This research provides an insight into the threat of water resources in the northern region due to rising temperature and declining rainfall with the broad objective of analysing temperature and rainfall trends and their significance. A 50-year climate data from 1961-2010 on temperature and rainfall was analysed to determine the trends using temperature and rainfall anomalies (deviation from the mean) as suggested by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO). The data series was further subjected to Mann-Kendal test to confirm the trends and their significance. The data was analysed using Microsoft excel and XLSTAT software. The results showed an increasing temperature and declining rainfall trends of the anormalized data and this was confirmed by the Mann-Kendal’s test. The Mann-Kendal’s test shows that there is no trend in the rainfall data series even though rainfall is declining which means that the evidence is not sufficient to conclude at 95% level of confidence that a trend exist. However, there exist increasing temperature trends of the data series. Additionally, the trend in declining rainfall was found to be statistically insignificant while the temperature trend was statistically significant. The research which was concluded with suggested strategies to avert water scarcity in the mist of climate change will be relevant to decision and policy makers, water users and providers as well as NGOs and other stakeholders.
The aim of this study was to develop an energy efficient method to decompose powdered laboratory safety examination gloves (PLEG). This paper reports on the results of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) of PLEG without a catalyst. The study was conducted in the Department of Biological and Physical Sciences at South Carolina State University (SCSU), Orangeburg, SC, USA, during the spring of 2014. Twelve samples of PLEG were studied under three types of operating conditions. First a sample was scanned from 50°C to 800°C with a heating rate of 10°C/min while it was purged with 10 mL/min argon. The results of this study determined the thermal stability of PLEG and the temperature of highest weight loss rate (~410°C). The second approach used two sequential dynamic thermal scans with a linear and fast (200°C/min) increase of the temperature over time, and two sequential isothermal steps for 30 minutes; one below 410°C and the other at 410°C. The third approach used a dynamic thermal scan and a sequential isothermal step for 30 minutes at a temperature over 410°C. From the thermal scans and isotherms, the highest rate of weight loss, the temperature at the maximum weight loss, the acceleration of weight loss by thermal scan, the deceleration of weight loss at the isotherms, the rate constant and the activation energy of weight loss (Ea) were estimated. The experimental results confirmed that Ea of weight loss of the PLEG samples depended on the temperature of operation. At temperatures below 430°, the amount of Ea for the weight loss of sample were higher than those above 430°C temperatures. Also, internal reactions of the sample of PLEG at 340°C resulted on thermally stable materials, which slowed down the thermolysis rate of the sample at higher temperatures.
This study is aimed at delineating the aquifer systems in the study area and hence determining the parts with higher aquifer yield. To achieve this, 120 Vertical Electrical Soundings (VES) were carried out in Okigwe District of Imo State of Nigeria, using the Schlumberger electrode array and a maximum electrode spread of 900 m. Twelve of the VES stations were sited near existing boreholes to enhance interpretation. The resistivity of the aquifers zones varied across the study area. The highest thickness of 104.4m for the aquifer was recorded at Amonze (VES 95). Using an average transmissivity of 1032.0848 m2/day determined from pumping test data of the boreholes in the area, a mean conductance value of 91.222 m/day was obtained for the area. The hydraulic conductivity values obtained from the VES results varied from 9.8854 to 115.9646 m/day. The transmissivity values ranged from 992.04 to 10388m2/day. The storativity or storage coefficient determined for the area ranged from 1.59x10-4 to 7.80x10-3 while the specific capacity was fairly uniform with magnitude of about 877 m3/day. Using Dar Zarrouk parameters determined for the area, three aquifer systems had been identified viz: the Coastal plain sands aquifer, the Bende-Ameki sandstone/shale aquifer and the Ajali sandstone aquifer. The coastal plain sands aquifer serves the Southern part of Isiala Mbano, Ehime Mbano, Ihitte Uboma and the entire Obowo Local Government Areas (LGAs). The Bende-Ameki sandstone aquifer serves part of Ihitte Uboma, the Northern part of Ehime Mbano and Isiala Mbano. The Ajali sandstone aquifer serves the Northwestern part of the study area in Okigwe. Groundwater potential evaluation of the district based on the survey and borehole hydrogeological information revealed that the Southern part of the district is the most prolific in terms of groundwater exploitation and thus the most promising for siting productive boreholes.
