The present paper involves a detailed comparison between the salt tolerance and physiological responseof three eucalypt species occurring within the Swan Coastal Plain, Western Australia. Eucalyptus gomphocephala DC (Myrtaceae) (common name ‘Tuart’) is restricted to the calcareous (limestone), brown or yellow sand of the coastal Spearwood dunes. Eucalyptus marginata Sm. (common name ‘Jarrah’) is a small tree on the porous, well-drained sandy soils of the Bassendean dunes Plain, and a much larger tree on the Darling Range. Corymbia calophylla (Lindl.) K.D. Hill & J. A. S. Johnson (common name ‘Marri’), and has a similar distribution to that of Jarrah, but is more common on wetter, well drained soils. This investigate implemented to find out the seedling tolerance of these three species to soil-induced stressor, namely salinity via addition of sodium chloride solution. Tolerance assessment measured changes in seedling growth, leaf allocation and leaf physiology after 70-80 days. Neither E. marginata and C. calophylla could tolerate the highest salinity (0.25 M NaCl solutions) with 9-13% survival, although E. marginata was clearly the least tolerant with 52% reduction in relative growth rate and a 88% in transpiration rates. E. gomphocephala was the most tolerant to salt stress in terms of survival and growth parameters.
Aims: Rice husk was chemically treated to be used as bio sorbent for removal of humic substances from peat swamp runoff. The spent bio sorbent was then applied as soil conditioner for enhancing plant growth. Study Design: Randomized Complete Block Design. Place and Duration of Study: Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, between September 2012 and August 2013. Methodology: Rice husk was chemically treated with sodium hydroxide and citric acid. The treated rice husk was subjected to peat swamp leachate to absorb humic substances. It was then applied to grow Brassica juncea var. rugosa L. in six different treatments, each with six replicates, using Randomized Complete Block Design. Results: Fourier Transform Infrared spectra of rice husk were characterized by major absorption bands attributable to lignocellulosic compounds. The treatment process primarily removed lignin and hemicellulose increasing the binding sites for adsorption. An average of 60-70% of humic content was removed from peat swamp runoff, determined based on the absorbance at 465 nm. The humic-loaded biosorbent was applied to grow Brassica juncearugosa L. under six different treatments to examine its effectiveness in enhancing plant growth. These include planting media only (sand and topsoil at a ratio of 3:2), [planting media + fertilizer], [planting media + humic-modified rice husk + fertilizer], [planting media + modified rice husk + fertilizer], [planting media + raw rice husk], [planting media + raw rice husk + fertilizer]. Results showed that plants grown in humic-loaded modified rice husk in combination with fertilizer exhibited significant growth improvement followed by those grown in raw rice husk and fertilizer. Others were relatively less promising suggesting that humic fortified biomass may function as soil conditioner in improving nutrient uptake. Conclusion: The application of rice husk for water treatment and agriculture is an economically sustainable and environmental friendly approach.
The present work is focusing on characterizing the films of poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and poly (vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) with various mass fractions of NiCl2/CdCl2 by different techniques. XRD scans revealed the semicrystalline nature of the prepared films and demonstrated that complexation between the blend and the filler took place in the amorphous region. FT-IR and UV-visible studies confirmed these results. UV-visible analysis also revealed that the optical energy gap was affected by adding the mixed filler, indicating that there are charge transfers complexes arose in the polymer blend matrices. DSC revealed single Tgwhich indicates miscibility of the prepared films. The electrical conductivity was enhanced from 2.16 x 10-8S/cm of pure blend to 1.1 x 10-4 S/cm for the blend filled with 20 wt % of the mixed filler so, From these data the prepared films can be used for rechargeable batteries.
Manufacturing is the transformation of ideas, designs, materials and information into products for satisfaction of human needs. However, advanced manufacturing technology is the application of advances in production methodologies to increase productivity, improve existing products and produce quality new products that meet all global standards. This paper presents a comparative study of the Nigeria Coat of Arms, for use as a Seal, using computer numeric control (CNC) and rapid prototyping (RP) methods. The total production time of the components was considered in both cases of using the CNC machine and the RP machine. The same speed and feed rate were used in both machines but the machine physical differences: stress, temperature etc, were not considered. The production time using the CNC machine was 27.81 hours while on the RP machine, the production time was 8.43 hours. This goes to show that for product development, the RP machine would be more suitable than the CNC machine. In a developing economy like Nigeria, knowledge management of machine tool is a vital key to having vibrant manufacturing sector able to cope with the dynamic challenges of increasing globalised world.
