Enzymatic antioxidant was determined to establish a possible environmental impact on toxic metal in fish Danio rerio. Alterations in the antioxidant cellular systems have often been proposed as biomarkers of pollutant-mediated toxicity. This prompted us to investigate the activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase, Reduce Glutathione in the liver of mercuric chloride treated zebra fish. The fishes were exposed to Mercuric chloride for a period of 96 hours. The LC50 value was obtained by using probit software based on 50% of fish that died at each concentration. Mortality was recorded at 24th, 48th, 72nd and 96th hours. Various concentrations of Mercuric chloride (70µg/ml and 250µg/ml as 1st stage, 20mg/ml, 30mg/ml, 50mg/ml and 60mg/ml as 2nd stage, and 5mg/ml, 2.5mg/ml, 2mg/ml, 1mg/ml and 0.5mg/ml as 3rd stage) were injected into the tanks containing the fishes for 96 hours with a photoperiod of 12hours. After the 96 hours, Liver of the fishes was collected in an Eppendorf and stored at -20ºC for further analysis. In the present study, increase in SOD activity as well as Catalase activity and a decrease in glutathione activity were registered.
Aims: To investigate the effect of chronic exposure to petroleum hydrocarbon pollution on renal and some haematological parameters of the native fowl (Gallus domesticus), reared in an environment known to be polluted with petroleum hydrocarbon. Study Design: Randomized controlled animal experiment using twenty-four male native fowls (12 each from the experimental areas). Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biochemistry, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria, between November 2009 and November 2010. Methodology: Standard methods for haematological and renal function assessment were adopted. Results: The study showed that there was no significant (p>0.05) difference in the electrolyte concentrations (K+ and HCO3- ions ) in the serum of fowls from both environments, but a significant decrease (p>0.05) in Na+ and Cl- ion concentrations in the serum of fowls from Mbaise when compared to those from Egbema. The effect of the pollution significantly (p<0.05) reduced serum concentrations of total bilirubin, urea and creatinine. The haematological parameters: [white blood cell (wbc) and red blood cell (rbc) counts were significantly (p<0.05) affected, percentage haemoglobin (Hb) and haemoglobin/ methaemoglobin (Hb/metHb) ratio] were not significantly (p>0.05) affected. Conclusion: Petroleum hydrocarbon pollution is suggested to possess the potential to affect certain haematological parameters, total bilirubin and renal function.
The vision of next generation networks is to offer a real time services such that traffic situation on the major or minor roads. While 3G networks are based on wide area cell concept, 4G will be a hybrid network that use wide area network with Ad-hoc network. In this paper we propose two algorithms, the first algorithm describes how information is disseminate in our system Virtual Explore (VE). VE is a motion detection system that able to predict the mobile user destination. The second algorithm is α-path prediction algorithm that predicts the destination of mobile user based on his previous movements, we expect that our proposed system will reduce the traffic rate between (40-50%) in the case of accidents or in the congested locations. Our analytical results show that the prediction accuracy in our work will vary from 20-40% if we maintains a prediction correctness in the range 40-50%. Considering our goal the prediction accuracy is considered a good results in comparison with other works in the same context.
The inhibition of corrosion of copper in hydrochloric acid and tetraoxosulphate (VI) acid Solutions by Aloe Vera gel has been evaluated by the weight loss method. Inhibition efficiency increased with increase in concentration of the inhibitor system. As the temperature increased the inhibition efficiency decreased. The process follows first order kinetics, and obeys Langmuir adsorption Isotherm. The composition of the active principle of Aloe Vera gel is given.
Worldwide climatologists are investigating to find a possible relation of climate change with anthropogenic behavior by studying trends in different climatic parameters. However, the changes in temperature are not equal for all regions especially in India and have localized intensity and must be quantified locally to manage the natural resources. Aim of the study is to determine trend in annual mean and monthly Temperature time series using nonparametric methods (i.e. the Mann–Kendall and Sen’s T tests). The magnitudes of trend in a Temperature time series have been estimated by Sen’s estimator method. Auto correlation effect is reduced from the Temperature series before applying the Mann–Kendall test. In the present study, an investigation has been made to study the spatial and temporal variability in the maximum, the minimum and the mean air temperatures of Upper Ganga Canal Command located in Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand on monthly, annual and seasonal series from 1901 to 2002. The annual mean, maximum and minimum temperatures have increased by 0.60ºC, 0.60ºC and 0.62ºC, respectively, over the past 101 years. On a seasonal basis, the winters are warmer than summers. The temperature decreased during the less urbanized period of 1901 to 1951 and increased during the more urbanized period of 1961 to 2002. It is also found that the minimum temperature increased at higher rate (0.42ºC) followed by the mean (0.36ºC) and the maximum (0.32ºC) air temperatures, during the more urbanized period.