The present paper aims to evaluate the actual relevance of the application of metrological criteria for the diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis using Comparative Cervical Tuberculin (CCT) inoculation tests. The present work involves the following steps: identification of the instruments used to measure skin thickness in tuberculin inoculation tests; calibration of the measurement instruments (callipers) using gauge blocks; identification of the variables that can affect the calibration results and the measurement results from inoculation tests; development of a methodology to evaluate the uncertainties associated with both the calliper calibration and with the measurements carried out during diagnosis; mathematical modelling of calliper calibration process and measurement process with the calliper; CCT tests performed in a total of 40 cattle comprising Nellore breed and mixed-breed dairy animals. To determine the effects of uncertainty on the test diagnosis, callipers with resolutions of 0.1 mm and 0.01 mm were compared. The results obtained showed that measurement uncertainty influences the final diagnosis. Therefore, the application of metrological criteria can increase scientific rigor and quality of the results obtained with CCT tests, and consequently, the reliability of the final diagnosis.
This work investigated the performance of Okra seed (Hibiscus esculentus L.) extract in removal of suspended dissolved particles from brewery effluent by coag-flocculation process at room temperature using various doses of okra seed extract. The study was carried out using nephelometric jar test. The perikinetic data generated were fitted to specific models for the determination of reaction order, rate constant, coagulation period. The maximum coag-flocculation performance is recorded at rate constant, Km of 3.6×10-3 L (mg.min)-1, dosage of 100 mg L-1; pH of 6 and coagulation period of 0.38 min while the minimum is recorded at Km of 2.95×10-5L (mg.min)-1, dosage of 500 mg L-1 , pH of 10 and period of 93 min. The optimum efficiency recorded at 92.6% for 30 min shows that the system is perikinetic controlled. The results indicate that okra extract can serve as a potential coagulant for the treatment of brewery effluent.
This paper introduces a design and analysis method of a microstrip reflectarray antenna (MRA) with a proposed H-like shape radiating element at a frequency of 10.5 GHz. The proposed structure has been analyzed and compared with the traditional square shape one. It is found that the H-like element shape presents a good phase range to compensate for the frequency fluctuation of the differential spatial phase delay even when the single layer printed patches are applied. It is also found that this reflectarray has maximum realized gain of 29.3dB with radiation efficiency of 92.3%, half-power beamwidth (HPBW) of 5.6º, and very low side-lobe level (SLL) of about -32.4dB. This reflectarray is found to possess a volume reduction of about 43.24% compared with the traditional square shape one.
The understanding of the viability, competitiveness, and challenges of using open source software has important implications for the understanding of its adoption. However, one important problem is the paucity of contextual, valid and generalizable frameworks for understanding the adoption of open source software. In contributing to address this important issue, this paper presents a theory-grounded framework for understanding factors and their influence in the adoption of open source software. The framework has been developed based on the decomposed theory of planned behavior (DTPB), through the augmentation of the research areas of the adoption of open source software and the adoption of information and communication technology (ICT) in small businesses. We show that the exploratory and explanatory capabilities of the framework provides simple concepts for researchers seeking to develop valid and generalizable research models and analysis instruments, and for practitioners seek common understanding of factors influencing their adoption of open source software. Implications of the framework are discussed within the contexts of direct utilization, as justifications for intervention, and as frame of reference for understanding and communicating issues influencing the adoption of open source software. The paper outlines proposals for future research to extend and validate the analytical capabilities of the framework.
Aims: The impact of air pollution on biochemical properties and air pollution tolerance indices of ten plants growing at Trans-Amadi Industrial Lay-out and along East-West Road, Port Harcourt alongside Umuokiri-Aluu as control site were studied. Study Design: The leaves of the plants were collected and used to determine fresh weight, turgid weight, dry weight, relative water content, leaf extract pH, ascorbic acid content and total chlorophyll content. Air pollution tolerance indices were calculated from data obtained for each plant species. Results: Results showed that relative water content of leaf samples were of the order Trans-Amadi Industrial Lay-out > East-West Road compared with the control. Leaf extract pH was higher at Trans-Amadi Industrial Lay-out and East-West Road than the control while Ascorbic acid was lower at Trans-Amadi and East-West Road. Percentage increase in air pollution tolerance index of seven plants of Trans-Amadi followed the order: Terminalia catappa (7.70%), Eluesine indica (22.24%), Musa sapientum (25.54%), Panicum maximum (26.56%), Psidium guajava (37.10%), Mangifera indica (44.18%), Delonix regia (181.90%) while that of East-West Road were of the order: Musa paradisiaca (4.84%), Chromolaena odorata (13.19%), Panicummaximum (20.17%), Musa sapientum (23.95%), Carica papaya (25.04%), Psidium guajava (25.32%), Mangifera indica (33.63%). Conclusion: Air pollution tolerance indices of the plants were of the sensitive category and hence they can be used to monitor air quality of Niger Delta.