Aim: Choice of medical treatment option, in the event of illness, is a critical factor in determining the fate of a patient. It is influenced by several factors. The aim of this paper, therefore, is: To determine the exact factors that influence the choice, by rural dwellers, of medical treatment options in the event of illness. Study Design: Sixty-four (64) randomly selected rural communities in Imo State, Nigeria, were used in the study. A total of five hundred and forty (540) questionnaires were distributed, out of which five hundred were returned. Setting of the Study: Sixty - four communities in Imo State of Nigeria. Methodology: Considering the fact that the data used were frequency data, with the categories of the dependent variable (choice of medical treatment options) more than two (2) Which did not have a natural ordering, the multinomial logistic regression model was adopted in the analysis. Results: The result of the analysis showed that educational qualification and affinity for tradition were the major factors that affected choice of medical treatment options. Other factors were income and gender. The study also revealed that of the three treatment options implicated in the study, modern treatment was the most preferred in all forms of illness; except in fracture, where native treatment was most preferred. The treatment options were chosen mostly on basis of their perceived relative efficacy. Conclusion: The three treatment options need to be given adequate consideration in our medical system, since each has its area of relative strength or efficacy. In particular, collaboration by the various categories of health practitioners should be encouraged to enhance the efficacy of the nation’s health care system.
The kinetics of pyrolysis of powdered laboratory safety examination gloves (PLEG) by the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was studied and the corresponding parameters were evaluated. The goal was to look for approaches to save the condensed energy within the PLEG wastes in order to reduce the environmental pollution caused by an ever increasing amount of laboratory safety examination gloves (LEG) in the landfills. The study was conducted in the Department of Biological and Physical Sciences at South Carolina State University (SCSU), Orangeburg, SC, USA, during the spring and summer of 2014. Twelve TGA experiments were performed on twelve samples of PLEG under three distinct conditions. From the thermal scans and isotherms, the highest rate of weight loss, the temperature at the maximum weight loss, the apparent order of reaction (wlo), the apparent rate constant (k) and the apparent activation energy of weight loss (Ea) were estimated. The experimental results confirmed keeping the PLEG in temperatures near to 340°C for a period of 30 min resulted in production of new materials with more thermal stability than the original PLEG.
Aims: The aim of this paper is to achieve information about surface and sub-surface layers after hard turning by mixed ceramic tool with different geometry – Wiper and conventional and to compare achieved results to find out advantages of its use. Second aim is to obtain graphs of the influence of the tool wear on the surface structural changes. Study Design: The experiment on hard turning was carried out with differently shaped mixed ceramic tools. Place and Duration of Study: Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava, Faculty of Materials Science and Technology, Institute of Production Technologies and Institute of Materials Science, between November 2013 and May 2014. Methodology: In the case of cutting tool wear and structural changes measurement this experiment was carried out on two different workpiece sizes – 1. 125 mm long cylinder to achieve cutting tool wear, 2. 10 mm long rings for structural changes. Microscopy for cutting tool wear measurement and X – ray diffraction for structural changes measurement was used. Cutting tool wear was represented by VB parameter and structural changes were represented by structural phase content, crystallites and lattice. Results: Information about structural phase contents was achieved. There are some differences between surface and sub-surface layers after hard turning by mixed ceramic tool. Surface layer consists of more austenite phase than sub-surface layers. But there were not very big differences between used cutting tool geometry and its influence on the cutting tool wear. Both geometries were used more than 40 minutes till the flank wear parameter VB reached to 0.25 mm. The thickness of the surface heat influenced layer depends on the cutting tool wear and it is influenced by the cutting tool geometry – application of the Wiper geometry leads to thinner “white layer”. Conclusion: It is very important to take into consideration cutting tool geometry when dealing with surface integrity after hard turning. But all achieved results depend on the used cutting parameters, cutting tool material, workpiece material, cutting force components, machine stiffness in specific experiments.
