Open Access Clinical Practice Articles

Treatment of Leg Telangectasia Using Diode Laser 940nm in Iraqi Patients

Zeyad T. Al-Ani

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 3986-3994
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2014/11493

Background: Leg telangectasia is considered a medical and cosmetic problem. Although sclerotherapy is still the most effective treatment, its drawback like skin necrosis, phlebitis, allergy to sclerosing substance, telangectatic matting and phobia of injection often makes the physician to look for another modality of treatment. The property of a selective photothermolysis of laser to manage reticular vein on the legs is to be considered.
Objective: To evaluate the safety and effectiveness of pulsed diode laser 980nm in the treatment of leg telangectasia.
Patients and Method: This is an open therapeutic trial of a total of 15 female patients with 59 patches studied in a private clinic in Iraq-Baghdad from August 2013 to March 2014 after complete history was taken. Patients exposed to a session of pulsed diode laser and follow up after one month to evaluate the effectiveness of the laser by comparing images and to check if there is any side effects were studied. Some patients were exposed to a second session of laser after 8 weeks from the first one and followed again after 1 month.
Results: After the first session 25 patches (42.3%) showed complete clearance, 16 patches (27.1%) showed high clearance, 7 patches (11.8%) showed moderate clearance, 5 patches (8.4%) showed mild clearance, 3 patches (5%) showed no clearance. After the second session 16 patches (27.1%) which showed high clearance after first session became completely cleared except 2 patches remained the same, 7 patches (11.8%) which showed moderate clearance at first session became high clearance except two patches which remained the same as before, 5 patches (8.4%) which showed mild clearance after first session became complete clearance except 1 patch which remained the same, out of 3 patches (5%) which showed no clearance after first session, one of them moderately cleared and the other two showed no response as in the first session.
Conclusion: Leg telangectasia can be successfully treated with high power pulsed diode laser 940nm with a few side effects.

Open Access Original Research Article

Visual Features for Endoscopic Bleeding Detection

Adam Brzeski

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 3902-3914
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2014/11689

Aims: To define a set of high-level visual features of endoscopic bleeding and evaluate their capabilities for potential use in automatic bleeding detection.
Study Design: Experimental study.
Place and Duration of Study: Department of Computer Architecture, Faculty of Electronics, Telecommunications and Informatics, Gdansk University of Technology, between March 2014 and May 2014.
Methodology: The features have been established and evaluated on images extracted from 135 different endoscopic examinations. A set of measures were proposed in order to evaluate the quality of the features. The potential contribution of the features for bleeding detection is evaluated by utilizing an SVM classifier on the vectors constructed by manually assigning the features values to the endoscopic images. Potential limitations of the features' implementations are simulated by introducing noise to the assigned values. Finally, the recognition efficiency of the method is compared to implementations of two bleeding detection algorithms from the literature.
Results: The experiments show a potential of bleeding detection efficiency of 95%, assuming perfect features' implementations, and 90% when features' evaluation efficiency of 95% is assumed.
Conclusion: By introducing the visual features, the challenging problem of detecting bleeding in endoscopic images is split into a set of smaller image processing problems. The divide-and-conquer approach based on the proposed visual features is capable of achieving high detection efficiency; at the same time providing additional benefits of a more apparent processing scheme, and a possibility of justifying the decisions in a human-readable form.

Open Access Original Research Article

Precision of Digital Prosthodontic Planning for Oral Rehabilitation

Jaafar Abduo, Mohammed Bennamoun, Marc Tennant, John McGeachie

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 3915-3929
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2014/12331

Aims: Recently, digital wax-up is proposed as a tool to aid prosthodontic planning. Accuracy is a requirement of the diagnostic wax-up in order for its information to be transferrable clinically.The purpose of this study is to evaluate the precision of digital prosthodontic planning in the form of digital wax-up.
Study Design: Comparative study.
Place and Duration of Study: Oral Health Centre of Western Australia and School of Computer Science and Software Engineering, University of Western Australia, from June 2012 to December 2013.
Methodology: Twenty-five dental arch models of 15 patients were collected. The models were duplicated twice to allow for the execution of conventional wax-up and digital wax-up. The conventional wax-up involved tooth modification with inlay wax. The digital wax-up was based on fitting average tooth forms on virtual pre-treatment models. For the analysis, the conventional wax-up models were converted to digital models. All the wax-up models were segmented to yield soft tissue and tooth-gingiva models. With the aid of the 3D image registration process, the segmented models were superimposed on the pre-treatment models to evaluate the accuracy of fit. Further, the gingival margin discrepancies of each wax-up protocol were evaluated.
Results: The image registration process revealed less discrepancies for the digital wax-up (soft tissue = 0.11mm, tooth-gingiva junction = 0.11mm) than the conventional wax-up (soft tissue = 0.18mm, tooth-gingiva junction = 0.20mm). Similarly, the gingival margin discrepancies were less for the digital wax-up. However, the patterns of discrepancies were similar for the two wax-up protocols.
Conclusion: In terms of accuracy and transferability, the digital wax-up is comparable to the conventional wax-up.

