Aims: Shipbuilding industry is one of the oldest and the heaviest production industries all over the world. There are several unsafe production processes which result accidents. Occupational accidents cause to death or injuries for workers, and financial loss for employers. For this reason, this study has been done for analyzing occupational accidents at Tuzla Shipyard Region-Istanbul-Turkey. Methodology and Duration of Study: Research data has been obtained between 2011-2013 statistics of occupational accidents with “Retrospective Cohort’ method in “Shipyard S” in Tuzla, Istanbul. Within this study, occupational accidents that occurred in the shipyard between those years are investigated. Results: According to study results, victims’ education level, ages, injured parts of the body, type and severity of injuries, reasons, effects and ratio of accidents due to seasons and months have been obtained. During the study, 13 major accidents, and 87 minor accidents happened. Primary school graduates or illiterate workers were exposed 39% of occupational accidents. Young workers under the age of 30 were exposed 59% of accidents. Eye (23%), hands (22%) and the finger (17%) injuries the most common injuries occurred in shipyard. Conclusion: Both employees and employers should fulfill their responsibilities for occupational health and safety. All major and minor accidents in shipyards should be recorded, their causes should be investigated, and all necessary measures should be taken. Both shipyard enterprises in shipyard regions should perform within the framework of a management system for health and safety, and ‘shipyard passport’ application should be brought on the system in shipyard region. In this study, for analyzing shipyard accidents efficiently, Shipyard Accidents Analysis and Management System (SAAMS) modulus was prepared and various results were obtained.
The effect of intracellular level of GSH on the cytotoxicity and interaction of four environmentally relevant metals arsenic, cadmium, mercury and lead (As, Cd, Hg, and Pb) was investigated. L-Buthionine Sulfoximine (LBSO) was used to inhibit the intracellular level of GSH in MCF 7 cells. Both individual and combined cytotoxicities of the four metals on the cells were assayed by spectrofluorometric counting of the surviving cells after 24-hour exposure. Exposure of the cells to three of the studied metals: As, Cd, and Hg resulted in the production of significantly (p<0.5) higher level of cellular GSH relative to the control. However, cells exposed to Pb with or without pretreatment with LBSO exhibited about 50% decrease in cellular GSH. Individual metal toxicity was higher in GSH-depleted cells relative to GSH-rich cells; However, the effect of GSH depletion was slightly metal selective as As and Hg exhibited toxicities. Cells exposed to the composite mixture of all four metals indicated additive and antagonistic interactions in GSH depleted cells and GSH rich respectively.
The article gives an overview on the study that critically analysed the effect of azimuthal orientation of current electrodes on the detectability of angular disposition of vertical electrical anisotropy caused by geologic features. This is very useful in ascertaining the correct orientation of foliation plane for vertically fractured geologic system. Eight points were studied using a pair, named alpha and beta, of orthogonal azimuthal cross-square arrays by direct-current electrical soundings in order to isolate and establish the angular disposition of presumed hidden subsurface vertical fracture. The kookiness observed in the resultant field observations was in violation of the principle of reversibility of light raypath (Fermat’s Principle), upon which the electrical resistivity principle is based. Thus ultimately, the work has reviewed the correlation between theory and field observations and predicted the cause of the kookiness. The angular kookiness (deviation) was linked to dipping of plane of foliation that is in practice assumed to be zero. Moreover, the study suggests that angle of rotation of array is suppose to be much smaller than the determined angle of dip for correct evaluation of dipping angle.
The current study was conducted to evaluate the quality of groundwater around Ibb in the Republic of Yemen. Groundwater samples were collected from ten different boreholes. The physico-chemical parameters of groundwater samples, as major anions and nitrogenous compound which include fluoride (F-), chloride (Cl-), nitrites (NO2), nitrates (NO3), ammonia-N (NH3-N), major cations which include (Mg2+, Ca2+, K+, Fe2+) and heavy metals (Zn2+, Cu2+) were analyzed in the laboratory using the standards physicochemical methods. Furthermore, pH, temperature, electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS) were measured in-situ. The results of this study revealed that the groundwater around wastewater treatment plant(WWTP) in the boreholes ( BH5, BH9 and BH10) was not potable and thus not suitable for drinking , since most of the physical and chemical parameters results such as TDS, NH3-N, Mg2+, Ca2+, T.H and Cu2+ exceeded the permissible limits given by Yemen's Ministry of Water and Environment. While the results of the others boreholes revealed that, the suitability of these boreholes for drinking. This study concluded that the effluent of the existing WWTP was the main reason causing this groundwater pollution. Therefore, it is suggested that the (WWTP) is either closed or its effluent is transferred further beyond the groundwater aquifer 20 km. Furthermore, the groundwater in the boreholes should be continuously monitored in order to prevent further ecological contamination and to guarantee public health.
