Open Access Short Research Article

Whole Body Kinematics When Walking with an Unstable (MBT) Shoe

Per Wretenberg, Åsa Bartonek, Eva Broström

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 545-549
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/14428

Background: Many positive biomechanical effects have been attributed to the use of a shoe with unstable sole in the anterior posterior direction. When tested, however, only minor changes have been found in relation to each of the investigated joints and muscles in the lower limb. The purpose of this study was to evaluate biomechanical effects on whole body gait characteristics during walking with the Masai Barefoot Technology shoe (MBT) with focus on lower limb and trunk kinematics.
Methods: 18 healthy volunteers were tested using 3D gait analysis and force plates. Data were collected both for common training shoes and the MBT shoes. Joint and trunk specific data for the two different shoe types were compared using the non-parametric Wilcoxon matched pair test.
Results: The overall gait patterns were very similar when the MBT shoes were compared to normal training shoes. Some angular differences were statistically significant but the absolute changes were very small.
Interpretation: Many people experience positive effects when they use the MBT shoe but the biomechanical and kinematic changes are very small compared to common training shoes.

Open Access Short Communication

Proximate, Mineral and Antinutritional Composition of Fermented Slimy Kolanut (Cola verticillata) Husk and White Shell

T. B. Fabunmi, D. J. Arotupin

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 550-556
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/8464

This study evaluates the proximate, mineral and antinutritional composition of slimy kolanut husk and white shell also known as obi olooyo in Yoruba language, a tribe in Nigeria. The samples were subjected to liquid and solid state fermentation and were dried, milled, sieved and analysed. Unfermented samples served as the control. The analyses revealed the presence of protein, fiber, ash, fat, moisture and carbohydrate, with observed reduction in fiber content for proximate analyses. Magnesium, potassium and calcium measured in percentage were observed to be more prominent among the minerals analysed for. Other minerals determined were sodium, phosphorus, iron and zinc. Antinutritional analyses showed the presence of phytate, oxalate, tannin, alkaloid, flavonoid and cyanide. There was an increase and decrease in the nutritional and antinutritional composition of the samples respectively, when compared with the control samples. The study has shown the samples to be useful in the fortification of animal feeds.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Sea Surface Temperature over East Mole and South Atlantic Ocean on Rainfall Pattern over the Coastal Stations of Nigeria

A. Akinbobola, I. A. Balogun, A. Oluleye

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 463-476
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/6200

Aim: This study examines the impacts of South Atlantic and East mole Sea Surface Temperatures on rainfall in some selected coastal stations in Nigeria. This study seeks to investigate the relationship between SST and rainfall in some of the coastal stations of Nigeria, also to find the correlation between rainfall and SST’s of east mole and south Atlantic and to develop statistical model to estimate monthly/seasonal rainfall over the selected station using January, February and December SST of east mole and south Atlantic ocean.
Study Design: Sea surface temperature (SST) and rainfall data were used for this study. The SST for east mole covers 17 years spanning between 1990 and 2007 and rainfall data for 30 years (1979-2007) were collected from the Nigerian Meteorological Agency Oshodi, Lagos (NIMET). South Atlantic SST (0-20ºSouth, 30ºWest-10ºEast) was obtained from the National Weather Service, Climate Prediction Center (NOAA) for 59 years from 1950-2008.
Place and Duration of Study: The stations are Lagos, Benin, Calabar and Portharcourt.
Methodology: Statistical analysis which includes (Mean, standard deviation, trend analysis and correlation analysis) were carried out. SPSS and statistica softwares were used to carry out the analysis. The rainfall and SST were standardized.
Results: The result showed that rainfall in Lagos can be predicted for the early period April-June, mid period of June-September and the entire raining season April-October using east mole SST data for dry months of November, December and January. The trends of SST were found to be increasing in South Atlantic Ocean, so also was rainfall in all the coastal stations. Some ENSO years also affected rainfall as it reduces rainfall drastically far below normal in the coast, Nigerian coastal waters were observed to be warmest in April and coldest in August.
Conclusion: The trends of SST and rainfall were found to be increasing within the study period. The correlation of SST and rainfall was 0.64 for (Jun-Sept) and 0.59 for (APR-OCT) in Lagos. The correlation was found to be 0.44 For Portharcourt.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Solution of Infiltration Problem Arising in Farmland Drainage Using Adomian Decomposition Method

Trushit Patel, Ramakanta Meher

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 477-485
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/14467

In this paper, A farmland drainage problem considered and Adomian decomposition method has been discussed and applied to solve the one-dimensional unstable flow equation that is under uniform intensity of infiltration. Convergence analysis of the Adomian decomposition method has been discussed to test the convergence of the method. Finally Maple-16 software has been used and run on a system having core i7 and 64 bit processor to obtain the Physical interpretation and the numerical values of the given problem.

