Open Access Short Research Article

Influence of Bioaerosol Source Location and Ceiling Fan Direction on Eggcrate Upper-room Ultraviolet Germicidal Irradiation

Sumayah F. Rahman, Stephen N. Rudnick, Sonya P. Milonova, James J. McDevitt, Edward A. Nardell

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 3856-3861
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2014/11762

Background: Eggcrate upper-room ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI), an engineering control method for reducing the airborne transmission of infectious diseases, was recently developed as an alternative to conventional upper-room UVGI using conventional louvered fixtures. A UV screen, which is composed of open-cell eggcrate panels supported in a frame designed for a conventional suspended ceiling, was used to minimize UV radiation in the lower room. A ceiling fan, which was blowing upward directly above the microbiological source, provided vertical air exchange between the upper and lower room. This system has been shown to be significantly more effective than conventional upper-room UVGI.
Study Design: In the present study, the microbiological source location and the airflow direction due to the ceiling fan were varied in order to evaluate their impact on germicidal efficacy.
Results: The test results clearly showed that placing an aerosol source directly underneath an upward blowing ceiling fan produces the maximum efficacy.
Conclusions: The likely explanation for this outcome is that the fan sucks the microorganisms emitted by the source into the UV beam before being mixed with the air in the room. This is somewhat analogous to local exhaust ventilation in which the contaminant is removed prior to being mixed with the air in the room. Thus, when possible, the ceiling fan should be blowing upward and directly above the source. However, for experimental testing, the source location should be varied in order to access the range of germicidal efficacies that can be expected.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Real-Time Oil Pipeline Anti-Intrusion System Using Acoustic Sensors

G. C. Ononiwu, P. U. Eze, O. J. Onojo, G. N. Ezeh, D. O. Dike, S. I. Igbojiaku, O. C. Nnodi

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 3740-3756
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2014/11480

In this paper, a real-time oil Pipeline intrusion detection system was designed, developed and implemented using acoustic sensors. This approach involves the transmission of audio tones through wires laid along the pipeline. It is intended to overcome most of the problems associated with previous systems designed for this purpose, which includeconscious monitoring, unavailability of mobile network service for SMS monitoring, and destruction of cameras by intruders.The system consists of a master controller module and three or possibly more slave modules. The master module regularly polls the slave modules for acoustic signals that are transmitted to a computer. Dedicated software programs, running on the computer reads the status data from the Master module and displays it on a Graphical User Interface (GUI). A decision can then be made regarding the nature of the signal. Limitations like the delay in signal transmission to the control station and from longer distances along the pipeline need to be solved in further work.

Open Access Original Research Article

Psychological Impact of Fear of Fatness Moderated by Personality in a Sample of University Students

Gboyega E. Abikoye, James A. Adekoya

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 3757-3768
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2014/10311

Background/Objective: Health and socio-cultural concerns have led to a situation in which the slim body mentality is now a global phenomenon, raising the potentials for fear of fatness which, in turn, can significantly compromise psychological well-being. Research also indicated that other factors, apart from actual body mass index play important roles in peoples’ fear of fatness. The observed dearth of empirical research on these important issues necessitated the present study. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between fear of fatness and psychological well-being and the extent to which personality variables (core self-evaluations) moderated the association.
Method: The study was a cross-sectional survey. A multi-stage sampling technique was used to select 790 undergraduate students of Olabisi Onabanjo University, Ago-Iwoye, Nigeria. Participants were personally interviewed, using standardized, psychometrically-robust and widely-used measures of fear of fatness, core self-evaluations, and psychological well-being. Participants were personally interviewed by the researchers and trained assistants.
Results: Fear of fatness was very high among the respondents in the present study. Fear of fatness {F (1,786) = 14.62; p. <.01} and core self-evaluations {F (1,786) = 13.09; p. <.01} independently influenced psychological well-being. The joint effect was also significant {F (1,786) = 10.74; p. <.01}. Psychological well-being rose appreciably with increasing core self-evaluations even among the high fear of fatness individuals, who ordinarily had very low psychological well-being. This indicated that core self-evaluations significantly moderated the impact of fear of fatness on psychological well-being.
Conclusions/Recommendation: Fear of fatness is very high among university students in Nigeria. Counselling and psycho-educational programmes should be organized for young people with a view to educating them on self-acceptance and core self-evaluations, thereby boosting their psychological well-being.

