The closed form (analytical) solution for the displacement of a beam with semi-rigid supports under dynamic pulse loading has been developed. Essential (Dirichlet) boundary conditions are prescribed and the equation of motion and subsequent mixed (Robin) boundary conditions are derived using Hamilton’s principle (principle of least action). Using the exact assumed modes for various semi-rigid supports, the temporal displacements (generalised coordinates) are obtained. The displacement field is derived as a series solution with each term being the product of a generalised coordinate and an exact shape function. The derived exact shape functions, which depend upon a set of dimensionless parameters, are obtained through an eigenvalue analysis and define the associated eigenfunctions of the generalised coordinates. A table is presented to aid easy formulation of exact modes for varies beams using an intrinsic non-dimensional parameter, α. Using Galerkin’s weighted residual the equation of motion is transformed from a partial differential equation to an ordinary differential equation for easy calculations.
For larger areas in the Côte d’Ivoire and particularly in the Denguele’s land, agriculture is the main source of income. Thus, the search for suitable sites for the valorization of this activity requires the collection and organization of data available. The aim of this study is to propose a model for the selection of suitable areas for rainfed rice growing using multicriteria evaluation and GIS. Multicriteria analysis were performed by the combination of Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP). Five thematic maps were considered such as population density map, land use map, slope map, pluviometry map and soil map. Different classes were identified for each thematic map. Using AHP, a paired comparison matrix was prepared for criteria classes and individual class weights and map scores were worked out. These weights were applied in linear summation equation to obtain a unified weight map containing due weights of all input variables. Finally all the weighted maps were reclassified to arrive the best suitable areas for rainfed rice growing. Areas that are classified as very good and good occupy about 74.04% of the total area of the region and are located in the north and south. The interpretation of the results allowed to note the contributions and limitations of the methodology used.
This paper explores the role of energy use in sustainable development and the potential sources to increase energy efficiency during the whole life-cycle of any material and its production process. It is the first paper of a research project exploring a decision making model for a multidisciplinary problem in nature. It deals with Multicriteria decision making for plastic materials used in a day to day basis. We analyze plastic materials used to manufacture disposable polyethylene bags among other materials that can be used for their substitution. We are also interested in plastic (polyethylene Terephtalate or PET) bottles and its possible substitutes. Sustainability considers the concept of exergy loss, Green House Gases emissions, real energy flows needed to the chain of manufacture processes, material balances in the productions chains and value added. These concepts are presented as a set of criteria to make decisions of alternative substitute materials. The materials analyzed for possible substitutions comparison for the case bags are: Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE), LDPE with a pro degrading additive, unbleached Kraft paper, cotton and polypropylene (PP). For the case of polyethylene Terephtalate (PET) bottles, aluminum and glass are included for analysis as substitution materials, but more important yet the possibility of recycling is also considered. A case study for Mexico’s market is developed to prove the methodology, offering some interesting data about consumption and production of bags and bottles.
Aim: Analyze the prevalence of domestic violence and depression and their association with coping behaviors in a group of parents of children with Down´s Syndrome. Study Design: No experimental, descriptive-correlational. Sample: This study used a non probabilistic sample of 212 parents of children with Down´s Syndrome, men and women, were the average age was 43.52 years old and most of them reported to be married (66%). The averageage of the Down´s Syndrome children was 13.7 years old. Methods: The instrument applied was composed by three scales: the depression symptoms were evaluated using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), an adapted version of the Coping Mechanisms Scale (EEC-M) for the measuring of coping strategies, and a domestic violence scale validated in Mexican population (Martínez Lanz, 2007). Results: The largest percentage of parents reported low levels of depression symptoms and domestic violence (79% y 87%, respectively).The results showed that parents with the highest levels of depressive symptoms usually got a more adequate solution for the problems, also reported more religious ways of coping situations, higher inhibition of their own emotions, search of professional support for aggressive reactions, cognitive avoidance and a bigger expression and distortion of problems. Conclusion: Highest correlations were found in emotional inhibition, aggressive behavior and difficult coping expressions depressive symptoms were strongly related with rejection of emotional decisions and aggressive behavior.
This research work was carried out to investigate the crop farmers’ assessment of information and communication technologies (ICT) used for innovation dissemination by E xtension A gents in Ogun State, Nigeria. A multi-stage sampling technique was employed to select 105 crop farmers from two agricultural zones: Ikenne and Ilaro. The data collected in June and July 2013 were analyzed using descriptive statistical tools such as means, frequency and percentage distributions; while inferential statistical tool-chi-square was used to determine the relationship between the variables selected. The study showed that crop farmers were between the ages of 41 and 60 years, and their mean age was 47 years, 74.3% were males, 83.8% were married, 84.8% were literate, 59.0% were members of cooperative societies, 80.9% attended extension programmes, 56.2% cultivated between 2 - 6 acres of farmland, and majority (56.2%) were earning between N10, 000.00 – N30, 000.00 monthly and a mean of N16,939.39K. Radio, landline telephone, television, slides, DVD and overhead projectors were the most used information and communication technologies by E xtension A gents. Also, there was a significant relationship between age (X2=74.075), educational background (X2= 55.774), area of specialization (X2 = 86.517), number of agricultural shows attended (X2= 27.989) and ICT used (X2= 377.323). The problem faced by crop farmers were inability of farmers to use ICT (X2=93.971), inability of farmers to perceive its benefits (X2=108.524), lack of technological infrastructure (X2=292.095), high cost of technology (X2=191.114), Not enough time to spend on technology (X2=138.592), no understand of the value of ICT (X2=66.848), lack of training (X2=189.057), and lack of supporting facilities (X2=209.248) of farmers in usage of information and communication technologies; and adoption levels of farmers. Hence, it was recommended that efforts should be directed towards improving the level of utilization of ICTs by organizing training workshop for E xtension A gents.
