate applied on the SSRT.