Open Access Original Research Article

Estimating Aquifer Parameters with Geoelectric Soundings: Case Study from the Shallow Benin Formation at Orerokpe, Western Niger Delta, Nigeria

K. E. Aweto, I. A. Akpoborie

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 486-496
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/14541

A study of the use of geoelectric sounding employing Schlumberger configuration in delineating aquifer(s) and estimation of hydraulic parameters has been carried out at Orerokpe, Western Niger Delta. Twenty (20) depth soundings were carried out with a maximum current electrode spacing of 400 m. The acquired depth sounding data were interpreted by partial curve matching and computer iterative techniques. The results identified four geologic layers which include; top soil, clay/sand, sandy clay/clayey/sand and sand. The sands of the third and fourth geologic layers constitute the aquifer, the depth to the aquifer varied between 6.4 m and 28.1 m with a mean depth of 17.5 m. The thickness of the aquifer varied between 15.1 m and 67.1 m with a mean thickness of 28.24 m. The hydraulic conductivity (K) value measured in a reference well was combined with electrical conductivity (σ) obtained from geoelectric sounding data, the resulting diagnostic relation (Kσ = constant) was combined with Dar-Zarrouk parameters to estimate the transmissivity and hydraulic conductivity values of the aquifer. The results indicated that the transmissivity values of the aquifer varied between 418.6 m2/day and 1637.3 m2/day while hydraulic conductivity values varied between 10.50 m/day and 45.71 m/day. The estimated parameters indicated that the aquifer in seventy five (75) percent of the study area have high aquifer potential while the remaining twenty five (25) percent have moderate aquifer potential.

Open Access Original Research Article

Timing of First Irrigation and Split Application of Nitrogen for Improved Grain Yield of Wheat in Old Himalayan Piedmont Plain of Bangladesh

M. A. Z. Sarker, Akbar Hossain, Jaime A. Teixeira da Silva

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 497-507
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/15091

Soil water and nitrogen (N) are the two most important factors in wheat for obtaining higher grain yield. In this context, a field trial was conducted at the research farm (25â°38´ N, 88â°41´ E and 38.20 m above sea level) of the Wheat Research Centre (WRC), Bangladesh to identify the timing of first irrigation (FItiming) and its combination with a split application of N (NSA) for improved yield of wheat. The treatments applied were two levels of N (75 and 100 kg ha−1) and different amounts of N in splits with different application times of FI to verify the FItiming in light soil and to minimize N use by rescheduling the FI. Existing wheat variety ‘Prodip’ was used as the experimental material. The interaction between FItiming and NSA on yield and yield-related components of wheat, except for 1000-grain weight, did not vary significantly. However, higher grain yield (3.39 t ha−1) was obtained when the crop was irrigated at 15 days after sowing (DAS) than when irrigated latter (20, 25 and 30 DAS). On average, higher grain yield (3.58 t ha−1) was obtained from 100 kg N ha−1 when it was applied half as basal and half as one top dressing than 75 kg N ha−1 when applied half as basal and half as one top dressing. Large grains were obtained when the FI was applied at 25 DAS in all N treatments except for 75 kg N ha−1 when applied half as basal at the time of final land preparation and half as top dressing, on 30 DAS in half N as basal at both levels of N and at 15 DAS when 100 kg N ha−1 was applied half as basal and half as top dressing. So, it is evident that the amount and split application of N with first irrigation are the most important factors determining higher grain yield and yield-related components of wheat in light soil of Bangladesh. According to our research findings, 100 kg N ha−1 is recommended, 1/2 as basal and 1/2 as top dressing at the time of FI at 15 or 20 DAS.

Open Access Original Research Article

Biomechanical Analysis for Low Lumbar Spine Segment Fusion with Different Cage Locations

Yugang Jiang, Xiongqi Peng, Yu Wang, Cheng Fu, Xiaojiang Sun, Kai Zhang

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 508-519
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/15576

