Aims: The paper presents the design, working and testing of an energy efficient improvised incubator, a general purpose heating and cooling equipment designed to maintain a constant temperature in the range of 5ºC to 50ºC. Study Design: Determination of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), requires maintaining the water sample at 20ºC continuously for 5 days, in an incubator resulting in high cost and extensive use of energy. Energy efficient incubators are hence the need of the industrial world. An improvised incubator is designed by scaling down the conventional incubators and incorporating voltage regulator, overload protection unit and UPS system for continuous operation during power failure. Conclusion: The testing results indicate that the developed prototype takes only 1/6th of the time and 1/10th of energy as compared to conventional incubators. Place of Study: The design and fabrication of the improvised incubator was conceptualized at Department of Chemistry and Department of Electrical Engineering J.N.V University, Jodhpur and fabrication was done at M/s Surana Scientifics, Jodhpur under the Instrument Development Program of DST, New Delhi.
Line-to-line-to-line-to-ground unsymmetrical faults involving ground are difficult to analyse using the classical fault analysis approach. This is because the classical solution approach requires knowledge of the connection of symmetrical component sequence networks in order to find the symmetrical fault currents. In the classical solution approach, the phase fault constraints are converted into symmetrical sequence constraints. The sequence networks are connected in a way that satisfies the constraints and the sequence currents determined. A consideration of the symmetrical component constraints for an unsymmetrical three-phase fault involving ground does not lead to an easy connection of the sequence networks. The connection of the positive, negative and zero sequence networks is difficult to deduce when the fault is unsymmetrical and involves ground. A classical solution is therefore difficult to find. In contrast, a solution by the general method of fault admittance matrix does not require prior knowledge of how the sequence networks are connected. It is therefore more versatile than the classical methods. The paper presents a procedure for solving a three-phase to ground unsymmetrical fault, for various fault admittances in each phase. Using the general fault admittance method, a computer program is developed to analyse an unsymmetrical three-phase earth fault on a power system with a delta-earthed-star connected transformer.
A prototype cam-follower mechanism was designed and assembled using Pro-Engineer (Pro-E) software. The mechanism is meant for application in a forth-and-back Mode II Operation of a tribotester rig. The mechanism was dynamically simulated in Pro-E to ascertain the dynamic loading status of integral parts. CES EduPack software was applied to select the best material for the spring using the Function-Objectives-Constraints approach. Candidate materials were first screened using design constraints after which shortlisted materials were ranked using design objectives. The final material choice made with reasonable trade-offs was found suitable for intended service environment requirements.
This work investigates thermal and mechanical properties of bricks produced from particles of electric arc furnace (EAF) hazardous fumes with a view to enhancing safe disposal and reduce the current prohibitive cost of handling. Test samples are prepared from the as-received steel-dust and sieved to 53-106 µm size range, mixed with 10-35 wt% bentonite content and rammed in a cylindrical mould. The samples are first allowed to cool in air at ambient temperature (32ºC) for 24 hours and then heated in a muffle furnace at 6.7ºC per minute to sinter at 1000ºC with 10-60 minutes. Relevant refractory property tests of the steel-dust bricks namely; bulk density, porosity, cold crushing strength (CCS), refractoriness, linear shrinkage and wear resistance are carried out and their results analyzed. Based on their performance ratings, the EAF steel-dust brick containing 15wt% bentonite and held for 30 minutes during sintering possess the highest ranking of 4.2/5.0 while bricks with 25,30 and 35 wt% bentonite at 50, 60 and 40 minutes holding time respectively exhibit 3.8/5.0 ranking. The refractory properties of the bricks are significantly influenced by the combination of the proportion of fine particle size (106µm), amount of bentonite added and the sintering holding time. Steel-dust bricks can be useful as thermal insulator in non-ferrous reactors and allied devices.
Aims: The study examines the inclusion of biological control hitherto neglected, as part of the IPM strategies in a farmer participatory approach. Study Design: The experimental plots were set up within a completely randomized block experimental design with 3 replicates. Place and Duration of Study: The field trials were carried out in 2009 at Iloro-Idanre, Owode, Khalime and Bendeghe communities in the South -West and South - South of Nigeria. Methodology: The bio-control agents used (Trichoderma) was isolated from the leaves of cacao tree and natural forest reserve soils in Ibadan, Nigeria, the culture was stored and maintained in sterile distilled water on small plugs of modified potato dextrose agar.
