Aims: Saline and brackish water has been encountered in more than half of the boreholes across Kilifi County. The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between lithology and structural geology and the quality of water encountered in boreholes in the study area. Study Design: The study involved field observation of boreholes and collection of hydrogeological data and analysis of geological and structural setting and water quality. Place and Duration of Study: Borehole data was collected between January and June 2012. Field observation of boreholes was carried out between June and September 2012. Data analysis was carried out between October 2012 and July 2013 at Masinde Muliro University and University of Nairobi. Methodology: Drillhole information for 180 boreholes with depths ranging from 6 m to 300 m was obtained from the Ministry of Water and Irrigation Archives. Subsurface profiles for the individual boreholes representative of various locations were plotted using Strater software (by Golden Software). The quality of water encountered in the boreholes was related to the mode of deposition of the sediments and the faults or folds at the borehole site. Results: Groundwater quality, especially the salt content was compared in borehole drilled through the various formations at distant locations. With the exception of Mazeras sandstones, water quality in Duruma sediments is generally saline owing to the lacustrine deposition of the sediments. The great depths of aquifers and poor quality of the water have prohibited drilling of wells to the Taru Formation. Magarini and Pleistocene sands yield water suitable for most domestic purposes. The groundwater in the Mtomkuu formation and the Reef Complex is saline and brackish. Sea water intrusion occurs along the coast and the water levels in the wells remain the same throughout the year. Adjacent boreholes in areas where aquifers juxtapose against impermeable materials are found to have different qualities of water while slow and fast pumping regimes too produce different qualities of water. Conclusion: In spite of a topographic difference of more than 200 m between the coast and the inland of Kilifi County, aquifers are expected at the following depth ranges: 11-22 m; 30-34 m, 45-50 m, and; 70-84 m. The quality of groundwater in Kilifi County is determined by the lithology in which it is stored and through which it flows, the position of the well in relation to the geologic structures, proximity to the ocean and pumping regimes.
The article presents the fundamentals of the thermohydrogravidynamic theory of the global seismotectonic, volcanic and climatic activity of the Earth based on the author’s generalized differential formulation of the first law of thermodynamics extending the classical Gibbs’ formulation by taking into account the infinitesimal increment of the macroscopic kinetic energy dKτ , the infinitesimal increment of the gravitational potential energy dπτ , the generalized expression for the infinitesimal work δAnp,∂τ done by the non-potential terrestrial stress forces acting on the boundary of the continuum region τ, the infinitesimal increment dG of energy due to the cosmic and terrestrial non-stationary energy gravitational influence on the continuum region τ. Based on the established fundamental global seismotectonic, volcanic and climatic periodicities Ttec,vol,clim,f = (702±6) years and Ttec,vol,clim,f = (3510±30) years (determined by the combined predominant non-stationary energy gravitational influence on the Earth of the system Sun-Moon, the Venus, the Mars, the Jupiter and the Sun owing to the gravitational interactions of the Sun with the Jupiter and the Saturn), the author explains the cosmic energy gravitational genesis of the previous global seismotectonic, volcanic and climatic activity of the Earth from the planetary disaster near the evaluated dates (10584±36) BC to the subsequent intensifications of the global seismicity and volcanic activity in the end of the 19th century and in the beginning of the 20th century, in the end of the 20th century, and in thebeginning of the 21st century AD. Combining all established links and the established new fundamental global seismotectonic, volcanic and climatic time periodicities Ttec,vol,clim,cf =(1581±189) years, Ttec,vol,clim,sf = (6321±3) years, the author presents the mathematical evidence of the validity of the subsequent subranges: (2023±3) AD, (2040.38±3) AD and (2059.5±4.5) AD of the increased intensifications of the global seismotectonic, volcanic and climatic activity of the Earth during the 21st century AD (since 2016 AD). Based on the generalized differential formulation of the first law of thermodynamics, author presents the foundation of the useful technological basis for the practical prognostication of the regional seismotectonic activity of the Earth by using the combination of the generalized decompositions for evaluation of the date t(jp+1) of the next forthcoming strong earthquake (near the considered region P by taking into account the initial date t0(P) of the previous strong earthquake and the next dates t(K)(k = 1, 2, …, jp) of the realized strong earthquakes) and by using the established local energy prediction thermohydrogravidynamic principles (determining the maximal and minimal local gravity accelerations, which are preferable for realization of strong earthquakes). Two thermohydrogravidynamic principles (determining the maximal temporal intensification of the established thermohygrogravidynamic processes in the internal rigid core of the Earth and in the boundary region between the internal rigid core and the fluid core of the Earth under the combined cosmic integral energy gravitational influence of the planets of the Solar System, the Moon and the Sun) are founded for determination of the corresponding maximal temporal intensifications of the global and regional seismotectonic, volcanic and climatic processes of the Earth. The author presents the mathematical evidence that one of these thermohydrogravidynamic principles gives the additional confirmation of the mean date 2059.5 AD of the obtained range (2059.5±4.5) AD of the increased intensification of the global seismotectonic, volcanic and climatic activity of the Earth.