Open Access Original Research Article

Identification and Apportionment of Sources from Air Particulate Matter at Urban Environments in Bangladesh

Bilkis A. Begum, Md. Nasiruddin, Scott Randal, Bjarne Sivertsen, Philip K. Hopke

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 3930-3955
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2014/11247

Particulate air pollution is the major concern in four major cities, Rajshahi, Dhaka, Khulna and Chittagong, in Bangladesh and thus it is necessary to understand the characteristics of the pollutant as well as sources for further improvement of the air quality. In this view particulate matter (PM) sampling was done between September 2010 to July 2012 from four Continuous Air Monitoring Stations (CAMS) located at Sapura in Rajshahi, Farm Gate in Dhaka, Baira in Khulna and a TV station, Khulshi, in Chittagong. PM sampling was performed using dichotomous samplers, which collect samples in two sizes: PM2.5 and PM2.5-10. All the samples were analyzed for mass, black carbon (BC), delta-C and elemental compositions. The data sets for each site were analyzed for sources with PMF2 modeling. The identified sources include brick kilns, soil dust, road dust, motor vehicle, metal smelter, fugitive Pb, Zn source and sea salt sources in case of coarse particles (PM2.5-10) depending on site. Among them, more than 62% of the PM2.5-10 was soil and road dust in Rajshahi, Chittagong and Khulna sites but in Dhaka, the dust contribution was about 38%. For fine particles (PM2.5), the identified sources are similar to those for the coarse particle samples, but their contributions are different. It was found that more than 63% of the fine particle mass comes from anthropogenic sources such as brick kilns, wood burning, biomass burning, and motor vehicles. The contribution of mass as well as black carbon and delta-C from the motor vehicles is much less than from brick kilns or biomass burning sources. The Government of Bangladesh is trying to reduce the emission from brick kilns by adopting green technologies for brick production. There is also long range transport of fine particles during winter time. The impacts of local sources also increase due to poorer dispersion conditions in the winter. Hence in order to reduce the local particulate pollution, it will be necessary to take policy actions regionally.

Open Access Original Research Article

Appraising Road Design and Material-Cost Component Using Virtual Reality

T. Laseinde Opeyeolu, B. Adejuyigbe Samuel

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 3956-3966
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2014/11489

Capital infrastructure such as road construction weighs heavily on the budget of countries having large geographical area and growing population. The paper presents an emerging computer aided valuation appraisal technique for verifying design and quantifying the material-cost components contained within Bill of Quantities (BOQs) of paved road constructions. The method employed in achieving the research objectives is the use of Virtual Reality (VR) which is a technology capable of shifting a subject into a different environment without physically moving it. A prototype road with surrounding environment similar to the real environment was simulated using a combination of commercially available 3 Dimensional (3-D) design applications and the developed 3-D roadway with adjoining auxiliary road structures were subsequently analyzed using finite element testing method. The Ceremonial Road of the Federal University of Agric Abeokuta was chosen as the location for case study. The result of the developed VR platform showed matching values of material quantities close to that actually utilized. This technique has the potential of closely verifying the accuracy of presented BOQs by comparing the presented quotation with those generated using a VR platform. It is quite certain that application of this appraisal approach can proactively checkmate design flaws, overpricing and excessive budgets hence reducing cost of road development and maintenance. For future analysis, it is suggested that proprietary applications be explored for the same purpose. The research concluded with recommendations as a panacea to cutting down road construction cost.

Open Access Original Research Article

Characterization of Some Physico-chemical Properties of F5 Breeding Lines of Tomatoes

Joseph Nunoo, Enoch Selorm Kofi Ofori, Emmanuel Kwatei Quartey, Emmanuel Kwame Gasu, Ebenezer Ato Ewusie, Bernard Tawiah Odai, Wellington Torgby-Tetteh, Wisdom Selorm Kofi Agbemavor

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 3967-3975
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2014/11087

Aims: In an effort to improve the breeding lines of tomatoes for further breeding work; this work was done to evaluate the physico-chemical properties of selected lines.
Study Area and Duration: The research was carried out between May-September 2012 at Nuclear Agriculture Research Center (NARC) farms and the laboratories of Radiation Technology Center (RTC) of Biotechnology and Nuclear Agriculture Research Institute (BNARI).
Methodology: 10 accessions of fully ripe tomato fully ripened tomatoes from ten F5 breeding lines were harvested and analyzed for their physico-chemical properties including colour, pH, Total Titratable Acidity (TTA), Total Soluble Solids (TSS) and Vitamin C.
Results: The highest pH was recorded in wosowoso variety, T19 (4.31) while the lowest was T14 (3.90). The Vitamin C content was observed to be high in wosowoso (78.86mg/100g) and the least being T14 (20.83mg/100g). Among the various lines, the highest TTA value was found in roma, T11 (1.18%CA) while lowest (0.55%CA) was T3 belonging to the cherry yellow variety. Among all the accessions, T9 had the most reddish colour (a*) whilst the lowest value was reported in TI5Ay. Most of the generational lines performed better than their parents and thus can be selected for further breeding work.
Conclusion: Generational lines; T3, T11 T14, T17, T9, T15Ay, T15Br and T19 obtained from the various parents were found to have more desirable traits compared to their parents.

