Aims: Multi-group analysis can be known as modeling the moderator variable since the strength of this method to moderates the influences of exogenous on endogenous variable. Basically, researchers interest to employ such method to extend their study to be more intense and practical. Sampling: This paper work used stratified sampling which is one of the probability sampling. Thus, the parametric method can be applied as set of statistical assumption. Methodology: Thus, multi-group analysis has become convenient to be practice in second generation modeling namely Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). Nevertheless, the limitation of Covariance Based Structural Equation Modeling (CB-SEM) causes the difficulties of researchers to further their studies. Hence, Partial Least Square Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM) introduced to satisfy the necessity of researchers. Truthfully, multi-group analysis is not implement in most of PLS-SEM software. Result: Therefore, this paper intend to demonstrate a parametric approach using z-test to attain the probability level with the help of SmartPls 2.0. Generally, z-test comprised of two types of comparing for each groups namely means and population proportion. However, this paper work apply comparing of means to attain the value of z-scores. Consequently, the aimed of this paper work is success since the implementation of z-test approach to multi-group analysis. Conclusion: In this case, categorical variable which is constituted for 2 groups namely gender group was the one to be moderator variable. The findings reveal that all the exogenous construct that link on endogenous construct fail to meet the required level of family wise error rate.
Two field experiments were carried out to evaluate the effects of Moringa leaf extract on the growth, yield and yield components of snap bean. The results showed that Moringa leaf extract applied at 11, 20, 33 and 50% concentration to snap bean plants at 10 days after emergence significantly (P ≤ 0.05) increased vegetative growth, leaf chlorophyll content, plant dry matter (shoot and root), yield components and fresh pod yield. The snap bean response to increasing Moringa extract concentration was quadratic with respect to plant height, leaf area, leaf number, leaf chlorophyll content, shoot dry matter and root dry matter. However, Moringa leaf extract significantly (P ≤ 0.05) reduced shoot and root water contents. Due to the Moringa extracts-induced increase in vegetative growth, leaf chlorophyll content, yield components and yield of snap beans, it was concluded that Moringa leaf extract could be used to enhance the growth and development of snap beans.
Land use changes are driven by agricultural intensification. The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of agriculture practice on forest cover and tree damage. For this, the Mount Cameroon Region was selected as the research site. Semi-structured questionnaires, interviews and focused group discussions were carried out to collect socio-economic data. In addition, field surveys and remote sensing techniques were used. Thus, ten 50 × 50 m sample plots were established in newly opened farms in the study sites. All trees damaged by fire during farming were sampled and the diameter at breast height (dbh ≥ 10 cm) recorded. Ground truthing was done to obtain ground reference data. During this survey, geographical positioning system (GPS) points were recorded from different land uses observed (farmlands, forests, bare ground, plantations and settlement areas) using Garmin eTrex Venture HC GPS. Landsat Thematic (TM) and Enhanced Thematic (ETM+) images were extracted for the years 1986, 2000 and 2008. The results showed that the number of farms cultivated per household correlated positively with the family sizes of the respondents (r= 0.98). The annual deforestation rate was 1.09% from 1986-2000, and 0.58% from 2001-2008. Noticeably, agricultural fields were increased by 12 ha annually from 1986-2000, while they were decreased by 33.5 ha from 2001-2008. A total of 460 trees belonging to 98 species of 33 families were damaged. The average basal area of the trees was 1.3 m2. The highest damage was noticed in Malvaceae. The most important species damaged were Terminalia superba, Xylopia africana and Entandrophragma cylindricum. Massive tree destruction was recorded due to land use changes specifically agricultural expansions, illegal logging and fuel wood collection with consequent threats to forest biodiversity.
Aims: To determine the effects of sodium metabisulphite and blanching pretreatments on the quality characteristics of yam bean (Pachyrhizus erosus) flour. Study Design: Evaluation of the effects of peeling, blanching and sodium metabisulphite pretreatments on the ease of drying, particle size distribution, colour and pH of yam bean flour using a 2 x 3 factorial design. Place and Duration of Study: Yam bean roots were obtained from the CSIR-Crops Research Institute, Kumasi, Ghana. All reagents used were obtained from accredited suppliers in Accra, Ghana. Actual experimental studies were conducted at the laboratories of the CSIR-Food Research Institute, Accra, Ghana, between August 2012 and November 2013. Methodology: We subjected peeled and unpeeled yam bean tubers (Pachyrhizus erosus) to three pretreatments involving blanching at 100ºC for 3 min; soaking in 0.1% sodium metabisulphite solution for 3 min and no treatment control. Samples were dried at 55ºC for 6 hours, cooled to room temperature, milled, sieved and the flour analyzed for ease of drying as indicated by the final moisture content, colour, pH, and ease of milling as indicated by particle size distribution. Results: The pretreatment methods had significant (p>0.05) effects on the colour of the flour samples. Peeling, followed by sodium metabisulphite pretreatment produced whitest yam bean flour (L*-value of 90.89). Flour samples from unpeeled roots recorded lower pH (p>0.05) than those from peeled samples. The combined effects of peeling and sodium metabisulphite or blanching pretreatments produced flours with desirable pH values. The blanched sample had coarser particles (50%>100 µm) compared to the no treatment control and sodium metabisulphite treated flours (30%>100 µm). Peeling, metabisulphite or blanching pretreatments did not affect the rate of drying significantly as indicated by their final moisture values. Conclusion: A standard procedure for yam bean flour production has been suggested to include peeling and sodium metabisulphite pretreatment.