Flours and starches from three Nigeria rice varieties CISADANE (Faro51), OS6 (Faro11) and NERICA 19 were evaluated for their pasting, thermal and gel texture properties. Their thermal properties were evaluated with Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC) andpasting properties were obtained using a Rapid Viscography Analyser (RVA). Light transmittance of their gel textural properties was determined using UV-vis spectrophotometer. The results showed that Glass transition temperature (Tg) was highest in CISADANE (Faro51) (222ºC) and almost the same in OS6 (Faro11). Melting point (MP) temperature was highest for OS6 (Faro11)(264ºC) and almost the same for NERICA 19 and CISADANE (Faro51) flour. Tg values of starches were almost the same in CISADANE (Faro51) and NERICA 19 (264ºC). CISADANE (Faro51) starch showed highest melting point (237ºC), almost the same for the other two starches. It was observed that defatting caused degradation in the physical properties of flours and starches of all the three rice varieties investigated.It was concluded that proteins and fats could influence the glass transition and other physical properties of rice flours and their respective starches.
Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)/hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) (100/0, 80/20, 50/50, 20/80 and 0/100 wt/wt%) blend films are prepared by solution casting method and subjected to fast neutrons irradiation for fluence 1 x 107n/cm2. The effects of different HPC concentrations on the optical properties such as: near infrared, absorbance and transmittance spectra in the region 250–2500 nm of the prepared films are studied before and after irradiation with fast neutrons. The absorption coefficient and the extinction coefficient for the prepared films have been calculated. The transmittance spectra are used for the determination of the optical tristimulus transmittance values. The obtained results illustrate that the increase in the concentration of HPC with PVA and/or irradiation with fast neutrons changed the chemical bonds and hence changed the molecular configuration of PVA indicating that there are charge transfers complexes arose in the polymer blend matrices.
A small-scale rice parboiling system, developed in the National Cereals Research Institute (NCRI), was modified by a combined team of engineers of NCRI, Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA), DESFABENG Co. Ltd and the Federal Ministry of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Nigeria. The system has a capacity to parboil 1000kg of rice per batch of over 8hours process time. This process duration is a combination of 6hours soaking, 1 hour 45 minutes steaming and 30 minutes packing. The equipment is comprised of a boiler and steaming sections, which are interconnected by a network of pipes to allow hot water and steam to soak and steam the paddy. The original design of the system had problems of uneven steaming and over-steaming, which usually results in variations in the coloration of processed rice, thereby making it unattractive to buyers. Also, longer cooking durations with attendant loss in flavor of the rice were observed. In order to solve this problem, the parboiling system was modified by incorporating additional steaming pipes at half of the height of the original design to reduce the distance travelled by the steam to get to the top of the system. The modified model drastically reduced the steaming duration of paddy from 1 hour 45 minutes to 45 minutes, thereby eliminating the problems of variations in coloration and longer cooking duration.
In a view to bring to light Cameroon’s rich vegetative potential, optimisation of gum extraction from a local plant Beilschmiedia obscura (B.O.) was studied. Extracts of this plant are being used as food improvers in some Cameroonian dishes, but are not yet exploited for industrial applications. Gums were extracted from the seeds of B.O. by solubilisation in aqueous media followed by ethanol purification. A centre composite experimental design with three factors: temperature, pH and alcohol/water ratio was used. Responses considered were, water absorption capacity, solubility index and the emulsifying activity. The results obtained were analysed with the Statistica centurion software and the validation criteria for the obtained models where: the AADM1, the determination coefficient R2. Sigma plot-11 software was used to plot surface response curves, so as to better visualise the results. From this study, it follows that optimum conditions for the extraction of gums from Beilschmiedia obscura (G.B.O.)2, was attained at pH 7.3, alcohol/water ratio of 3 and at 67.5ºC.