Parinari polyandra B. seed is a potential source of oil with relatively high oil yield. Optimizing the extraction process of the oil will enhance its economic and industrial relevance, providing useful information for would be investors. Aims: This work is aimed at extracting oil from the seeds of Parinari polyandra B. by using solvent extraction method. The process was optimized by using response surface methodology to determine the effect of four sets of parameters corresponding to optimum oil yield. Methodology: Parinari oil was extracted using n-hexane and petroleum ether as solvents, Central Composite Design was used in the design of the 40extraction experimental runs. The effects of solvent residence time (A), temperature (B), solid/solvent ratio (C) and solvent types (D) on the yield of Parinari seed oil was studied using response surface methodology. Results: The optimal yield of 64% was obtained at temperature of 60°C, residence time of 4 hours, solid/solvent ratio of 0.05g/ml using n-hexane as solvent. The physicochemical characteristics of the extracted Parinari polyandra oil compared well with literature values. Extraction temperature was found to have the most significant effect on the oil yield followed by residence time, solid/solvent ratio and solvent type. Conclusion: The optimal yield of 64% was obtained at temperature of 60°C, residence time of 4 hours, solid/solvent ratio of 0.05g/ml using n-hexane as solvent. The physicochemical characteristics of the extracted Parinari polyandra oil compared well with literature values. Extraction temperature was found to have the most significant effect on the oil yield followed by residence time, solid/solvent ratio and solvent type.
Aim: To evaluate the antimicrobial properties of carbon and nitrogen doped titanium dioxide (C-TiO2 and N-TiO2) immobilized on glass support by examining the inactivation of E. coli ATCC 25922 bacteria in water. Study Design: Sol gel synthesis was used to prepare a series of visible light responsive photo-catalysts of titanium dioxide. The photo-catalysts were characterized via Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Scanning X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (SXPS), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) and Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS or EDX). Modified titanium dioxide photo-catalysts (TiO2-SiO2, C-TiO2-SiO2, and N-TiO2-SiO2) immobilized on glass supports were evaluated for their antimicrobial properties on the inactivation of E. coli ATCC 25922 in water. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Chemistry (Water Research Group) and Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Fort Hare Alice Campus, between July 2013 and November 2013. Methodology: A 0.5 McFarland standard solution containing approximately 1.5×108 organisms was prepared by adding Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 to a saline solution (0.85% NaCl). A battery of experiments was carried out to evaluate the antimicrobial properties of glass-immobilized and powder photo-catalysts. Every 30 minutes, swabs were taken from each reactor vessel and placed on the freshly prepared nutrient agar plates. Plates were incubated at 37°C for 24 hours. Results: The number of active E. coli cells after treatment with TiO2 was determined by colony counting after 24 hours of incubation. When E. coli ATCC 25922 was treated with powder TiO2 (i), there was a small decrease in the number of colonies within the first 30 minutes, but after exposure for 60 minutes about 98% of the bacterial colonies had been destroyed. Conclusion: Immobilized titanium dioxide photo-catalyst was shown to be less effective in the deactivation of E. coli bacteria. The three nano-composite photo-catalysts; TiO2-SiO2, C-TiO2-SiO2, and N-TiO2-SiO2 showed little cytotoxicity (the degree to which an agent possesses a specific destructive action on certain cells) towards the growth of E. coli ATCC 25922 while powder titanium dioxide proved to be very effective towards the inactivation of E. coli ATCC 25922 bacteria.