Open Access Original Research Article

Biosorption of Nickel and Copper from a Mixed Metals Solution Using Chitosan Derived from Crabs

A. E. Okoronkwo, B. J. Owolabi, O. Ayodele

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 3769-3784
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2014/6451

Aims: To ascertain the adsorptive potentials of chitosan derived from crab shell for the removal of copper and nickel from mixed metals solution in order to evaluate the competition of different metallic ions for the chelation sites of chitosan.
Study Design: Multifactorial design.
Place and Duration of Study: Chemistry department, The Federal University of Technology, Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria between April 2011 and December 2012.
Methodology: Chitosan was derived from crab shells through deacetylation process using 50% NaOH. The obtained chitosan was characterized by FTIR and used for removal of nickel and copper from aqueous mixture. Adsorption parameters such as pH, contact time, metal concentration, adsorbent dosage and temperature were investigated.
Results: It was observed that optimum pH for the adsorption of both nickel and copper was 5 while maximum adsorption for both metals was achieved within 120 minutes. Evaluation of the effect of temperature on adsorption showed that metal removal decreased with increase in temperature since the adsorption process was exothermic (negative ΔHº). Isotherm studies showed that the adsorption process obeyed Freundlich model with high R2 values.
Conclusion: Crab shell derived chitosan effectively removed copper and nickel ions from a mixed metals solution. The removal processes followed second order kinetic model and the sorption capacity was high for both metals.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Some Plant Growth Retardants on Vegetative Growth, Spurs and Fruiting of 'Le - Conte' Pear Trees

Hanaa M. Sherif, Samia A. Asaad

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 3785-3804
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2014/10479

This study was carried out during two successive seasons 2012 and 2013 on 5-years old 'Le Conte' pear trees grown under two types of soil. Selected trees were sprayed by some plant growth retardants such as, Paclobutrazol (Cultar) at 200 & 300 ppm conc., Mepiquat chloride at 150 & 250ppm, Succinic acid at 150 & 300 ppm and control. Treatments were sprayed with the specified solutions till run off at three times: before flowering, after fruit set stage and two months after fruit set. That was at early March, mid April and mid May. Herein, fruit quality and vegetative growth parameters were determined at the time of harvest. Results showed that significantly increased fruit set and improved fruit quality compared with the control. It should be noted that the best results were recorded in sandy soil compared with the clay soil. The highest concentration in all treatments improved fruit set, yield and fruit quality.

Open Access Original Research Article

Growth Performance and Nutrient Utilization Efficiency of Clarias gariepinus Juveniles Fed Bombyx mori (Mulberry silkworm) Meal as a Partial Replacement for Fishmeal

J. A. Oso, O. A. Iwalaye

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 3805-3812
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2014/10681

A 56-day (Eight weeks) trial was carried out to determine the growth performance and nutrient utilization of Clarias gariepinus juveniles fed Bombyx mori meal (BMM) as a replacement for fishmeal. Five experimental diets were formulated at various levels of inclusion of 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of BMM designated as diets B, C, D and E respectively. The control diet (diet A) was 100% fishmeal. The experimental fish were collected from a private hatchery in Ado Ekiti and stocked in 20-litre plastic bowls at a stocking density of 10 fingerlings per bowl and fed twice per day at 5% body weight. The effect of the diets on the growth, feed utilization efficiency, carcass and mineral compositions of the fish were evaluated. The results showed that mean weight gain, specific growth rate and protein efficiency ratio of fish fed the experimental diets differed significantly (P<0.05) when compared with the control. In this study, replacement of fishmeal with 25% BMM gave the best result while 100%, 75% and 50% gave better result than the control. Also, carcass yield and mineral depositions differed marginally in the fish fed the various diets. It can be inferred from this study that B. mori larvae have the potential to be used as a protein source and can replace and elicit better growth trends in fish more than the conventional fishmeal without any problem with growth.

