An important part of health care involves upkeep and interpretation of medical databases containing patient records for clinical decision making, diagnosis and follow-up treatment. Missing clinical entries make it difficult to apply data mining algorithms for clinical decision support. This study demonstrates that higher predictive accuracy is possible using conventional data mining algorithms if missing values are dealt with appropriately. We propose a novel algorithm using a convolution of sub-problems to stage a super problem, where classes are defined by Cartesian Product of class values of the underlying problems, and Incomplete Information Dismissal and Data Completion techniques are applied for reducing features and imputing missing values. Predictive accuracies using Decision Branch, Nearest Neighborhood and Naïve Bayesian classifiers were compared to predict diabetes, cardiovascular disease and hypertension. Data is derived from Diabetes Screening Complications Research Initiative (DiScRi) conducted at a regional Australian university involving more than 2400 patient records with more than one hundred clinical risk factors (attributes). The results show substantial improvements in the accuracy achieved with each classifier for an effective diagnosis of diabetes, cardiovascular disease and hypertension as compared to those achieved without substituting missing values. The gain in improvement is 7% for diabetes, 21% for cardiovascular disease and 24% for hypertension, and our integrated novel approach has resulted in more than 90% accuracy for the diagnosis of any of the three conditions. This work advances data mining research towards achieving an integrated and holistic management of diabetes.
Aims: To design, develop and fabricate a portable optical instrumentation system for the measurement of Biochemical Oxygen Demand. Place and Duration of Study: The design and fabrication of the portable optical instrumentation system was conceptualized at Department of Chemistry and Department of Electrical Engineering J.N.V University, Jodhpur and fabrication was done at M/s Mindfield Technologies Pvt. Ltd., Jodhpur under the Instrument Development Program of DST, New Delhi. Methodology: A portable optical transducer device with microcontroller embedded circuit has been designed for the measurement of dissolve oxygen (DO) and calculation of Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD). It comprises of three functional units viz., sensing unit, instrumentation unit and controller unit. A monochromatic light source is used to irradiate the prepared sample solution under test. A part of the incident light is absorbed by the solution under test and intensity of the transmitted light is measured on other end by the optical sensor. The change in light intensity is used to calculate the DO and subsequently report BOD on LCD display. Results: A portable optical instrumentation system has been developed successfully and tested. The performance of the designed system has been assessed by means of statistical approach based on repeated measurement and obtaining standardization curve. The performance of the designed optical instrumentation system was validated by measuring the BOD values for standard Glucose-Glutamic Acid (GGA) solution and comparing them with those obtained from the standard Winkler’s method; the results depicted a close agreement. Conclusion: The developed portable BOD instrument is battery operable and compact for facilitating field use.
Soil samples from all the active landfills in Lagos were analyzed for some physiochemical parameters in order to determine their suitability for use as compost. Of the assessed depth of 100 cm; from the surface to a depth of 20 cm, the concentrations of metals in the soil samples were in the order: Olusosun > Ewu-Elepe > Soluos 3 > Epe > Oshodi > Badagry. Concentrations of most of the analytes decreased with depth. Pb and Cr had the highest values of 95.3 mg/kg and 60.48 mg/kg respectively. Furthermore, the concentrations of the metals were higher than most of the anions. The cations were strongly and positively correlated with depth in most of the landfill soils such that Ni > Cd > Cr > Fe > K > Pb >Hg > As >Zn >K/ Mn. These imply significant attenuation with depth of the metallic imbuement possibly due to adsorption and/or precipitation. The alternative hypothesis was accepted for pH, EC, Fe, Pb, Cr at 99% confidence limit, and for Ni, Cd, As at 95% confidence limit. The elevated levels of cadmium and arsenic in the topsoils do not support their use as compost for food cultivation.
A study has been conducted to develop safe swimming conditions along the North-West coast of Egypt. Investigations have been made for the perched beach approaches. Both numerical models and actual scale field data have been employed in this study. Attention has also been given to the empirical models available in literature for computing the transmitted wave energies and lessons learned from the application of protection structures in Egypt and overseas. An actual scale model of a perched beach is designed and constructed to provide safe swimming conditions using submerged breakwater and two jetties. The project area is constructed along the west boundary of the Alexandria governorate of Egypt. The latter area has long suffered from rip currents as large as 0.7m/sec and a limited safe swimming strip of less than 40m during the prevailing wave conditions in the summer season. Several design alternatives have been studied using a numerical model, namely known as Surface water Modeling System (SMS), adopting the actual wave rose of El-Dekhila port and bathymetric survey of the project area. Field measurements were carried out in May 2009 before construction of the perched beach, considered as the baseline condition. The model has been calibrated and validated against the collected and measured field data. Based on all the collected data and information, the numerical model has been applied to investigate different alternatives of the proposed structure including submergence ratio, crest level, the effects of the gap size (if used) and permeability of the structure on the wave height, radiation stresses, current velocities, sediment transport rates and shoreline changes. It has been found that using the guidelines prepared by the Shore Protection Authority (2002) a safe swimming zone, acceptable flushing condition and minimum flooding of the shoreline due to wave damping effect of the perched beach, especially in case of Low Crested Structures (LCS), could be provided. However, some negative impacts have been noticed both numerically and in field, including some shoreline erosion in the down drift zone and possible trapping of floating debris. The latter impacts can be mitigated by the use of some openings to allow the flow of water and sediments from the up drift to the down drift side to minimize possible erosion in the down drift. It has also been found that the maximum length of the impacted beaches is about 3 times the length of the jetties on both sides. The latter length could be lessened by the aid of lower jetties and/or openings in the jetties. The residual possible impact could be alleviated through a routine sand nourishment program of the shoreline at a frequency that can be decided on a case-by-case basis.