Open Access Original Research Article

Experimental Results for Concentricity in Wire Coating Processes

Bekir Cirak

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 3976-3985
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2014/11893

The wire coating thickness and quality depend on the wire speed, polymer viscosity, polymer melt temperature and the gap between the wire and exit end of the die. In this paper, results of experimental investigation are presented by comparing the coating quality on galvanized mild steel wire using EP 58 PVC molten is used as the coating material in a wire coating extrusıon unit at different extruder temperatures and extruder speeds. The coating thickness and quality are also discussed for different wire speeds of up to 15 m/s.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Food Processing Methods on Diets Proximate Nutrient Composition and Glycemic Profile in Male Type 2 Diabetic Subjects

Magnus Michael Chukwudike Anyakudo

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 3995-4005
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2014/10271

This experimentally-controlled designed study investigated the effects of selected food processing methods: boiling, flouring, frying, pounding and roasting on proximate nutrient compositions of white yam (Diascorea rotundata)-based diets and postprandial glycemic profiles in male type 2 diabetic Nigerians. Proximate composition of yam meals (raw and processed) and 50g digestible carbohydrates of served portions were determined and analyzed using standard methods of food analysis. The glycemic index (GI) was determined using 20 volunteers (10 type 2 diabetic patients and ten healthy (control) subjects; age range 30-70 years) who consumed served portions of each processed meals containing 50g digestible carbohydrates. Postprandial capillary blood glucose concentrations taken half hourly for two hours using glucometer were used to construct the mean incremental glycemic response (GR) curve from which the GI was calculated. Product of each processing method was classified into low or high GI diet based on the international GI classification of foods while the glycemic profile to each processed meal was based on the pattern of the mean postprandial glycemic responses. Fibre, protein and calorie contents of the processed yam meals increased significantly (P≤0.05) compared with the raw meal while their ash and moisture contents decreased according to the degree and extent of exposure to heat. Roasting of yam gave the highest GI (93.3±4.0%) while frying gave the lowest GI (36.2±2.7%). Postprandial glycemic response patterns (glycemic profile) varied with the different processing methods: High-GI meal induced quick GR with robust (undesirable) glycemic profile while low-GI meal caused delayed GR with low (desirable) glycemic profile. Methods of food processing improved or worsened glycemic profile in type 2 diabetic Nigerians depending on their degree and extent of alteration of food proximate composition, glycemic index values and the postprandial glycemic responses. Dietary recommendation for diabetics should focus both on the source of carbohydrates and the processing method(s) which favor low-GI diets and desirable impact on glycemic profile.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Recycled Coarse Aggregate on the Compressive Strength and Modulus of Rupture of Concrete

O. U. Orie, O. A. Orojo

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 4006-4013
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2014/1030

The paper investigated the compressive strength and rupture modulus of recycled aggregate concrete when recycled aggregates from the regulated industry such as laboratories is used as partial substitute for natural coarse aggregates. The work determined and compared the compressive strength of recycled aggregate concrete with that of natural aggregate concrete. It applied the laboratory investigated technique. A standard mix ratio of 1:2:4:0.5 representing; cement, fine aggregate, coarse aggregate and water/cement ratio was used to produce the test cubes and beams, with subsequent 0%, 30%, 50%, 80% and 100% substitution of natural coarse aggregates with recycled coarse aggregates. The results showed that as the percentage content of recycled coarse aggregate in the mix increased, the compressive strength decreased. The natural coarse aggregate concrete gave a compressive strength of 43.6 N/mm2 and the recycled coarse aggregate concrete, 29.5 N/mm2, a decrease of 40%. At early stages of substitution, there was no significant change in the modulus of rupture but at higher percentages of substitution, it became significant. The natural coarse aggregate concrete gave a modulus of rupture of 5.67 N/mm2 while the recycled coarse aggregate gave 3.84 N/mm2.
Recycled concrete has been shown to be a viable option to decrease the demand on high quality natural resources and to limit the amount of waste that is disposed in landfills.

Open Access Review Article

The Impact of Inspection on the Quality Assurance and Reliability of Projects, Manufacturing, Operations and Maintenance

Okpighe Sunday Okerekehe

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 3884-3901
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2014/12081

A Review of the Impact of Inspection on the Quality Assurance and Reliability of Project, Manufacturing, Operations and Maintenance is reported. The types of inspections and methods of establishing the frequency of inspection have been identified. It has been revealed that too little inspection leads to greater rejects (out-of-limit works) and too much inspection leads to loss of revenue due to the cost of excess inspections. A compromise has therefore been established between cost of out-of-limit work and cost of inspections. This eventually led to the formulation of the optimal value for the Change Multiple in frequency of inspection of projects, manufacturing, operations and maintenance. This optimal value of frequency of inspection yielded the optimal value added to Quality Assurance and reliability of projects, manufacturing, operations and maintenance.