Five Treatments: Funguran OH, Trichoderma, Funguran OH (1) + +Trichoderma (5) times, Funguran OH (2) +Trichoderma (4) and Sterile distilled water were applied. Disease incidence ratings were taken after the each application till the end of the trial. Data were taken on number of pod and cherelles production, while number of damaged and Phytophthora pod rot were taken as total pod loss on each tree in each plot. Results: The pod productions in all the treatments differ significantly from the untreated control, likewise are the number of cherelles production in the treatments as well as the percent of Phytophthora pod rot incidence obtained from Iloro-Idanre. Both the number of pod production and cherelles production differ significantly in all the treatments and compare to the control. However, the pod production was highest (328) in trees treated with funguran application and the least percent (6.9%) of Phytophthora pod incidence was recorded in the same followed by that of Trichoderma and funguran combination and Trichoderma alone respectively in Khalime. The pod production in Trichoderma and untreated control do not differ significantly in Owode community though both differ significantly from other treatments. However, cherelles production of 111 cherelles was also highest in the untreated control but least in funguran treatment (37.0). Conclusion: Combination of spraying application of Trichoderma with copper based fungicides will drastically reduce the rate of application thereby lower the cost of fungicides incurred on disease control. Highest percentage incidence of black pod disease was however observed in the unsprayed control.
Aims: Frequent pattern mining is one of the imperative tasks in the data mining. The soft computing techniques such as neural network, fuzzy logic have potential to be used in frequent pattern mining since these powerful tools efficiently model data which is also an essential part of mining. The proposed paper aims to provide efficient mining solution using auto-associative memory neural network to efficiently traverse and reduce the search space, and to reduce the I/O computations. It also aims to keep balance in computational and resource efficiency. Methodology: This paper proposes an efficient algorithm for mining frequent patterns using auto-associative memory. Auto-associative memory is best suitable artificial neural network (ANN) approach for association rule mining as it stores associations among the patterns. In the proposed system auto-associative memory based on the correlation matrix memory (CMM) is used to find the frequent patterns. The proposed work introduces novel learning and recall algorithms using CMM for mining frequent patterns efficiently. The proposed learning algorithm reduces the search space tremendously for recall mechanism. The proposed recall algorithm uses only frequent 1-patterns and frequent 2-patterns for determining all other frequent patterns, reducing the number of I/O computations and speeding up the mining process. This approach keeps well balance among computational and resource efficiency. Conclusion: The performance of the proposed system is compared with traditional algorithms like Apriori, Frequent pattern growth (FP-growth), Compressed FP-tree based algorithm (CT-PRO) and Linear time Closed itemset Miner (LCM). The experimental results show order of magnitude improvement in execution time and storage space optimization to accumulate frequent patterns. Proposed work proves milestone approach in the field of frequent pattern mining using artificial neural network.
Aims: The paper assesses water resource issues in the state of Mississippi using GIS mapping. Study Design: Adopted a mixscale appoach. Methodology: The aproach is applied to GIS and primary data connected to descriptive statistics by analyzing the impacts of water use through data collected at the state, county and regional level. Place and Duration of Study: The counties of Mississippi between Spetember 2010-December 2013. Results: The study shows a rise in pumpage among different sectors and a widening of boil water alerts triggered by pollution and standard violations. With the vulnerability to water stress, and potential scarcity from climate change. Regional comparisons point to the exposure to accumulative groundwater depletion since the past several decades. While the spatial analysis revealed the concentration of extensive groundwater water use and emergence of cone formation in the northwest region of the state, the threats of contaminated sites, E. coli and coliform outbreak were evident across space. Conclusions: The assessment of these issues showed the capacity of mix scale approach in highlighting the susceptibility of Mississippi’s water resources to degradation. From the spatial patterns, the northwest and the south west area showed more concentration of higher pumpage than other areas. Added to that is the notable presence of contaminated sites on areas adjacent to water resources. In the process, mix scale approach enhanced our research and basis for appraising water resource use. To mitigate the issues, the paper outlined five recommendations ranging from education to the need for data infrastructure design and more use of GIS in water resource management. The paper also outlined its contributions and areas for future research.