To assess the magnitude of genetic diversity and interdependence of morphological traits in varieties of helmeted guinea fowl, an experiment was conducted using a total of 2005 sexually matured randomly-selected birds. Data was collected on some morphological traits from selected locations in Kaduna and Katsina states using a cross-sectional design and were analyzed using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) procedure and cluster analysis. The PCA showed that the first two principal components accounted for 53.10% of the total variation. Feather, ear lobe and beak colours, age, body and neck lengths were found to be responsible for most of the variations among populations of helmeted guinea fowl. Body, shank and neck lengths, helmet height and wing span were found to have a direct and positive relationship with body weight, while feather, breast and beak colours had a negative relationship. Cluster analysis revealed that the Ash variety was more closely related to the Pearl Black variety while Pearl Ash variety was more similar to the White. The Black variety was found to be more distinct from all the other four varieties. Two main components accounted for variation in helmeted guinea fowl population in Kaduna and Katsina States. Furthermore, since variation in body weight was associated with body, shank and neck lengths, wing spans, helmet height and feather colour (varieties), these characters could be useful at the genomic level or as markers for improving body weight.
In this study, Adomian Decomposition Method (ADM) and Multivariate Padé Approximation (MPA) are used to get solution of fractional partial differential algebraic equation (FPDAE).The solutions in the form of power series are obtained by using ADM first and then we get approximate solutions by means of MPA. While solving the equation, Caputo derivative is utilized. Methods are applied on a test problem. Results demonstrate that they are quite applicable.
Aim: The study is aimed at analyzing blood samples from 192 females school going adolescents (randomly selected) in a public boarding secondary school in Katsina metropolis for the levels of serum total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-CH), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-CH), and triacyl glycerol (TG) in order to ascertain a risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Study Design: A cross sectional study was conducted among female adolescents aged between 13 to 18years, attending boarding secondary school within Katsina metropolis-Nigeria to assess their nutritional status. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biochemistry, Umaru Musa Yar’Adua University, Katsina-Nigeria. December 2008 to April 2009. Methodology: We determined the body mass index (BMI) and lipid profile of female school going adolescents. An end point colorimetric method was used to estimate serum total cholesterol. Test kits obtainable from Randox Laboratories Limited were used to estimate serum HDL-cholesterol, serum LDL-cholesterol and triacyl glycerol. Results: The results indicate that female adolescents in the age groups 14, 15, 16 and 17 had a significantly (P<0.05) higher mean BMI than the age group13 and 18. Mean TC levels were significantly (P<0.05) higher in the age groups 13, 14, 15 and 17. Mean HDL-CH values were significantly (P<0.05) higher in the age groups 13, 15 and 17. Mean LDL-CH and TG values were significantly (P<0.05) higher in the age groups 13 and 14. Conclusion: Although the findings of this study revealed that the adolescent subjects had BMI which are within the normal weight range of WHO cut-off points (18.5 to 24.9kg/m2) and a lipid profile indicative of low risk cardiovascular diseases. It is projected that most of our subjects will not have attendant complications associated with cardiovascular diseases. We recommend that similar study be conducted in private schools patronized by children of middle and high income groups.
Addition is considered as the basic operation for every digital circuit or system, digital signal processing and control system. The fast and accurate operation of any digital system is mainly influenced by the performance of its resident adders. In this paper a 4-bit full adder is proposed using carbon nanotube field effect transistor which is energy efficient, operates at high speed and low voltage and consumes ultra low power. The full adder cell is designed using 48 transistors. The proposed technique has been examined at voltage 0.8V. The simulation results taken on HSPICE show that this module has given more than 42% in power savings over conventional Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) adder and 56% is faster.
Water quality assessment of a tropical river arises due to the importance of such rivers as main sources of water for domestic, agricultural, tourism and industrial purposes. The spatial distribution of the physical, chemical and microbial contents of Nworie River water was assessed to ascertain its suitability for the intended uses. Three sets of eight raw water samples collected at pre-designated points on the river were analyzed using the Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS) and flame photometry to determine the concentrations of cations (Ca2+, Mg2+, Fe2+, Na+ and K+) and anions (CO3-, SO42-, Cl- and NO3-). Digital Meters were used to determine pH, conductivity and Total Dissolved Solids, while Standard Plate Counts were employed to ascertain the extent of bacterial loads in the Nworie River water. The results of the analyses indicated that average pH, conductivity and Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) of Nworie River water were 7.00, 22.62 μS/cm and 28.85 mg/l, respectively. Mean concentrations of analyzed cations (Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+ and K+) were 10.23, 7.51, 3.36 and 5.40 mg/l, respectively, while the mean concentrations of analyzed anions (CO3-, SO42-, Cl- and NO3-) were 16.13, 4.48, 5.72 and 5.40 mg/l, respectively. Characterization of the river water, therefore, followed the trend of Ca2+ > Mg2+ > K+ > Na+, for the cations and CO3- > NO3- > Cl- > SO42- for the anions. These trends indicated that Nworie River water is predominantly CaCO3 water. Other physical attributes in terms of odour, however, is satisfactory, while colour and turbidity fell short of the recommended standards for safe drinking water. The coloured and turbid Nworie River water resulted from high concentrations of iron (Fe2+), which ranged from 2.97 - 4.80 mg/l. The Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR) of 0.19 is indicative of excellent quality of the river water for irrigation purposes. Bacteriological analysis indicated the dominance of aerobic bacteria and E. coli. Some of the samples collected from other sampling stations however, showed satisfactory counts indicating that bacterial contamination arose from point sources. The generally increased Coliform Counts and high iron contents were the major environmental problems observed in the Nworie River water. These degradations are associated with increased anthropogenic activities on the Nworie River Watershed within the period in focus.
