This paper presents the primary results of the development of a chewing bench prototype. The final aim of the device is to reproduce the human oral cavity environment in order to predict ageing of dental materials, it automatically imitates chewing cycles and reproduces the physical and chemical changes observed during meals. A dental articulator used for prosthodontics was chosen as an ideal structure for simulating human mandible kinematics; it has the advantage of being water tight compared to a hexapod device. Using Open Meca® software and three motors the extreme movements of the mandible were replicated. Four thermally controlled tubs were used to mimic physical and chemical changes observed during meal. The chewing bench provides a valuable tool for the evaluation of dental materials; its relevance is based on the simultaneous presence of all parameters that affect dental materials during function (mechanical, thermal and chemical). It is the first stage of work which will be validated a posteriori. This chewing bench would hopefully reduce the gap between in vitro performance and in vivo observation and serve as a benchmark for existing materials and as a device for testing new ones.
The continuous evolvement of dairy industry in countries like New Zealand, with increased dairy conversions and intensification, has resulted in remarkable economic development, though at the cost of environmental degradation. The increasing use of nitrogen fertilizers to sustain increasing number of cows has increased the risk of enhanced nitrate leaching and methane and nitrous oxide emissions. In this study, Compromise Programming (CP) and Weighted Goal Programming (WGP) have been applied to a Waikato dairy farm to reconcile economic goals with environmental and resources management goals. The models are based on Tier 2 methodology, developed specifically for New Zealand, for determining the energy requirements of cattle. The models are first applied with the current farm management practices to analyse the performance of the farm in meeting the two specific objectives of: (i) Attaining the production target of 1320kg MS ha-1 year-1, set by the farm management for maximizing profit and (ii) Keeping the nitrogen leaching limit to 26kg N ha-1 year-1, as calculated by the agricultural management model OVERSEER nutrientbudget. Model results show that with the existing management practices, it is not possible to meet the MS production and nitrogen leaching targets simultaneously. The production target of 1320kg MS ha-1 year-1 results in nitrogen leaching loss of 29kg N ha-1 year-1 whereas the nitrogen leaching target limits the production to 1195kg MS ha-1 year-1. The results further shows that by keeping the number of cows calving in autumn within 150–200, and by putting an optimum area under the maize crop, it is possible to meet the twin objectives of minimizing the nitrogen leaching and maximizing the profit margins, though the production target has to be lowered significantly.
This paper demonstrates that rationality of an economic agent is closely related to the expertise and related knowledge, and personal attainment is generally positively related with education. We believe that social development levels are based on the corresponding knowledge and education levels. We analyzed the different functions of private and public education, the price formation of public education, student’s academic achievement, and the quantity of public and private schools. We demonstrated the importance of education market and university ranking in the development of education, and analyzed the proportion of people engaged in education in a modern economy.
Leachate generated from municipal solid wastes is a threat to surface and groundwater integrity. The leachate contamination potential of four different dumpsites in Lagos, Nigeria, that is Soluos dumpsite (SD), Ewu Elepe dumpsite (EED), Epe dumpsite (ED) and Olusosun dumpsite (OD) were evaluated using leachate pollution index (LPI) technique which is a tool for quantifying pollution potential of leachate generated from dumpsites. The LPI values were computed to be 17.85, 16.87, 18.99 and 23.54 for SD, EED, ED and OD respectively. These LPI values were compared with the standard and it was revealed the LPI values of all the dumpsites evaluated were above the standard which indicated the leachates generated from these dumpsites are contaminated and remediation measures should be put in place. The LPI value is also a useful tool to prioritise the order of attention, which in this work, OD should be given the first attention.
Aims: Many countries, especially in the developing world, did not meet the UN target of 2002 to achieve sustainable development (SD) in their built environment mainly because the issue of existing buildings which form the bulk of building stock were not adequately addressed. This research paper examined the improvement of existing public office buildings in developing countries, using the Lean Thinking strategy for the identification of perceived waste and inefficient facilities for sustainability. Study Design: The paper did a literature review on improvement models for sustainability. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Real Estate Management, UTHM, Johor, from May, 2013 to date. Methodology: The identified improvement models were examined from the perspective of their scope; the triple bottom lines of SD addressed; research framework; philosophies, paradigms; and their applications to decide an appropriate model for improvement of existing buildings for sustainability. A research framework was subsequently developed for the adopted model. Results: The lean model and the diagnostic post-occupancy evaluation (POE) tool were adopted for the study, with a working depth limited to the systematic evaluation of opinion to determine waste and inefficiencies in the building from the perspective of the occupants, in order to assess how well the building match their satisfaction, expectancies and needs, and identifies ways to improve the building design standard, performance and fitness for purpose. Conclusion: There is no doubt that there are a number of other factors and barriers that affect our ability to make existing building stock more sustainable. However, until these two major issues of waste, and inefficient facilities are addressed in built assets, the pace of SD in the developing countries may remain slow. The paper also revealed that the improvement of existing buildings is cheaper and more environmental friendly than rebuild, and will also reduce maintenance cost.