Metal-to-semiconductor contacts are present in every semiconductor (conducting polymer) device which can behave either as a Schottky diode (rectifying junction) or as an ohmic contact. Whether a contact is ohmic or rectifying depends not only on the difference in work functions of the contact metal and semiconductor but also on the contact surface defects. Many methods and processes are being developed to make ohmic contacts to organic semiconductors. In this paper, we report simple and inexpensive methods to achieve ohmic contacts to PEDOT-PSS which otherwise makes rectifying contact to copper. It has been shown that by coating the contact metal with graphite-clay using commercially available pencils, ohmic contacts can be produced. It is also demonstrated that by dispersing graphite powder in PEDOT-PSS on copper ohmic contacts can be made.
Aims: To propose a new method of estimating the phase velocity of Rayleigh wave using one linear array based on the spatial auto-correlation (SPAC) method and complex coherence function (CCF) and confirm its availability and robustness using both the numerical simulation and a field test. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Built Environment, Tokyo Institute of Technology and Zoorasia Yokohama Zoological Gardens (ZRS), between August 2013 and July 2014. Methodology: Numerical simulation was conducted to test the behavior of the proposed method using linear arrays with different directions in different kind of azimuth-dependent microtremor wave field; Field test was carried out at the parking lot of ZRS, in which the proposed method was applied with 2 linear arrays with different direction and the estimation of phase velocity was compared with that from the SPAC method and theoretical one. Through the numerical simulation and field test, the SPAC method without taking azimuthal average (we call it JO method in the text) was also conducted for comparison. Results: In the numerical simulation, the estimations of phase velocity from linear arrays with different directions are accurate and coincide with each other except for some extreme case; In the field test, the estimations of the 2 linear arrays both match well with the theoretical one and that from SPAC method. On the other hand, the SPAC method without azimuthal average behaved badly and showed instability because of its intrinsic defect. Conclusion: By applying the proposed method, it is available to estimate the phase velocity of Rayleigh wave using just one linear array in a microtremor wave field, which is not a strongly azimuth-dependent one.
Geoelectric investigation of Iwaro-Oka, SW Nigeria was carried out with the aim of evaluating its groundwater potential for future groundwater development. The area is underlain by Precambrian Basement Complex of southwestern Nigeria with local geology essentially made up migmatite gneiss. Thirty-nine (39) Vertical Electrical Soundings (VES) using Schlumberger configuration were acquired. The VES curves were interpreted quantitatively using partial curve matching and computer assisted 1-D forward modeling. Three distinct geologic layers were delineated within the area. These are topsoil, weathered layer and basement rock. The topsoil is generally thin with no hydrogeologic significant. The weathered layer constitutes the major aquifer unit with thicknesses generally less than 10 m. This layer is predominantly composed of clayey material with resistivity values generally <100 ohm-m. The permeability is low with tendency for low groundwater yielding capacity. The overburden thicknesses vary from 1.1 to 23.5 m but are generally less than 10 m. The fracture density in the area is very low. Out of the thirty-nine VES stations occupied within the area, none show evidence of a fractured basement. The groundwater potential rating of the study area is classified as of low based on relatively thin and clayey aquifer unit.
Segmentation is one of the prominent and crucial steps in any image processing applications. Segmentation subdivides the image into its constituent regions or objects. In this paper we propose a novel automatic segmentation method for extracting portion of breast which contains tumor or abnormalities. The proposed method consists of three different stages. In the initial stage, an automatic seed point identification method is used for locating the center pixel of the abnormal regions in the mammogram images. In the next stage, region of interest around the seed point is extracted using the modified version of region growing algorithm for aggregating pixels around the seed point. Finally, gradient operators are used for identifying boundaries of the segmented region. Using these boundaries, segmented region of the mammogram images are cropped and treated as ROIs that may constitute the tumor/abnormal regions. The segmented ROIs are well in agreement with the abnormality portions that are already identified and labeled by the Radiologists. Average time taken for extracting ROI of one mammogram image is 3.7393 seconds.