Aims: The present study was conducted in three successive seasons, to evaluate five pomegranate cultivars namely, Eversweet, Sweet, Aca, Wonderful and Blackberry in two seasons followed by one season to achieve crosses between the Manfaloty and these evaluated cultivars. Methodology: Vegetative, flowering, physical and chemical parameters were measured for the new tested cultivars. Then hybridization was conducted between Manfaloty and the new evaluated cultivars using tested viable pollen grains and the resulted fruits from these crosses were physically and chemically evaluated. Results: Sweet cultivar super passed the remaining cultivars in vegetative parameters (leaves number, shoot length and number of internodes). Meanwhile, Aca cultivar revealed the lowest value for vegetative growth parameters. Eversweet cultivar showed the highest number of both hermaphrodite and male flowers. Moreover, Sweet cultivar showed earlier date for flowering; however, the Wonderful recorded lately date of flowering. Chemically, Blackberry cv. Super passed the rest of the evaluated cultivar in anthocyanin content followed by Aca, wonderful, Sweet and finally Eversweet. On the other hand, tannins was highest in Aca cv. followed by Blackberry, wonderful and both of Sweet and Eversweet. A vice versa trend for tannins was observed for total sugar. Total soluble solids / acidity ratio was highest in Sweet cultivar and low with Blackberry cultivars. Sweet cv. had a soft seeded, while semi soft seed was characterized by Eversweet cv.; however, Wonderful, Aca and Blackberry have hard, semi hard and very hard, respectively. Yield was highest within Aca and Wonderful cvs in both of the studied seasons. Genetically, Blackberry cultivar was far from the studied cultivars. Moreover, Wonderful cultivar showed a lower genetic similarity Aca, Sweet and Eversweet (0.28, 0.3 3 and 0.43, respectively). Before achieving of crosses, viability of pollen grains of the five evaluated pomegranate were tested, it was differ from one cultivar to another, Wonderful cv. showed the highest pollen grains, followed by sweet cv. Aca and Eversweet; while, Blackberry occupy the last order in pollen grains viability. Conclusion: A wide variation of pollen grains effect within physical and chemical fruit characteristics resulted from crosses between Manfaloty and these cultivars was observed.
Based on the alarming level of the problems associated with non-renewable energy sources, the critical effects of global warming and the need to curb environmental pollutions, there is now a shift of emphasis on serene renewable energy sources. Waste Vegetable Oil which refers to vegetable oil that has been used in food production and is no longer viable for its intended use is a potential feedstock for biodiesel production. The cost of production of biodiesel is high compared to conventional diesel fuel. However, it is cheaper to produce biodiesel from waste vegetable oil than pure vegetable oil. The conversion of waste vegetable oil to biodiesel using the acid esterification process followed by alkali transesterification in the laboratory and the subsequent determination of physicochemical properties of about four different blends of the produced biodiesel are undertaken in this study. The B100, having a percentage yield of about 95% with a density of 0.89 g/cm3, sulfur content of 2.30ppm, cloud, pour and flash points of 5ºC, 4ºC , 164ºC respectively; and viscosity of 4.7 mm2/sec at the temperature of 40ºC as the standard for biodiesel specification was obtained. The other blends performed reasonably well as the results lowered along with the composition. This study is therefore, necessary for new and existing Fast Food Companies, restaurant, hotel and biodiesel manufacturing companies to make decisions on ways of exploring the opportunities made available by the continual generation of waste vegetable oil as a result of the increasing population of Nigeria coupled with the resultant need for survival.
This study evaluates current groundwater management problems in the chad basin and applies the transition management concept that allows stakeholder participation in addressing persistent problems of groundwater management. This has been achieved by carrying out stakeholder analysis; where a total of 5 stakeholder groups consisting of 15 organisations which includes government agencies, water user groups (local residents), civil society organisations, an NGO, and a research institution were identified and engaged via interviews and focus group discussions between April and June 2013. Interview and focus group results showed that most strategic stakeholders interviewed were knowledgeable on the issues related to groundwater contamination, while the focus group participants are having limited knowledge about the issue. Also, concerns about groundwater contamination were high among the interviewees and extremely low among the focus group participants. Presently, none of the stakeholder categories was affected by problems of groundwater contamination. Overall, interviewees and participants proffered options such as provision of adequate legislations, stakeholder inclusion/community participation in water management and the increase in investment in the water and sanitation sector as the most viable options of achieving sustainable groundwater management. The outcome of this study will be useful to water managers, policy and decision makers in implementing sustainable groundwater management strategy.