Statistical analyses reveal information of the hydrodynamics and environments of deposition of sedimentary rocks. The sediments of the outcrop sections from Uwakande 1, Obubra southeastern Nigeria were studied for their textural variations. Grain size analysis, and pebble morphogenesis carried out shows that the sediments are coarse to very coarse in size, poorly sorted, and very positively skewed. This in conjunction with the various bivariate plots employed, aid in discriminating between beach and river depositional environments. Pebble morphometric analysis of the conglomerates showed that the mean values of the various morphometric parameters range as follows: flatness ratio (S/L = 0.397 to 0.514), elongation ratio (I/L = 0.657 to 0.784), maximum projection sphericity (ΨP = 0.605 to 0.899), Oblate-Prolate index (ÅŒP = -1.738 to 1.594), coefficient of flatness (39.70 to 51.37), and roundness (-0.367 to 0.722). This study is significant in providing evidence of fluvial conditions during the deposition of the Eze-Aku Formation in the Turonian, and reveals the type of transporting medium; the mode of sediment deposition; as well as the environment into which the sediments encountered in the study area were deposited.
Fractions of the total head loss which constitute the loss through duct fittings, obtained in an earlier study, for varying numbers of supply outlets and lengths of index duct run were used in a regression analysis to obtain second order equations which gave a general increase of the fraction from 0.598 to 0.713 for an increase in number of outlets from 3 to 19 and for a corresponding increase of 11.2 m to 43.2 m in index duct length. The correlation coefficient between the fraction of loss through duct fittings and each of the variables of number of supply outlets and length of index duct run was 0.823, which was found to be acceptable for a 95% confidence level. The ratios are useful for quick estimate of total pressure losses in conditioned air distribution systems which are needed in determining the fan pressure requirements.
Despite the ban of paraquat, its use among Nigerian farmers for weed control is still popular. Larger proportion of applied herbicide ends up in the soil matrix. Off-site transfer of the residual paraquat as contaminant to other environmental compartment depends on sorption process. In order to study the influence of soil characteristics on retention and infiltration of paraquat in cocoa soils, adsorption of paraquat in selected cocoa soils was carried out. In the course of the experiment, Owena, Ibadan and Ikom soils were equilibrated with paraquat solutions of different concentrations ranging from 100 to 800 mg paraquat kg-1 soil. Result showed that, Freundlich model gave better description of paraquat adsorption in the investigated soils than Langmuir model. The pseudo second order kinetic equation gave better description of the adsorption mechanism than pseudo first order. Statistical analysis showed that, aluminium oxide and clay mineral contents were the main soil physicochemical parameters that influenced paraquat sorption in the soils. The low values of groundwater ubiquity score obtained from the adsorption data showed that, the investigated soils were non leacher of paraquat. Hence, its guided and appropriate use may not cause underground water contamination.
Aim: The aim of the study was to explore the nutraceutical potential of bambara groundnuts (Vigna subterranea L. Verdc) commonly grown in Zambia based on the phenolic phytochemical profiles. Methodology: Two market classes of bambara groundnuts (red and brown) commonly grown in Zambia were screened in raw dry form. The study employed the High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Photo Diode Array-Electrospray Ionization-Mass Spectrometry (HPLC-PDA-ESI-MS) to screen for phenolic phytochemical profiles of the 70% methanol extracts from bambara groundnuts Results: HPLC-PDA-ESI-MS- based identification revealed the presence of various phenolic compounds, mainly phenolic acids and flavonoids. In both the red and brown bambara groundnuts, the following phenolic compounds were tentatively identified: Quinic acid, (E) GC-hexoside, catechin glucoside, catechin, epicatechin, medioresinol, p-coumaric acid, salicylic acid, caffeic acid derivative and catechin dimer. The red bambara groundnuts revealed the following phenolic compounds that were absent in the brown: myricetin hexoside, quercetin-3-O-rutinoside and quercetin-3-O-glucoside. Conclusion: The nuts contain various polyphenolic compounds, mainly from the class of flavonoids. It is suggested that consumption of bambara groundnuts could possibly offer some health benefits since they contain phytochemical constituents that have been reported to possess protective functions. These data indicate that bambara groundnuts studied have the potential for use as nutraceuticals.
Open gingival embrasures often pose complex functional and esthetic problems. Management of open embrasures requires careful evaluation of the underlying causes. A team approach comprising of general dentist, an orthodontist, and a periodontist is critical. The authors reviewed a total of 51 articles including review of the literature using the terms ‘black triangle’; ‘open gingival embrasure’; ‘interdental papilla’ and interproximal contact area’. These articles provided information regarding etiology, diagnosis, and management of black triangles. There are several risk factors leading to the development of black triangles. These factors include periodontal disease, loss of height of the alveolar bone relative to the interproximal contact, length of embrasure area, root angulations, interproximal contact position, triangular-shaped crowns and aging. Treatment of black triangles often requires an interdisciplinary approach, involving of periodontal; orthodontic and restorative treatment.