In this work, we briefly introduce the Stau particle and Stau catalyzed nuclear fusion method. The main parameters in this method, are Stau-atoms and molecules formation rates for fusion reactions in which calculated and the obtained results compared with each other. Since that these parameters are very important in the Stau catalyzed fusion and their values are directly related to energy production and therefore the fusion fuel selection.
This study concerns the resistance against thaumasite form of sulphate attack on Portland cement reference with high volume ground granulated blast-furnace slag, fly ash and ground basaltic pumice exposed to tap water (5% magnesium sulphate) for ten years. The separate and intergrinding methods, two fineness (250m2/kg and 500 m2/kg) and 30% proportions of each of the different additives were employed in equal amounts by weight. The development of the microstructure and the secondary minerals in the plain and blended cements were studied via polarising microscopy on thin sections and on undisturbed lumps of specimens by scanning electron microscope (SEM-EDAX) analysis. A series of mechanical tests of cement mortars were undertaken on all specimens. The development of the microstructural features and the formation of the secondary minerals in pores were coherent to the increase in sulphate resistance. The presence of thaumasite together with ettringite in some specimens reflects the incomplete transformation phase of hydration. However, despite the numerous studies conducted on the relation of hydration and hydrolysis with reference to cement hardening, the hydration-bound hardening phenomenon coupled with thaumasite morphology and matrix and/or pore space orientations are recommended for further investigation. The use of the pozzolans/ground granulated blast furnace slag and basaltic pumice improved the sulphate resistance of the cement mortars, where specimen E yielded the highest sulphate resistance-highest TSA resistance.
Unauthorized computer access is one of the most common, troublesome and potentially destructive behavior problems facing society. It is the high-tech equivalent of breaking and entering a home or business. Once the unlawful entry has been accomplished, what happens next depends on the level of the intruder’s destructive intent, computer skills, and the value of the property available for destruction or theft. This paper highlights the tools needed to fight computer insecurity and the best practices that are needed to guide our infrastructures from being accessed in an unauthorized setting.
Aims: The paper presents the development of mathematical model for the spectrophotometric determination of BOD along with its validation and an illustrative example of its application for sewage water treatment plant. Place and Duration of Study: The concept of determination of BOD using spectrophotometric absorbance and mathematical modeling of absorbance to measure BOD was developed at the Department of Chemistry and Department of Electrical Engineering J. N. V University, Jodhpur. Methodology: The wavelength of 440 nm, selected from the linear zone of response spectrum has been used as the base for measuring absorbance. The performance of the proposed spectrophotometric method is assessed by repeated measurement of DO for standard glucose-glutamic acid (GGA) solution and its comparison with DO values obtained by Winkler’s titrimetric method. Mathematical models of different orders were developed and analyzed for goodness of fit. A linear model was found to be the best in order to obtain the DO values whereas a quadratic model found to be suitable for the estimation of BOD. Results: The results depict a good correlation in the variation of absorbance values with DO values obtained from Winkler’s titrimetric method. Application of the proposed method for the measurement of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) in waste water samples acquired from the solid waste treatment plant has been included as an illustrative example. Conclusion: The quadratic model has been found to be the best model for estimating the depletion of DO after incubation in terms of change in absorbance from day 1 and day 5 for BOD modelling on the basis of analysis of SSE, RMSE, R-square and the polynomial coefficient of the model. The major advantage of the proposed approach is that the results do not depend on the identification of single end point and observer subjectivity.
One of the important problems in the human life is obtaining clean energy and a good candidate for this demand is proton-Boron (P-11B) fusion reaction. Hydrogen-boron fuel generates nearly all its energy in the form of charged particles, not neutrons, thus minimizing or eliminating induced radioactivity. Our main goal in this paper, is studying on the behavior of proton-Boron plasma nuclear fusion reaction in terms of variations of time and temperature, in the presence of Proton-Boron sources. Therefore by solving the time and temperature dependent balance equations on the system of P-11B fusion we determine the optimum physical conditions with low boron consumption rate to obtain maximum energy gain.
As a result of the negative impact of transportation emissions from locomotives, trucks, passenger cars and others on the environment, people’s health as well as animals, plants and buildings, there is need to turn to a more environmental friendly fuel for the transport system One of the friendly fuel is to use the compressed natural gas (CNG) in the transportation means, where CNG is cheap and easy obtainable. On the other hand, the transistorized ignition system can gives high voltage in its spark. However, the aim of the present work is to analysis the exhaust gas emissions produce from bi-fuel vehicle engine equipped by either conventional or transistorized breakerless ignition system at cold start, warm-up or waiting for traffic lights. The study involves the measurements of engine exhaust gas emission factors such as total hydrocarbon (THC), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2) at no load, while the engine is running under two modes. In the first mode, the engine run on gasoline, while in the second mode, the engine runs on CNG. By using this concept, the influence of the transistorized ignition when used in the bi- engine which runs in the two modes considered on the exhaust gas emission factors has been identified. The results indicate that a significant reduction in exhaust gas emission factors are obtained, the values of THC, CO and CO2 measured when the engine was equipped by transistorized ignition system are lower than those measured when the engine was equipped by conventional ignition system.
Aim: The economic analysis of post harvest losses incurable in value addition to banana/plantain ‘due to space’ in the two major production and consumption centres in Nigeria. Study Design: Structured questionnaires were used to obtain the required information from the banana/plantain merchants. Place and Duration: The study was carried out in Ondo (collection/production depot) and Lagos (sales depot) states of Nigeria. It covered the period from January to December 2013. Methodology: Primary data were collected from merchants at the collection and sales depot. Budgeting, Gross margin and Multiple linear regressions were used to analyze the data. Results: The highest losses were incurred during transportation and these constituted about 5.62% of the potential total revenue. On the average, loss in gross margin was about â‚¦6,000.00 per merchant. The impacts of these losses are reflected in the continuously reducing level of their income. Conclusion: The merchants need adequate and sustainable transportation and storage facilities as a matter of utmost urgency. There is the need for government to encourage producers of the product (farmers) by giving them incentives to motivate them and ensure that the environment is made conducive also for dealers by providing adequate storage facilities and providing ready markets locally and possibly for export. * Naira (â‚¦) is the Nigeria Currency; â‚¦160 is equivalent to $1.00 as at the time of this study.
The purpose of this study is to investigate the shear strength and stiffness characteristics of high plasticity offshore clay. A series of undrained monotonic triaxial compression and direct simple shear tests was conducted on reconstituted saturated offshore clay specimens. The clay specimens were tested under different confining pressures and overconsolidation ratios (OCR 1, 2, 4, 10 and 40) at constant dry density of about 1.25g/cm3. The offshore clay exhibits contractive behaviour. The test results show that an increase in OCR increases the normalized deviator stress and stiffness of the offshore clay. The normalized stiffness increases with increasing OCR but decreases with increasing axial strain. The normalized shear strength of high plasticity offshore clay increases with increasing strain rates.