Aims: This work was undertaken to investigate the quality changes in mangrove oysters (Crassostrea gasar) exposed to various preservative treatments (PTs) including sodium benzoate (NaB), sodium chloride (NaCl), potassium aluminum sulphate (PAS) and green lime juice filtrate (LJF) during ambient temperature storage (30±2ºC) to enhance the shelf-life. Study Design: Oyster samples were subjected to various preservative treatments to enhance the shelf-life and the bacteriological, chemical and sensory qualities determined and the data obtained were analyzed. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Microbiology (Ofirima Complex), University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt and Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Rivers State Polytechnic, Bori, Nigeria during the dry and rainy seasons between June, 2008 and May, 2009. Methodology: Freshly harvested oysters (200) were steamed for 5 min and manually shucked. The oyster meat samples were then subjected to four PTs as follows: 0.1% (w/v) NaB, 1.0% (w/v) NaCl, 1.0% (w/v) PAS, 10% (v/v) LJF while the control samples were subjected to sterilized distilled water and analyzed for 3days. Results: Bacterial flora isolated varied; with control samples showing nine bacterial genera which included Bacillus spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus spp., Vibrio spp., Proteus spp., Micrococcus spp., Lactobacillus spp. and Corynebacterium spp. but fewer (five) bacterial genera were isolated from PAS-preserved oysters. The bacterial population of control and preservative-treated samples increased with storage time but minimal increase occurred in PAS-preserved samples. The pH of the samples differed with treatment but the control and NaB-preserved samples had the highest (4.72- 5.03) while PAS- and NaCl-preserved samples showed the lowest (3.20 -4.05). The sensory attributes of all samples decreased significantly (p<0.05) and became unacceptable after one day but PAS-preserved samples remained highly acceptable throughout the storage. Conclusion: Of all the samples, the PAS-preserved samples presented the best bacteriological and organoleptic qualities during the storage. Thus, the PAS-preservative treatment is highly recommended for shelf-life extension of oysters.
This paper studies the possibility of using natural rubber seed oil as brake fluid. The laboratory properties of both standard brake fluid (SBF) and natural rubber fluid (NRF) obtained from seed oil were determined. The actual test of the braking efficiencies of the brake fluids were carried out with a Mercedes 190 model within the speed range of 20[km/hr] to 90[km/hr] at the permanent campus of University of Uyo and the braking efficiency of 93.45% for SBF and 90.24% for NRF were obtained. This result shows that NRF is suitable for use as brake fluid.
This study was aimed at checking the affect of gamma irradiation on amino acids profiles, minerals and some vitamins content of pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) flour. The pigeon pea was gamma irradiated at difference gamma doses of 5, 10, 15, & 20 kGy, after which the effect of all these doses were examined on amino acids profile, minerals and some vitamins present in flour. The result showed a significant reduction of amino acids present in the flour at p<0.05, but the gamma irradiated flour still meet the Food and Agricultural Organization-World Health Organization recommended pattern and amount of essential amino acids. The effect of gamma irradiation was not significant on the mineral content of the samples with Sodium content ranging from 5.95mg/100g to 7.09mg/100g and Potassium ranging from 40.83mg/100g to 40.15mg/100g. The effect of vitamin was not significant since the flour was only rich in vitamin A, C and vitamin B3. Vitamin A content of the samples ranged from 458.95 to 463.83mg/100g, Vitamin C ranged from 18.69 to 24.00mg/100g and Vitamin B3 ranged from 2.86 to 3.20mg/100g. In conclusion, gamma irradiation has significant effect on the amino acids profile, but no significant effect on minerals and vitamins content of the flour.
Aim: To determine if there is a correlation between the ingestion of microwaved food items and haematological parameters. Study Design: Twenty male albino rats weighing between 180-200g were used for the study and randomly assigned into 2 study groups of 10 animals each. The animals were 10 – 11 weeks old on arrival. Place and Duration of Study: Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria, between September 2013 and December 2013. Methodology: Group 2 animals were fed on microwaved food items such as boiled rice and stew, jollof rice, porrage beans, porrage yam and boiled fish while group 1 animals were fed on similar unmicrowaved food items for 3 months. All food items spent only 4 minutes in the microwave oven. Blood samples of the 2 groups were analyzed in the laboratory. Results: A significant decrease in the means of Red Blood Cell (769.0×104±15.36 to 683.6×104±13.41), White Blood Cell (8.52×103±1.15 to 5.98×103±0.96), Packed Cell Volume (45.28±1.03 to 34.20±1.93), Haemoglobin Concentration (19.18±0.37 to 15.56±0.35), Lymphocytes (72.75±0.99 to 53.70±0.96), monocytes (6.47±0.27 to 5.60±0.36) and eosinophils (3.90±0.20 to 2.64±0.47) counts of group 2 animals was shown when compared to group 1 animals (P = .05). A significant increase in the mean of neutrophils (35.50±0.85 to 42.84±0.68) count of group 2 animals was shown when compared to group 1 animals (P = .05). There was no significant decrease in basophils (1.60±0.37 to 1.42±0.65) count of group 2 animals when compared to group 1 animals (P = .05). Conclusion: These results suggest that the ingestion of microwaved food items affects some haematological parameters.
A study was conducted in the experimental farm of the Federal College of Agriculture, Ibadan, Nigeria to determine the effect of poultry manure tea on soil chemical properties, the vegetative growth and yield of okra. The experimental design was a randomized complete block design (RCBD) replicated three times. The treatments consists of 2kg of poultry manure soaked in 50, 75, 100 liters of water and N.P.K 20-10-10 while okra was used as the test crop. The results showed that the application of 2kg of poultry manure in 100liters of water increased the soil chemical properties significantly while the application of 2kg of poultry manure in 75 liters of water was observed to support more of the vegetative growth of okra as well as the yield of the okra plant. Although, N.P.K 20-10-10 inorganic fertilizer increased the parameters measured, poultry manure tea was significantly better.