Aims: The main objective of this study was to investigate the influence of subjective factors in the tendency to shop online. Study Design: The research model was formed using some variables such as raw data collection, perceived benefits of web-surfing, perceived risks of online shopping, overall evaluation of online shopping and the willingness to shop online. This study followed a descriptive, survey method and it was a correlational one since it investigated the relationship between variables. Methodology: The statistical population of this study included all students of Tehran Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch and Islamic Azad University of Yazd. Using Krejcie and Morgan's sample size estimation table (1970), 374 individuals were selected for Science and Research branch and 300 cases were chosen for Yazd branch based on stratified random sampling technique. A field method was used in order to collect data, and the research instrument used here was a questionnaire. Using structural equation modeling, data analysis and testing hypotheses were done through LISREL and SPSS. Results: The results of the study, which were the same in both populations, indicated that perceived benefits of surfing the net with basic data collection and also basic data collection directly correlates with perceived risk of buying online. Also, perceived benefits of browsing the net directly correlates with overall evaluation of online purchase. Conclusion: The last generation is not still willing to take the risk and spend money where there is not benefit for that. Almost all Iranians tend to go out of the house for shopping and while they are passing the streets, they try to buy something. Online shopping removes this opportunity. The two above mentioned cases are true for those students of Tehran Azad University, Branch of Science and Technology and Azad University of Yazd who know how to use the Internet and their everyday life is, to some extent, affected by Internet. And about those students who do not have access to internet, or those who despite their access to internet, are not interested in using it, Fortunately, many cities in Iran are equipped by Internet connection in recent years and all these cities are almost big. Besides all mentioned, there are still some problems left for creating infrastructure of online shopping.
This study aimed at investigating agricultural water use technologies adoption by smallholder farmers in Lare Division Nakuru County Kenya. The study adopted a descriptive research design and was carried out between February and March 2014. It involved smallholder farmers who had adopted agricultural water technologies namely; water harvesting, water storage and irrigation to mitigate effect of climate change induced agricultural water scarcity. Data was collected by use of face-to-face administered interview schedule and analyzed using descriptive statistics such as percentages and means. Out of 115 household heads interviewed, 53.9% were male, 46.1% were female and 75.6% had primary level education and below. The main source of income was farming (70.4%). Water harvesting, storage and irrigation technologies were adopted by 98.3%, 93.9% and 37.4% of the farmers respectively. Common water harvesting structures were gutters and runoff drains (59.1%) and tanks (plastic and concrete) for storage (98.30%). Out of those that have adopted irrigating technology, 86.1% and 9.3% used buckets and drip respectively. However, the farmers face challenges in technologies adoption in terms of inadequacy of water harvesting (74%) and storage (81%) structures’ capacities and use of efficient irrigation facilities (78%). Farmers’ adult education, improvement of technologies structures’ capacities and usage of efficient irrigation facilities are recommended. Formulation and implementation of policies that would facilitate Lare farmers’ accessibility and usage of efficient irrigation technologies are advised.
Aims: Environmental degradation associated with greenhouse gases (GHG) including methane and carbon dioxide which causes global warming is one the challenges facing global environmental sustainability. This study was designed to assess the possible contribution of palm oil mill effluents (POME) to GHGs generation in Nigeria. The paper also discusses emissions from projection of three growth scenarios (current, low and high growth rates). Study Design: The study used historical oil palm production data for Nigeria and literature values on POME generation and conversion rate to methane and carbon dioxide. Place and Duration of Study: Wilberforce Island Nigeria. 2013 – 2014. Methodology: Literature review and projections Results: Result show that in 2013, Nigeria produced 4.65 million tonnes of fresh fruit bunch and generated 18.75 million tonnes of POME, which resulted in the emission of 341,164,687.5 m3 of methane and 183,704,062.5 m3 of carbon dioxide under anaerobic conditions. Higher values could be generated for the low and high growth rate scenarios when compared to current growth rate. But under aerobic conditions, the values could be significantly lower. The emissions irrespective of the scenario could impact the air quality and still contribute to global warming. Conclusion: The methane and carbon dioxide emissions from POME contributing to global climate change could be averted through conversion of POME to biogas, where it could be utilized as energy source for heating, cooking and electricity generation. In addition, palm oil mills can recycle POME to minimize the quantity being discharged into the environment.
The failure of the country’s intervention strategies to satisfactorily ameliorate the sufferings of flood victims and speed-up the recovery processes justify the need for the adoption of a more efficient and innovative response plan to tackle flood emergency conditions in Nigeria. Going through the history of institutional response arrangements during flood episodes, this paper discovered the absence of well-articulated, organized institutional structure to co-ordinate response activities during emergency conditions. Existing response procedures were found to be adhoc, ineffective and poorly coordinated notwithstanding the plethora of agencies involved. Lagos state government has, however, developed a preparedness plan which is currently assisting all stakeholders, including those living in flood-prone areas, to anticipate/ implement recovery measures speedily in order to reduce flood damage potentials. Using the Lagos model as a case study, the paper appreciates the value of a preparedness plan and highlights its centrality in flood disaster management. Based on the positive effects of the Lagos model, the paper suggests that the federal and other state governments in Nigeria to follow the footsteps of Lagos state government by developing similar flood disaster management preparedness plans. This will enhance their ability to develop and speedily implement effective response and recovery measures.