Aim: This study was carried out to check the pasting and functional properties of cowpea and soybean blends for culinary uses. Methods: The two legumes (cowpea and soybean) were combined in different percentage of 90% to 10% which serves as sample A and Sample B and C had 80% to 20% and 70% to 30% respectively. A rapid viscoanalyzer unit (RVA, Model 3D, Newport Scientific-Warriewood, Australia) was used for pasting. The functional properties of samples were determined based on standard methods in the Association of Official Analytical Chemist. Results: The functional properties results showed a decrease in bulk density with an increase in soybean blend with cowpea (i.e. sample A > B>C). The same pattern of results were recorded for water absorption and swelling capacity. Sample A have the highest value in all the functional properties determined except in oil absorption capacity, total soluble solid, and wettability. The pasting properties results showed a reduction in trough value which range from 0.50 RVU in sample C to 8.00 RVU in sample A. Also a reduction in final viscosity results was observed which ranged between 9.50 RVU in sample C to 16.00 RVU in sample A. The reduction followed with increase in the percentage of soybean blend with cowpea. Increase in percentages of soybean subtitution resulted to increase in oil absorption capacity, total soluble solid and wettability. Conclusion: In conclusion, the pasting properties of all the blends improved significantly over that of soybean alone, thus suggesting the trial of the blends for culinary uses such as the production of akara, and moi-moi.
This paper presents a solution designed and developed to solve the problem of recruitment experienced by the Federal Road Safety Corps (FRSC) of Nigeria. Since the establishment of the Corps in February 1988, the recruitment process has been manually conducted. This has resulted in enormous and completely avoidable financial and human costs. In addition to cost of travel and man-hours expended, FRSC personnel lives have been lost in accidents as they travel around the country to conduct recruitment exercises. In order to alleviate these problems, an Applicant Tracking System (ATS) is proposed to handle the FRSC recruitment exercise, keep track of various processes and make reports easily available. In this paper the approach taken to develop the ATS is discussed, technologies utilized to build the system are described, as well as how the system is used to improve the overall FRSC recruitment process. Furthermore, the system is qualitatively evaluated to measure its potential utility and effectiveness. The ATS is shown to not only have contributed to the enhancement of FRSC’s overall recruitment process, but also reduced the risks of sending FRSC staff on long distance trips around the country to manually conduct personnel recruitment exercises.
The work deals with thermal engine structures undergoing load based expansion-contraction processes powered by the residual heat rejected by low pressure turbines of the bottoming steam Rankine cycles. The isobaric expansion-contraction based thermal cycles at constant load referred to in this paper, is characterised by its high thermal efficiency at low temperatures, since such thermal cycle doesn’t obey the Carnot statement. Such bottoming energy convertor must be implemented in cascade with the low pressure turbine of the steam Rankine cycles at combined cycle power plants, including nuclear power plants. An analysis of the ideal isobaric expansion-contraction based thermal cycle is carried out and results are compared with the Carnot cycle operating under the same ratio of temperatures. Hydrogen and helium have been chosen as working fluids due to its high specific heat capacity and thermal efficiency. The satisfactory results obtained from a simple and compact installation envisage the way towards a new generation of thermal power plants.
Aim: To test consistency and strength of residual lateritic soil of Migmatite Gneiss of the Gneiss Complex from Abeokuta and Ibadan of South-western Nigeria for utilisation as sustainable road construction materials. Study Design: A reconnaissance survey was carried out for location and identification of major outcrops around the area. The test pit investigative method was adopted by profiling the subsoil 3 m below the ground surface. Disturbed soil samples were used for the determination of the index properties, while shear strength parameters were determined on undisturbed soil specimens. Place and Duration: The study was undertaken in Ibadan and Abeokuta, Southwest, Nigeria between Dec 2011 and March 2012. Methodology: All the procedures adopted for the tests were in accordance with the British Standard 1377.The specific gravity of the samples was determined using the pycnometer method. The sieve analysis and hydrometer methods were employed to study the particle size distribution of coarse and fine soils respectively, while the Atterberg tests were performed to investigate the consistency limits of fine grained soils. Results: The lateritic soils are predominantly well-graded silty, clayey sands with average specific gravity and clay content of 2.72 and 31.8% respectively. The colloidal activity of the clay ranged up to 2.25, signifying considerable volume change when wetted and large shrinkage when dried. Kaolinite and Ca montmorillonite are the principal clay minerals present in the soils. The fines are silty clays of low to medium plasticity. Conclusion: Fairly strong inverse relationship was established between undrained cohesion and flow index, implying that the rate of loss of shearing stress of the soils is comparatively a function of increase in their moisture content.