This paper presents interval-valued 2-tuple prioritized aggregation operators for handling problems involving multiple attribute group decision making, where a prioritization relationship exists between attributes and decision makers. We first develop two interval-valued 2-tuple prioritized aggregation operators called (i) the interval-valued 2-tuple prioritized weighted average (IV2TPWA) operator and (ii) the interval-valued 2-tuple prioritized weighted geometric (IV2TPWG) operator and examine their desirable properties. The significant feature of these operators is that they not only deal with the linguistic and interval linguistic information but also account for the priority level of the arguments. Next, based on the IV2TPWA and the IV2TPWG operators, we develop an approach to multiple attribute group decision making with interval linguistic information. Finally, a practical example is presented to illustrate our method.
Energy has always been the essential, life-sustaining medium of exchange, in contrast to the notion that symbols of a monetary system, the effectiveness of influence peddling or even the application of force truly impact and direct social development. Starting with muscle power, which was used in earlier times and relied upon completely to provide for the essentials of life, we have slowly but continuously multiplied our efforts through the use of externally applied energy and thus have accelerated advancements in our social and technical make-up along with our abilities to enhance personal survival. As with any mature process though, there are ways of doing business that can become so ingrained that making a change becomes a major and heavily resisted effort. For example, in the case of the energy industry it has been assumed that the least expensive and most easily acquired form of energy is liquid based which primarily comes from very localized portions of the globe. The reality is that even the energy industry recognizes that change is necessary. Developing countries are requiring more energy and the producers’ ability to sustain that increasing demand is becoming harder to maintain. More importantly the consequences of going offshore to receive energy, which is a major portion of the economy, has created a vulnerable situation for all regions and countries, both economically and diplomatically. On the home front the reliance on foreign energy producers has weakened the local economies and allowed the population to practice a false sense of security in a product that is fundamental to the very survival of its citizens. Fortunately, there is at least a short-term remedy to this situation and the energy producers and suppliers are moving very quickly to capitalize on the opportunity. The development of two technologies, horizontal drilling and hydro fracturing, plus the realization that energy reserves in the form of a gas, methane, are plentiful in almost every region of the world, has initiated a new look at energy, how we get it and how we use it. What was, and is needed, is a place to start the effort to reorganize and redirect our energy efforts to best utilize those technologies and the resulting energy reserves. That location was self-identified over the past few years as the northeastern portion of the United States, which has become a driving force in the recapitalization and restructuring of the affected region, soon the entire country and, as the technologies become monetized, the entire globe. This paper is a brief look at the potential impact of these two technologies along with the regional impact of the resulting activities and products, and the potential global needs and future consequences of these efforts that are just now being realized and understood.
Fruits of 8 Egyptian pomegranate cultivars grown in Upper Egypt, namely Asuity, Asuity beshoka, Asuity morkub, Manfalouty, Nab El-Gamal, Melasy, Sukkary and Maghal were compared for their nutritional status, fruit quality and volatile compounds. Obtained results showed that Asuity cv. had pronounced concentrations of P, Ca, Fe and Mn in peels. Besides its significant progress concentrations of Fe and Mn in leaves as well as recorded the highest significant concentration of K in grains than other cultivars. Meanwhile, Manfalouty cv. had significant progress concentrations of P and K in leaves. Moreover Maghal cv. superiority concentrations of N, K and Mn in peel as well as Ca concentration in grain than other cultivars. Concerning fruit quality, the total soluble solids values varied from 14.6 to 16.3%, pH from 2.8 to 4.0, total acidity from 0.8 to 4.0% and total anthocyanins contents from 4.7 to 42.3 mg/100 ml. The highest value of total anthocyanin contents was recorded in Asuity beshoka while the minimum values in Sukkary cultivar. In pomegranate juice, 14 volatile compounds were fractioned and identified, including 6 monoterpene; 3 monoterpenoids, 3 aldehydes, 1 esters and 1 alcohols. Also, Hexanal, α-pinene, β-pinene, γ-Terpinene and limonene were recorded as important odour contributors found in the headspace gas of pomegranate juice. In conclusion, local pomegranate fruits grown in Upper Egypt are rich in its nutrient contents for both arils and peel besides important amounts of juice, sugars, total soluble solids, vitamin C and antioxidants as well as higher concentrations of volatile compounds in their headspace.