Open Access Original Research Article

Preliminary Study of an Efficient OTEC Using a Thermal Cycle with Closed Thermodynamic Transformations

Ramon Ferreiro Garcia, Beatriz Ferreiro Sanz, Cristina Ferreiro Sanz

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 3840-3855
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2014/11152

The research work is focused on thermal engine structures undergoing isobaric expansion-compression based thermal engines powered by ocean thermal energy. The isobaric expansion-compression based thermal cycles referred to in this paper, differs from the conventional quadrilateral Carnot based thermal cycles in that the conversion of heat to mechanical work is performed assuming a load reaction driven path function, where as heat is being absorbed (isobaric expansion process) and rejected (isobaric compression process), mechanical work is simultaneously performed without the conventional quasi-entropic expansion, contrary to what happens in conventional quadrilateral based Carnot engines.
An analysis of the ideal thermal cycle performed by means of an isobaric expansion-compression based cylinder is carried out and results compared with some previously achieved results of conventional technology including that of a Carnot cycle operating under the same ratio of temperatures. Into the range of its inherent low operating temperatures high ideal thermal efficiency is achieved for hydrogen and helium as working fluids. The achieved results associated with a simple and compact machine envisage the way towards a new generation of ocean thermal energy convertor (OTEC) power plants operating with the isobaric expansion-compression based cylinder.

Open Access Original Research Article

Development and Quality Evaluation of Danbunama (Meat Floss) - a Nigerian Shredded Meat Product

A. B. Omojola, O. R. Kassim, O. O. Olusola, P. O. Adeniji, J. O. Aremo

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 3862-3873
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2014/10055

Danbunama (DB) is a shredded meat product that is light, easy to pack and nutrient retaining and is traditionally produced from beef. A completely randomized design was employed to study the effect of three meat types of beef, chevon and pork on quality attributes of DB. Proximate composition of the raw meats and their respective DB was determined using standard procedures. The Eating Quality (EQ) was determined using a 9-point hedonic scale. Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances (TBARS) was employed to assess shelf stability of the product. Raw meat protein ranged from 21.2 to 22.9% while the moisture content varied from 64.14 to 71.98%. The product yields were 70.1, 74.1 and 68.9% for Beef Danbunama (BDB), Chevon Danbunama (CDB) and Pork Danbunama (PDB) respectively. Chevon Danbunama has the highest protein (46.73%) followed by PDB (41.78%) while BDB has the least value (39.75%). The overall acceptability for BDB (7.4) was higher (P<0.05) than for CDB (6.6) and PDB (6.2). Pork Danbunama had the least TBARS compared to BDB and CDB irrespective of the length of storage. Danbunama can be produced using any of the meat types without compromising yield and its nutritional value.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessing the Fertilizer Utilization Potential of Municipal Solid Waste in Akosombo, Ghana

S. J. Cobbina, R. Kuleape, S. B. Dampare, W. Asare, A. B. Duwiejuah

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 3874-3883
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2014/10631

Currently waste managers are unable to keep pace with the waste generation rate hence shank of solid waste are uncollected in both dumping sites and open spaces. The study was conducted to assess the fertilizer utilisation potential of solid waste generated in Akosombo Township. Samples of solid waste were collected from market, slaughter house, dustbins, drains, truck and dumping site during a dry and wet month for analysis. The samples were weighed and segregated into organic and inorganic components. The organic component was thoroughly mixed, shredded and sieved for laboratory analysis. Proximate and ultimate analyses were conducted to obtain the chemical characteristics of the solid waste. The study recorded an average organic material of 70%, making the municipal solid waste suitable for composting because of the presence of high percentage of biodegradable organic matter. The C/N ratio obtained ranged between 11-29: 1 making the solid waste generated suitable for bio-chemical conversions. The study revealed that fertilizer utilisation potentials from solid waste at Akosombo looks promising as most C/N ratio obtained fall within the respective range of 25:1 to 30:1 suitable for fertilizer production. Based on the findings of this study it is recommended that plants that can use solid waste for fertilizer production should be provided to harness the potentials of solid waste.

Open Access Review Article

A Review of Household Products Induced Secondary Organic Aerosols Formation in Indoor Environment

J. A. Adeniran, L. A. Jimoda, J. A. Sonibare

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 3813-3839
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2014/10782

This paper reviews the process of formation of secondary organic aerosols (SOAs) in the indoor environment. SOAs have been found to have more alarming health effects on humans and environment. To be able to assess and quantify the risk, it is important to have a comprehensive information on their mechanism of formation. The photochemical reactions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released from the use of the consumer products with ozone (O3), hydroxyl group (OH-), and oxides of nitrogen NOx were considered. Environmental factors such as temperature, relative humidity and light were also found to have impact on the physical and chemical composition of the resulting SOAs. Gas – phase partitioning was identified as responsible for the formation of SOAs. Common health effects associated with SOAs and mitigation measures were suggested.