This experimentally-controlled designed study compared the effects of low- and high-glycemic index diets on biochemical variables and organ histology in alloxan-induced diabetic rats (DR). Effects of low-GI (fried yam)and high-GI (roasted) diets on organ and body weights, pancreas histology, glycemic tolerance (GT) and lipid profile (LP) were determined and compared in the adult alloxan-induced (150mg/kg intraperitoneally) diabetic rats of 3 groups (8 rats each) fed with standard rat feed (control), fried and roasted yam diets respectively for six weeks. Lipid profile and glycemic tolerance were analysed and determined using a dry-chemical automatic analyzer and oral D"glucose load of 2gm kg"1 dissolved in distilled water respectively. Organs were extracted and weighed while pancreas histoarchitecture examined after 6 weeks of feeding. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and Student’s t test while values of P<0.05 were considered significant. Postprandial glycemic response to low-GI (GI = 36%) diet showed improved GT (IAUC = 3082.5mg/dl.min) over that of high-GI (GI = 93%) diet (IAUC = 8332.0mg/dl.min). A significant increase (P<0.05) in mean body weight of rats was observed in all groups after six weeks of feeding with the highest increase (24.8%) observed in DR on high-GI diet (initial weight = 251.0±1.6g; final weight = 312.3±5.9g) and the lowest increase (9.2%) in DR on low-GI diet (initial weight = 250.7±1.1g; final weight = 273.2±1.7g). No significant change was observed in mean organ weights. Pancreas histology of DR on high-GI diet showed degeneration with degranulation and vacuolation of the islet β cells while regeneration of some β cells was observed in DR fed with low-GI diet. Triacylglycerides (52.2±1.0mg/dL) and cholesterol (60.5±1.5mg/dL) increased in DR fed with fried yam (low-GI) compared with those fed on roasted yam (high-GI). The low-GI diet used in this study showed improved glycemic tolerance and histoarchitecture of pancreatic islets over that of high-GI diet. Although both diets are prepared from same source, difference in their processing methods reflects their observed impact on the biochemical variables. Fried yamas one of severally known low-GI diets may be incorporated in diabetic menu. However, long-term consumption of fatty foods should be avoided.
Aims: The study is conducted with the objective of deriving the growth and loss rates of cancer causing cells by formulating two optimization problems based on Two Stage Stochastic Model for Cancer Cell growth developed by Srinivasa Rao and Tirupathi Rao . It has significant usage in development of decision support systems for optimal drug administration by health care industry for cancer chemotherapy protocols. Study Design: The study is designed for developing the optimization programming problems with two different aims. The primary one is to minimize the expected intensity of cancer causing cells either in mutant or malignant stage, the other is to minimize the stay time of cancer causing cell in the tumor. The subjective constraints are designed with maximum expected levels and limits on variability size of cancer causing cells in mutant and malignant stages. The constraints of the other problem are the expected durations of cancer causing cell in mutant stage, in malignant stage, from mutant stage to malignant stage should not exceed to some targeted time; and the other constraint is on the maximum limit on the variability size of the tumor duration should not be more than some specified limit. Methodology: The study is further analyzed with the simulated numerical illustrations. The optimization results on the decision parameters were explored and the interpretations were made accordingly. The basic methodology is divided in to two parts. In part-1 the formulation of programming problems was carried out through theoretical notion of Stochastic programming. In part-2 the decision variables were obtained through the numerical illustrations. Interpretations on the cancer chemotherapy and effectiveness of treatment are arrived.
The modern manufacturing environment is dynamic and uncertain. In line with the global trend in manufacturing, this project is carried out to explore into the potentials of robots in manufacturing, service industry, and domestic use. The robot was designed and constructed to incorporate the use of mobile phones as control mechanism via dual-tone-multiple frequency (DTMF). Various components such as the Gripper, Gears, Chains, and Control system were designed with good factor of safety; with factors such as vibration, inertia concerns, availability, and reliability taken into consideration. MATLAB software was used extensively in the design, simulation and testing. The Root-locus, Disturbance response, and Polar plots of the control system transfer function were plotted using MATLAB. The results obtained showed good performance characteristics; such as stability of the control system, good damping characteristics, and excellent time response to step and impulse inputs.
This study investigates the strength properties of paper samples obtained from pulp blend of corn husk and kenaf bark. Soda pulping of kenaf bark and corn husk was carried out using 18% and 7% alkali respectively. Handmade paper sheets were produced from bleached pulp samples combined in ratios 50% - 50%, 75% - 25% and 25% - 75%. Using a universal testometric machine, strength properties of the papers such as modulus of elasticity, tensile index and tear index were assessed. Results showed that, paper sample from 100% kenaf bark has the highest tear index (20.72 mN.m2/g) and tensile index (7.79 Nm/g), while paper sample from mixture of Kenaf bark and Corn husk (75% - 25%) possess highest modulus of elasticity (42.05 N/mm2). Lowest tensile index (2.77 Nm/g) and modulus of elasticity (12.42 N/mm2) values were observed for paper sample from 100% corn husk. Depending on targeted end use, papers of differing strength properties can be obtained from the combination of kenaf bark and corn husk.
The purpose of this review is to discuss the viability of multicoloured dental restorations in children including possible technical, clinical and psychological aspects of multicoloured restorations. Multicoloured restorations utilizing different colours and glitter inclusions are a restorative option within the context of pediatric dentistry. Furthermore, custom shade guides involving different favourite cartoon characters also may improve a child’s positive interest in dental treatment. Multicoloured compomers have been available for use in the restoration of deciduous molars since 2002. In contrast to conventional poly-acid-modified resin composites, a small amount of glitter particles are included in order to produce colour effect shades of red, pink, blue, gold, etc. The filler content is similar to conventional compomers. Even though a coloured compomer is made to be decorative, it has physical properties that apparently are sufficient to hold up in the mouth until the restored deciduous tooth is lost. Short-term laboratory studies offer some information about the physical properties of new materials. Nevertheless, long-term clinical studies complement these studies and provide further information regarding the performance of these materials over an acceptable time period.