Aims: This paper aims to investigate the influence of cage location on the biomechanical behavior of lumbar spine with Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion (TLIF).
Methodology: Firstly, a three-dimensional finite element (FE) model for L4-L5 low lumbar spine segment is established based on computed tomography scan images of a 30-year-old healthy male volunteer. Flexion, extension, lateral bending and torsion motions are simulated and compared with in-vitro cadaveric test data in the literature to validate the lumbar spine FE model. The intact spine model is then modified to TLIF model with one cage insertion under three different implant angles (30°, 45° and 60°).
Results: Numerical results show that after fusion treatment the stress increases dramatically, and mainly distributes on cage and pedicle screw-rod system. Though 45° fusion does not have the lowest von Mises stress at the pedicle screw-rod system and the cage, it is still within an allowable strength limit. Besides, 45° fusion has the best balanced stability in four basic physiological motions. So if only one cage uses, the 45° posterior location may be more suitable for L4-L5 interbody fusion than 30° and 60° location.
Conclusion: If only one cage uses, the 45° posterior location may be more suitable for L4-L5 interbody fusion than 30° and 60° location.

Open Access Original Research Article

Measurement and Modelling of Water Content Effects on Thermal Properties of Compressed Soil Building Blocks

André Talla

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 520-533
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/15243

Aims: The aim of this paper was to determine the thermal conductivity and the thermal effusivity of the compressed soil building blocks as a function of their water content.
Study Design: Samples with dimensions 53x40x20 mm3 were produced for experiment. Eight containers and an oven were used to determine the equilibrium moisture content. The thermal properties of samples were obtained using a symmetrical hot strip method device.
Place and Duration of Study: University of Yaounde I and National Advanced School of Engineering, Laboratory of Energizing, Water and Environment, between March 2014 and October 2014.
Methodology: Thereafter, sorption isotherm of this building material was determined using the gravimetric static method of saturated salt solutions at 30°C (ambient average temperature), and GAB equation was applied to discuss the results. Then, a symmetrical hot strip method device was used to measure the thermal conductivity and the thermal effusivity of these samples, with their water content varying from 0 to a maximum value of 0.139 kgw.kgdb-1.An adapted device was developed to prevent water evaporation on the lateral faces of the samples.
Results:Both thermal conductivity and thermal effusivity were modelled and the experimental results were processed to evaluate these thermal properties of compressed soil building blocks.A new simplified model, based on a physical approach with assumption of an ideal shrinkage of the material during the evaporation of water, was built.
Conclusion: Calculated and experimental values of thermal properties were in good agreement, with a maximum standard error of 1.671 Wm-2K -1s1/2 for thermal effusivity and of 0.024 Wm-1K-1 for thermal conductivity. The suitability of this model for other buildings material will be further studied.

Open Access Original Research Article

Modulation of Immunological and Hematological Disturbances of Diabetes Mellitus by Diets Containing Combined Leaves of Vernonia amygdalina and Gongronema latifolium

Henry D. Akpan, Itemobong Ekaidem

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 534-544
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/14266

Background: Immunological and hematological alterations often occur in diabetes mellitus as a result of oxidative stress. This study investigated the effects of consumption of diets containing Vernonia amygdalina leaves on some markers of immunology and hematology in Streptozotocin -induced diabetic wistar rats with the view to evaluating its involvement in the management of immunological and hematological complications among diabetics.
Method: The design consisted of eighty rats randomly divided into eight groups of 10 rats per group. Groups 2, 3, 4, 5, 6,7 and 8 were diabetic, while group 1 was normal control. Groups 1 and 2 were fed with control diet. Group 3 to 7 were fed with diets containing Vernonia amygdalina, or Gongronema latifolium or combined leaves of Vernonia amygdalina and Gongronema latifolium. Group 8 was fed with the control diet but treated with Insulin. Feed and water were given ad- libitum for 28 days.
Results: Results showed that diabetic rats consuming diets of Vernonia amygdalina, Gongronema latifolium leaves or the combined leaves diets all had significant (P<0.05) increase in the red blood cell (RBC), hemoglobin, and lymphocyte counts relative to the diabetic control. All the diets resulted in significant (P<0.05) reduction in the level of white blood cell (WBC), platelets, neutrophil, and CD4+ cell count relative to the diabetic control. The results for Vernonia amygdalina and Gongronema latifolium diets were similar to insulin on the measured parameters and their levels were not significantly different (P<0.05) when compared to the normal control. Diets containing combined leaves of Vernonia amygdalina and Gongronema latifolium performed better than insulin and the measured parameters were numerically equals to the normal control.
Conclusion: The findings of the present study indicate that consumption of diets containing Vernonia amygdalina or Gongronema latifolium leaves or in combination at the levels in this study have significant role in ameliorating hematological and immunological disturbances associated with diabetes mellitus. The combined leaf diet performed better due to positive synergy among the leaves bioactive agents. Consumption of diets containing Vernonia amygdalina or Gongronema latifolium leaves or in combination may be recommended as dietary therapies for management of immunological and hematological complications in diabetes mellitus.