Aim: The four-stroke single cylinder diesel engine’s performance with various low heat rejection (LHR) combustion chambers was determined Critical comparison was made for various configurations of the combustion chambers with neat diesel operation. Design Parameters: Direct injection diesel engine with various configurations of the combustion chambers–Combustion chamber with air gap insulation and ceramic coating (LHR–3); air gap insulation (LHR–2); and ceramic coated combustion chamber (LHR–1) Injection pressure and timing. Materials and Methods: Exhaust emissions and performance parameters and were evaluated at different values of brake mean effective pressure (BMEP) of the engine. Combustion parameters were evaluated at its peak load operation. Particulate emissions were determined by smoke opacity meter (AVL 437), while nitrogen oxide levels were noted by NOx Analyzer (Netel Chromatograph NOx Analyzer (VM 4000). Combustion characteristics of the engine were determined at peak load operation of the engine using TDC (top dead centre) encoder, miniature Piezo electric pressure transducer, and special p (pressure)–θ(crank angle) software package. Brief Results: Deteriorated performance was shown by the engine with air gap insulated and ceramic coated (LHR–3) combustion chamber, when compared with engine with other configurations of the combustion chamber at recommended injection timing of 27° bTDC.(before top dead centre) Conclusions: Engine with LHR–1, LHR–2 and LHR–3 combustion chambers with mineral diesel operation showed deteriorated performance at 27° bTDC and improved at optimum injection timings and with increased injection pressure.
Literature search shows that research on feed stocks for the production of biodiesel in Africa have not been well documented. To close this gap, a research project was initiated to measure the fuel and physicochemical properties of common vegetable oils in Nigeria. The works on cashew nut oil has been reported and that of rubber seed oil is being reported in this paper. Rubber tree seed oil has several industrial applications but not all the fuel and physicochemical properties are available in literature, hence the aim of this study is to provide the properties of not only the oil but also the biodiesel, 20% and 10% blends with diesel. For the purpose of characterization, the oil was extracted by soxhlet extraction and the free fatty acids was measured and found to be 23.68 % which can react with the sodium hydroxide catalyst to form soaps that can inhibit the separation of the esters and glycerin. To prevent this, acid catalyst was first used to neutralize and reduce the high level of free fatty acids in the oil to less than 2% before using sodium hydroxide for the transesterification process. The resulting biodiesel was washed, dried and blended 20% and 10% with diesel. The fatty acid profiles were determined by chromatography analyzer and the oil was found to be unsaturated. The characterization of the oil, its biodiesel, and the blends were done according to ASTM and EU methods and the results obtained show that the properties of the biodiesel and blends are similar to those of diesel which shows conclusively that it can be used as alternative fuel for diesel engines.
Aim: To develop a nutritious product from banana for infants and increase banana utilization.
Methodology: Banana samples obtained from the Volta River Estate Limited were solar dried and milled into flour. Soybean and maize were obtained from a local market in Madina, Accra, mechanically dried and made into flour. Banana, soy bean and maize flour were mixed into composite flour in seven different percentage ratios. Physicochemical and elemental analyses were performed on the seven different banana composite flours. Results: Results showed a significant difference in all parameters analysed for all the seven different banana compositions. Composite flour made of local crops, banana, soybean and maize, had high levels of potassium and sodium (19350 mg/kg and 12850 mg/kg respectively) and appreciable levels of Iron, Zinc and manganese. Physicochemical analyses showed total carbohydrate was relatively high in all the composites flour with a substantial amount of crude protein ranging between 5.46±0.51 to 8.95±0.51%, moisture content with a range of 3.16±0.39 to 8.15±0.96 % and pH values ranging from 6.13±0.04 to 6.23±0.01. Conclusion: The proximate result and mineral content makes the banana composite flour an ideal product for weaning babies and infants. Formulation of banana composite flour requires minimal infrastructure and the technology involved is quite simple for the ordinary household.