Production and characterization of aluminosilicate refractory brick using Unwana beach silica sand, Ekebedi and Unwana clays has been carried out with a view to determining the suitability of localy available raw materials for refractory bricks production. The sand was used to compose six (with 65%, 60%, 55%, 50%, 45%, and 40% of Unwana beach silica sand) refractory brick body together with Ekebedi and Unwana clays. The properties of the produced bricks investigated after firing shows that samples A - F had total shrinkage ranging from 3.2% to 8.3% with % porosity of 16.58 to 18.66 respectively. The bulk density result revealed that Samples A- F had 1.63g/cm3 to 1.53g/cm3 with compressive strength ranging from 7.90Mpa to 21.49Mpa respectively. The estimated refractoriness result indicated that the samples A-F had values ranging from 16080C to 16300C. The percentage shrinkage, percentage porosity and compressive strength increased progressively with decrease in Unwana beach silica sand contents, while bulk density decreased with decrease in Unwana beach silica sand content. The refractoriness of the bricks increased by 40C or 50C with decrease in Unwana beach silica sand content and increase in Ekebedi and Unwana clays content. However, all the samples were good refractory bricks; Sample F was the best in terms of refractoriness and compressive strength. But Sample A was the best in terms of lower shrinkage and porosity with higher bulk density and moderate refractoriness of 16080C. Therefore, Unwana beach sand can be used for (aluminosilicate) refractory brick production.
Power transformers form a vital component of the electrical power system; hence the protection of this equipment is a matter of priority towards ensuring a stable power supply. The unplanned outages of a power transformer could cost utility millions of dollars. It is therefore of great importance to minimize the frequency and duration of unwanted outages due to power transformer faults. This work focuses on improved methods of power transformer differential protection using weighted least square scheme. This scheme ensures security for external faults, inrush currents, over excitation conditions and provides dependability for internal faults.
This study was aimed to develop a device which can process Zobo juice at an economic rate utilizing the principle of leaf extraction method. Four tanks were constructed using aluminium sheet and stainless steel. The boiling, heat exchanger, and homogenizing tanks were made of aluminium while the cold water tank was made of stainless steel. The volumes of the tanks are 9.0 m3, 9.5 m3, 9.0 m3 and 5.0 m3 for boiling tank, homogenizing tank, heat exchanger and cold water tank respectively. The Zobo calyces are boiled in the boiling tank and the product is exited into the heat exchanger where water from the cold water tank is allowed into the heat exchanger to reduce the temperature of the zobo juice after which it finally enters the homogenizing tank where other ingredients (sugar and ginger) are added. The homogenizing tank stirs its content to obtain the final product. Its performance showed that in an average of 32 minutes using 9 litres capacity of boiling tank with mean volume of 9.0 cm3, the homogenizing tank with mean volume of 9.5cm3 would produce 9 litres of Zobo juice. It takes 32 minutes total processing time per 9 litre of zobo juice. This implies that on the average, one man working at a normal rate of 8 hours 32 minutes shift could process 144 litres of zobo juice using 9 litres capacity boiling tank. The calculated volumetric flow rate was 4.69×10-6m3/s. The microbiological quality assessment from the processed zobo juice showed 1.8×104 cfu/ml of mesophilic bacteria and 2.8×103 cfu/ml of yeast/mould with complete absence of coliform cells. The results implied its safety for consumption as a beverage. The zobo-juice processing device is low cost in terms of construction, easy to construct, easy to assemble and requires very little maintenance. It eliminates the unhygienic manual method of producing zobo juice. It serves the purpose of quick production of Zobo juice in homes, hotels, bars and restaurants. The cost of production is eighteen thousand six hundred and ninety Naira 18,690:00 which is approximately $117:00 US Dollars.
The main objective of the network security is to prevent DDoS (Distributed Denial of Service) attacks in inter-connected systems. Generally, DDoS attacks are attempted by hackers and explicitly block an authorized user from accessing their account and deny them the services they are entitled to. Hackers seek recourse to hacking using malware (i.e., Botnets) for increased access to and control of a large number of computers. Once the malicious system commences its nefarious activities, the attacks are carried out using a well-coordinated operation. After that, an expensive attack is done on more than one targeted machine. The main goal of intrusion detection system and research community working to prevent such attacks is designing a perfect security technique against the discovered and undiscovered DDoS attacks. However, the design of such a technique needs an awareness of the security problem and also the designed technique’s method used to detect, prevent and respond to different types of DDoS attacks. In this paper, a new Integrated Intrusion Detection System is proposed, namely, the Outlier Detection Approach based Intrusion Detection System-Honey Pot System (ODAIDS-HPS) to detect, prevent, and respond to various kinds of DDoS attacks. The proposed work is done in three phases, such as DDoS Detection, Prevention and responding to DDoS attackers. The first two phases are resolved by Intrusion Detection System from utilizing the Outlier Detection Approach to detect the malicious information received from unauthorized users. In the third phase, a new honeypot system is proposed to respond to unauthorized users with false information. The proposed system that is deployed on a trial basis is shown to prevent DDoS attacks far more effectively than any other tools or intrusion detection system.