Background: Studies on the nutritional and mineral compositions of staple foods will provide evidence to regulate intake of certain common foods for optimal health condition. Aim: To estimate the proximate, mineral and starch characteristics of five local varieties, D. purpurea, D. atropurpurea, D. liliopsida (purple yam), D. vilgaris, and D. villosa of Dioscorea alata grown in Izzi Area of Ebonyi State, Nigeria. Methodology: Five (5) commonly cultivated varieties of D. alata were sampled, each variety in triplicates, and prepared for analysis by peeling, dicing, drying and milling into flour. The proximate, nutritional and starch characteristics were determined by standard methods. Minerals were quantified by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometric Method. Results: The results showed that the varieties has moisture content 9.20-10.30%, ash content 2.48-3.53%, fiber content 3.31-3.53%, fat content 1.62-2.41%, protein content 8.40-10.46%, and carbohydrate content 70.88-73.90%. There were significant differences (P<.05) in the proximate compositions within the varieties. The ranges of minerals in mg per kg (dry weight) were Na 16.38-24.84, K 97.78-141.14, Ca 79.99-269.75, Mg 18.55-31.53, P 114.65-211.63, Fe 15.18-30.86. Glycaemic index ranged from 35.56-41.31, amylose content 12.42-16.11% and gelatinization temperature 85.00-87.00°C. Conclusion: The results indicate that the protein and fiber contents of D. alata varieties estimated in this study were high. The low glycemic index confirmed the yam varieties as low glycemic index food. It was concluded that the yam varieties are good sources of protein nutrient and suitable staple food for the diabetics. However, low mineral compositions were reported. Therefore, there is a need for intense cultivation of improved varieties for improved mineral intake from the yam by the consumers.
Aims: The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between participation in a short intimate partner violence (IPV) related educational intervention in family medicine trainees and the detection of IPV cases in clinical settings, given that expectations for an active and consistent response by primary health care professionals to patients experiencing the effects of IPV may not match the realities of professional preparation. Study Design: In a multi-centre cross-sectional study, 70 family medicine trainees interviewed every fifth family practice attendee about IPV exposure as part of their specialisation programme. Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out from January 15, 2013 and finishing after 30 patients were interviewed or on February 15, whichever was the latest. Methodology: The trainees were divided into two groups; the first was given a short educational intervention while the comparison group was not taught any additional knowledge about IPV dynamics and consequences. The structured case-finding procedure was explained to all trainees. Results: There were no significant differences in gender, age and working period in family medicine between trainees in trained and comparison group. Of 1842 questionnaire sheets analysed (91.3% of collected), in 19.4% cases (n=358) some type of IPV experienced during the surveyed period was found. Patients recruited by each group of trainees did not differ in gender, age, marital status, number of children, residence, level of education and employment status. The trained group found significantly less physical IPV exposure cases (χ2=7.420, P = .006), but not psychological IPV exposure cases (χ2=0.739, P = .390). This could be due to the administered teaching method, which was not tailored to change awareness, attitudes and consultation skills in the trainees. Conclusion: Non-simplified, comprehensive approaches to teaching IPV should be used and integrated fully into medical school curricula, since the IPV prevalence of approximately 19% is threatening and concordant with previous studies in Slovenian family medicine.
Aim: The goal of the study is to determine the suitability of a pond into which cassava mill wastewater is discharged for fish farming. The pond which is located adjacent the Faculty of Engineering of the Delta State University, Oleh Campus is currently being proposed for acquisition by the Faculty for the project. Methodology: A total of 13 physicochemical parameters were analysed from samples collected at four different points around the pond. The parameters investigated were pH, CN, BOD, COD, DO, turbidity, conductivity, hardness, Pb2+, Hg2+ and Fe2+. The TSS, TDS, DO, total hardness were determined by the UV absorption spectrophotometer at 220 and the metal ions at 420nm respectively; while the Winkler’s titrimetric method was used to determine the COD and BOD. The pH, conductivity and turbidity were determined using the pH meter, conductivity meter and turbidity meter respectively. Results: The average cyanide content at the discharge point over the four weeks experimental period was 39.0±1.69 with a highly significant effect (p=0.042) and the lowest value of 3.8±0.01 mg/l was recorded 10 metres downstream of the discharge point. The COD, BOD, TDS and TSS at the discharge point were 1236±0.63 mg/l, 430.7±0.53 mg/l, 975±0.90 mg/l and 4030±9.26 mg/l respectively; while the Pb2+ and Hg2+ were higher at the sample point close to a refuse dump. Values recorded for all the tested parameters were far higher than that recommended for water bodies suitable for fish farming. Conclusion: The pond cannot be used for the intended project at its present form, it could be considered for use however, if all sources of pollution are stopped with proper remediation.