Background: Composition of foods eaten routinely in quantities that constitute and supply macro and micronutrients is relevant in the overall assessment of public health status. Analysis of such foods will provide evidence on nutritional quality, guide to healthy choice and promote intake of varieties with superior qualities during ill-health and prevention of diet-associated disorders. Aims: To evaluate the proximate composition, mineral elements, glycemic index, amylose content and gelatinization temperature of eight (8) cultivars of unripe plantains (Musa paradisiaca) commonly consumed in Nigeria. Methodology: Mature unripe varieties purchased from a public local market were identified by a crop scientist. Flour samples obtained from the fresh plantain pulps were analysed in triplicates by standard methods, including AOAC official methods. Results: Moisture content ranged from 10.00-18.30% with statistical significant differences (P<.05) within the mean values. The ranges of ash, fibre, fat, protein and carbohydrate were 0.55-2.53, 0.19-0.61, 2.05-4.07, 1.12-7.24 and 69.96-81.18%, on dry weight basis, respectively. The ranges of mineral elements were Na 18.47-27.78, K 264.75-452.50, Ca 102.15-162.04, Mg 86.72-150.05, P 152.69-260.21, and Fe 11.92-21.46 mg/kg weight of sample. Amylose contents showed significant differences (P<.05) across the means and ranged from 40.25-70.75%. The cultivar, Efol had the least for amylose content (40.25%) and gelatinization temperature (68.500C). Glycemic index ranged from 39.04 to 51.05%. Conclusion: Plantain cultivars in this study contain variable nutritional compositions. The proximate and mineral nutrients were moderately low except carbohydrate with high content. The plantain cultivars had high amylose contents and low glycemic indices. Consumption of these plantains may have important non-pharmacological health benefits in the dietary management of type 2 diabetis mellitus, especially Nblpaul and Agbagba cultivars.
Photosynthetic adaptations and biomass productivity of six Coleus species namely Coleus aromaticus, spicatus, blumei, zeylanicus, forskholii, and ambonicus were studied by determining their photosynthetic rates, Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) and carbohydrate levels. CAM metabolism was investigated by studying the activities of phosphoenol pyruvate carboxylase (PEPC), PEP carboxykinase and diurnal fluctuations of malate dehydrogenase along with levels of total organic acids, malic acid and citric acids. Carbohydrates such as sucrose, starch, glucose and fructose were assayed spectrophotometrically. Significant differences among the six Coleus species were observed in photosynthesis levels and CAM metabolic pathway enzymes whose activities were correlated with the aerial biomass. Our study indicates that Coleus is a CAM plant with nicotineamine Adenine Di nucleotide (Phosphate) (NAD (P)) as a preponderant malic enzyme and diurnal fluctuations in the levels of carbohydrates reveals that Coleus utilizes reservoir of starch for the synthesis of malic acid. Δ13C accumulation is more in Coleus aromaticus and ambonicus whose aerial biomass values are also high indicating the correlation between carbon fixation and biomass accumulation.
This paper is concerned with the construction of some quadrature rules of algebraic degree of precision nine, thirteen and seventeen for the approximate evaluation of integrals of an analytic function on a line segment in the complex plane. The nodes in each of the rules constructed are symmetrically situated about the contour of integration. Asymptotic error estimate of each rule has been derived and a comparative study regarding the accuracy in approximations obtained by the rules constructed has been studied. Some standard integrals of analytic functions have been numerically integrated by the quadrature rules constructed in this paper to substantiate the conclusion drawn on the relative efficiency of the rules.