Aims: To estimate the market scale and characteristics of religious consumption in rural community in Tibet. Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted in 2012 in rural community in the Midland of Tibet. Methodology: The present study is an applied research. Using field method and questionnaire, the data was collected from the desired sample, and it was later analyzed. In order to collect required data, 36 questions were designed in the questionnaire and were analyzed using ranking scale. The validity of the questionnaire was examined and confirmed both in terms of content validity and face validity. For data analysis, both descriptive and inferential statistics were used. Descriptive statistics were used for complementary analysis of the results. The methodology involved administering a questionnaire with structured and open-ended questions to informants in several communities who are conductors of the religious consumption and religious activities in the Midland of Tibet. Results: The following constitute incredible market to the annual total expenditure of religious consumption: consumption of religious items (ï¿¥400~600), Daily consumption (ï¿¥800~1000), Seasonal consumption(ï¿¥700~900), Unexpected consumption(ï¿¥1000~1500), alms giving to the professional religious staff(ï¿¥800~1200). The total expenditure of religious consumption is about ï¿¥3500~5000. The market scale of the above-mentioned religious items is about 200~300 million yuan in Tibet. Conclusion: Religious consumption characteristic can be concluded in Tibet. The religious services is bought with cash payment, instead of other exchange patterns. The daily and seasonal consumptions are limited by budget, obey the “fixed-price of community market” and lack of elasticity. The unexpected consumption is the guidance of religious authority without controllable budget. The marginal benefit of religious consumption never declined and new consumer substitutes have appeared. The consumption level has a positive correlation with income level.
This study sought to determine the effect of combining sawdust of Piptadenia africana with Ceiba pentandra on the physical and mechanical properties of briquettes produced at room temperature using low compacting pressure without a binder. Briquettes were produced from a mixture of sawdust of Piptadenia africana and Ceiba pentandra. Particle size of sawdust used for this study was 1mm or less. The two materials were combined at mixing proportions: 80:20, 60:40, 40:60 and 20:80 (Piptadenia africana: Ceiba pentandra). The results indicated that the relaxed density of briquettes produced from the mixed materials ranged from 534 to 766 kg/m3 whilst that of compressive strength in cleft ranged from 12.46 to 60.28 N/mm. At compacting pressure levels between 30 and 50 MPa, all the briquettes produced from the mixed materials had adequate compressive strength in cleft. The impact resistance index of briquettes from the mixed materials was adequate and ranged from 128 to 500%. The compressive strength in cleft and impact resistance index of all the briquettes produced from the mixed species were better than those produced from Piptadenia africana only. Additionally, at 5% level of significance, the relaxed density, compressive strength in cleft and impact resistance index of briquettes were significantly affected by the biomass raw material and compacting pressure. Thus, the addition of sawdust of Ceiba pentandra to that of Piptadenia africana could significantly improve the physical and mechanical properties of briquettes produced from sawdust of Piptadenia africana. Therefore, production of briquettes from mixed timber species should be encouraged.
Exergy is a property of a system and its environment and it is defined as the maximum available energy that could be converted into a useful work. This study determined an approach to analyse exergy of human physiological response of the outdoor conditions during blocklaying. Total of 204 masons were investigated on the average of seventeen (17) masons every month. The study was conducted between May, 2013 and April, 2014 between the hour of 8.00am and 5.00pm with environmental and physiological were recorded. The data collected were analysed with SPSS 17version. The mean air temperature was at maximum in November 2013 (36,1ºC) and March 2014 (36.1ºC) while maximum relative humidity occurred in July 2013 (69%). Similarly, the radiant temperature was at maximum in June 2013 (36.9ºC) and the peak value for the solar radiation occurs in December 2013 (806w/m2). Furthermore, the maximum average mean skin temperature occurs in March 2014 (34.8ºC) and the core temperature in September 2013 (35.2ºC). The addition of stored exergy and the output exergy gives the differences between the input and exergy consumed by the mason. This approach was used to develop a model for the stored exergy of the mason during blocklaying. The stored exergy was model named AIModel for the exergy of the mason working in an outdoor environment. This model was a modification of Fanger model of thermal comfort.