Aim: This study was carried out to assess the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) among asymptomatic and symptomatic pregnant women attending antenatal care follow-up at Semienawi Asmara Health Center (SAHC). Study Design: This was a cross-sectional and quantitative study to assess the prevalence and risk factors associated with ASB among 200 pregnant women who were attending antenatal follow up in SAHC. A written consent form was obtained from the participants. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data from the study subjects on socio-demographics and possible risk factors. Place and Duration of Study: The current study was carried out in SAHC, Eritrea, during the period of March to June, 2013. Methodology: A total of 200 subjects were recruited for the study according to their sequence of arrival at the health center. Clean catch midstream urine was collected from each pregnant woman into a sterile container. The urine samples were examined using chemical, microscopical, and culture methods. Results: A total of 19(9.5%) samples were positive for culture tests. 12 out of the 19 subjects were symptomatic and the rest 7 were asymptomatic. A patient who has no signs of infection on urinalysis, no symptoms of infection, but a positive urine culture, the patient by definition has asymptomatic bacteriuria. There was a significant difference in the prevalence of ASB among asymptomatic and symptomatic pregnant women. Generally there was a significant association between risk factors such as parity, inadequate washing of the genitalia, a blood relative with Urinary tract infection (UTI), signs and symptoms, previous UTI and gestational age, and the presence of the UTI ( P-value of <0.05). However, age, treatment, pre-existing medical conditions, delay in urination, usage of contraceptives, and level of education were not significantly associated with the presence of the UTI (P>0.05). Escherichia coli was found to be the most predominant microorganism followed by microbes of streptococcus group D. Conclusion: Asymptomatic bacteriuria is not uncommon among pregnant women attending antenatal care in the population studied. Routine urine culture tests should be carried out on all pregnant women in order to identify any infection.
Background: One reason for the low yield of rice in Nigeria is the use of inappropriate plant density. It has been found that as seeding rate increased; panicles m-2 significantly increased suggesting that adjustments in plant densities could enhance upland rice yield which constitutes 32% of the Nigerian rice growing area. Therefore, this study was undertaken to assess the yield, yield components and economic returns of upland rice as influenced by population densities and cultivars in Uyo, Nigeria Study Design: A 6 x 5 factorial experiments laid out in a randomized complete block design with three replications were conducted in 2009 and 2010 at the University of Uyo Teaching and Research Farm, Use Offot, Uyo, Nigeria. Methodology: Treatment combinations were six population densities: 1,600,000 plants ha-1 (i.e. 25 cm x 10 cm spacing x 4 plants), 1,066,666 plants ha-1 (i.e. 25 cm x 15 cm spacing x 4 plants), 800,000 plants ha-1 (i.e. 25 cm x 20 cm spacing x 4 plants), 640,000 plants ha-1 (i.e. 25 cm x 25 cm spacing x 4 plants), 533,333 plants ha-1 (i.e. 25 cm x 30 cm spacing x 4 plants) and 2,054,435 plants ha-1 (i.e. 25 cm x drilling) and five upland rice cultivars: FARO 43 , FARO 46, FARO55, FARO 56 and a popular local check - Otokongtian. Results: Results indicated that the number of effective panicles m-2 increased significantly (P<0.05) with increase in density but not beyond 1,600,000 plants ha-1. The 640,000 and 533,333 plants ha-1 significantly increased the number and percentage of filled spikelets panicle-1. Increase in plant density significantly decreased 1000 seed weight while grain yield increased significantly with increase in population density except that the 1,600,000 density yielded significantly higher than the 2,054,435 density. The local check, Otokongtian, produced the highest number of effective panicles, followed by FARO 43. The FARO 56 produced the highest number of spikelets. Percentage filled spikelets panicle-1 did not follow a definite trend but FAROs 56 and 43 had higher percentage of filled grains. In both years, FARO 46 had the highest significant 1,000 seed weight while FARO 43 produced the highest significant grain yield. All the cultivars produced higher grain yield at higher than at lower densities Conclusion: Although variations were observed between years, 1,600,000 plant density had the highest net benefit (Naira (N) ha-1 N 1.00 = 162 US Dollars) in both years (N383,074 and N303,554 for 2009 and 2010, respectively), which represented 789.65 – 806.24% returns on investment over the 640,000 density, followed by 2,054,435 density. Therefore, FARO 43 and 56 have great potentials for this agro-ecology particularly at 1,600,000 plants ha-1 density.
The climate is changing, and humans are heavily exacerbating these changes. As the effects of climate change are being felt across the planet, scientists and policy makers are uniting to increase mitigation efforts and are researching renewable, clean energy sources to reduce the amount of greenhouse gas emissions released into the atmosphere during energy production. Of the different renewable energy technologies, wind energy is one of the most researched and implemented. Over the past twenty years, researchers have been applying Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to their climate change studies. GIS allows the user to spatially view, manipulate, and analyze data to determine patterns, trends, and relationships. This paper examines the use of GIS as a tool in wind power studies to locate potential wind farm sites, model wind farm energy output, and assess the potential for implementing wind energy.