Open Access Review Article

The Photon Concept and the Physics of Quantum Absorption Process

Dmitri Yerchuck, Yauhen Yerchak, Alla Dovlatova, Vyacheslav Stelmakh, Felix Borovik

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 425-462
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2015/12244

Aims/ objectives: The consideration of the three tasks, formulated below, is the aim of the given work. 

The first task of the paper presented is to analyse the existing viewpoints and to give the conclusion on the real photon status.

To represent the clear and understandable explanation of the nature of the corpuscular-wave dualism and to give an insight into physics of the photon absorption process is the second task of the given review.

The third task of the paper presented - to give the experimental proof for the Dirac theoretical conclusion, that the transitions of the quantum system from an equilibrium state to an excited state are not instantaneous and that a part of the time, related to a duration of the stay between the states can be determined.
Study design: The theory of quantum Fermi liquid, the developed Dirac quantisation method, the theory of quantum Rabi oscillations and experimental results of the stationary electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy were used.
Place and Duration of Study: Heat-Mass Transfer Institute of National Academy of Sciences of RB, Belarusian State University and M.V.Lomonosov Moscow State University, between January 2014 and July 2014.
Methodology: We have used the quantum 1D Fermi liquid model for the description of 1D correlated electronic systems, elaborated in the application to the quantised electromagnetic (EM) field, the Jaynes-Cummings model (JCM) of quantum Rabi oscillations, new Slepyan-Yerchak- Hoffmann-Bass model of propagating quantum Rabi oscillations and new fully quantum space-time quantisation method.
Results: The status of the photon in the modern physics is analysed. In the physics of elementary particles the photon is considered to be the genuine elementary particle. The development of the viewpoint of the experts in the quantum electrodynamics theory is considered. It was established its change from the opinion, that the description of the photon to be the particle is impossible to the viewpoint on the photon to be the particle, that is, coinciding with the viewpoint, represented in the Standard Model of the physics of elementary particles.
The quantized Maxwellian EM-field represents itself, according to the new conceptual model reviewed, the sets of 1D rays, the own structure of each ray is discrete - 1D-lattice of spin-1 bosons. Therefore, the structure of EM-field in boson model resembles the structure of the carbon frame of organic polymers like to trans-polyacetylene in the matter. Photons in the given concept are the corpuscles, propagating along EM-field boson-”atomic” chains. In other words, EM-field boson- ”atomic” chains represents themselves the medium for the photons’ propagation. In the structural aspect photons in usual conditions are chargeless spin 1/2 topological relativistic solitons of Su- Schrieffer-Heeger family. Spinless charged solitons of the same family can also be formed in socalled ”doped” EM-field structure.
The origin of waves in the EM-field boson-”atomic” structure is determined by the mechanism, being to be quite analogous to the formation of Bloch waves in the solid state of condensed matter. The expression for the corresponding wave function representing itself the set of Bloch-like waves is given. Just, the given function allows to describe correctly the wave properties of the light, including the interference. Corpuscular properties of EM-field including those ones by its interaction with matter are described by independent scalar field function obtained from the solution of Schr¨odinger equation [nonstationary in general case] and usually called wave function. The term ”wave” seems to be incorrect in application to the given function and has to be corrected in all literature on quantum theory, including textbooks.

The physics of quantum absorption process is analysed. It is argued, in accordance with Dirac guess, that the photon revival takes place by its absorption. It is concluded, that after the energy and impulse transfer to the absorbing system the photon state is a pinned state, in which it possesses the only by spin.
The reviewed rather unusual spectroscopic electron spin resonance absorption characteristics of carbon nanotubes and superconducting ceramics, obtained with the participation of the authors and of the other research groups and being earlier unexplained, were correctly interpreted within the frames of the phenomenological model of the spectroscopic transition dynamics with finite time of the transfer of absorbing systems in an excited state. Moreover, it was established, that the time of the transfer of absorbing systems in an excited state governs the characteristics of the stationary ESR signal registered in the carbon nanotubes and superconducting ceramics.
Conclusion: To describe correctly the EM-field properties including corpuscular-wave dualism [which is explained in a natural way] it is necessary to use the full variant of Schr¨ odinger’s theory, taking into consideration two scalar functions.
The result, that the time of the transfer of absorbing systems into an excited state governs the characteristics of the stationary ESR signal is significant for the stationary spectroscopy at all, since the transfer of absorbing systems in an excited state is considered in the stationary spectroscopy at present to be instantaneous.