Aims: To evaluate the effect of different concentrations of corn flour on the quality of gilthead sea bream patties, and their refrigerated storage stability under aerobic conditions. Study Design: Completely randomised block design. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture Technology, Technological Educational Institute of Western Greece, Messolonghi, Greece, between April 2012 and July 2013. Methodology: Gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) patties were extended with corn flour at levels 2.5%, 5%, 7.5% and 10% of the weight of fish in the patties and their quality was evaluated with tests related to chemical composition, cooking properties, instrumental color and texture and sensory assessments. The stability of patties formulated with 5% corn flour was evaluated daily and up to seven days of storage at 40C using microbiological (total viable count), chemical (total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB) and thiobarbituric reactive substances (TBARS) and instrumental texture (gel strength) measurements. Results: The proximate composition and color of patties were significantly (P=0.05) affected by the addition of corn flour. Cooking yield increased with increasing levels of corn flour in patties. Using corn flour increased hardness, gumminess and chewiness of the cooked products. The highest gel strength value was obtained at a corn flour concentration of 5% (P=0.05). Sensory assessment showed that patties with corn flour up to 5% were the most acceptable. Corn flour at 5% substitution was considered optimum as an extender of gilthead sea bream patties. The total viable counts of patties increased throughout storage and exceeded the critical limit of 6.0 log cfu/g on the sixth day of storage. However, TVB and TBARS levels of patties remained under the limit for rejection until the end of the storage period. Conclusion: Corn flour at 5% substitution was recommended as an extender in production of patties made from gilthead bream minced muscle. Based on microbiological evaluation, the shelf life of patties with 5% corn flour was determined to be 5 days during refrigerated storage at 4ºC.
Aims: The aim of this paper is to investigate group decision making based on induced generalized uncertain linguistic aggregation operators Study Design: In this paper, we propose some new operational laws of linguistic variables and uncertain linguistic variables on the basis of the extended triangular conorm and triangular norm, study their properties and relationships. Place and Duration of Study: The existing operational laws of linguistic variables and uncertain linguistic variables may have some drawbacks. Methodology: Based on new operational laws of linguistic variables and uncertain linguistic variables, we develop two new uncertain linguistic aggregation operators including the induced generalized uncertain linguistic ordered weighted averaging (IGULOWA) operator and induced generalized uncertain linguistic ordered weighted geometric (IGULOWG) operator. Results: Some desirable properties and special cases of the IGULOWA and IGULOWG operators are studied, and then, the IGULOWA and IGULOWG operators are utilized to develop an approach for multiple attribute group decision making with uncertain linguistic information. Conclusion: A practical application of the developed approach to an investment problem is given.
Aims: The aim of the study was to assess the effect of gamma irradiation dose on quality attributes of minimally processed pineapple. Study Design: Physico-chemical quality parameters such as Total Soluble Solids (TSS), Titratable Acidity (TA), pH, Total Sugars (TS), Reducing Sugars (RS), Vitamin C, as well as Sensory and microbial quality of irradiated cut pineapples were studied over a period of 12 days at 5ºC. Place and Duration of Study: This study was carried out at the Radiation Technology Center of Biotechnology and Nuclear Agriculture Research Institute, between May 2012 and June 2012. Methodology: Smooth cayenne pineapples were cut into cubes and irradiated at three doses; 0 kG, 2 kGy and 3 kGy. Irradiated samples were stored at 5ºC and quality analysis carried out every 4th day of storage, for 12 days. Physicochemical analysis was also carried out according toAnalysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC 1990) methods. Microbial counts including total plate count, total coliform count, total yeast and moulds count and Salmonella were assessed. Sensory attributes including sweetness, colour, flavor, texture and overall preference for the cut pineapples were assessed using 30 semi trained panelists. Results: Results showed that irradiation treatment had no significant effect (P = 0.13) on Vitamin C, TSS, TS and RS, but significantly (P = 0.03) caused changes in pH and TA. Significant decreases (P = 0.02) in vitamin C was observed during the storage period in both control and irradiated samples. Sensory evaluation revealed that irradiation at 2kGy and 3kGy did not significantly affect (P = 0.15) the ratings of any of the sensory attributes assessed. Conclusion: Gamma irradiation was effective in reducing the overall microbial load of minimally processed pineapple. Irradiation treatments at 2 and 3kGy and storage for about 8 days could enhance hygienic quality of minimally processed pineapple.
Aims: This study was performed to detect the effects of certain environmental conditions mostly physical ones on the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites produced by Streptomyces spp. Study Design: Interventional study. Place and Duration of the Study: Department of biology, College of science, Al-Mustansiriya University, Baghdad ,Iraq between February 2012 and December 2012. Methodology: eight pure Streptomyces isolates, that produce antibiotics ,were exposed to different ranges of temperature, pH, aeration and radiation to elicit the optimum physical conditions for the biosynthesis of their secondary metabolites by estimating the diameter of inhibition zone of the growth on an isolate of E. coli on the nutrient broth and nutrient agar media after it`s inoculation with these products compared to control ones. Results: The optimum growth temperature, pH, and aeration for the growth of Streptomyces were (28-32)ºC, (6.5-7.5) and 250 RPM respectively. Exposure to radiation for a period of 10 minutes had a lethal effect on Streptomyces but various responses were noticed upon exposure to radiant for less than 5 minutes depending on the species kind. Conclusion: The production of antibiotics as a secondary metabolites by Streptomyces species could be enhanced by optimizing the physical factors affecting their growth like Temperature, pH, aeration and radiation.
Aims: The operation of a single screw extruder under the influence of locally available raw materials (African yam bean (AYB) and cassava products were determined using the measures of torque and specific mechanical energy of the extruder. The specific mechanical energy (SME) is a good quantitative description in extrusion processes, since it allows the direct comparison of different combinations such as screw speed, feed rate and torque, while torque is directly correlated with power usage. Study Design: A three- factor five level response surface methodology central composite design (CCD) was adopted to study the effect of feed moisture content (MC), feed composition (FC) and the screw speed (SS) on the energy efficiency of a single screw extruder using torque and specific mechanical energy (SME). Place and Duration of Study: The raw materials for the work were obtained from Abia State Nigeria. The extrusion work was done at the Federal polytechnic Mubi Adamawa State Nigeria, while the statistical analysis was done at Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike Abia State Nigeria. Methodology: African yam bean (AYB), cassava tubers and Ighu (pre-gelatinized cassava chips or slices) were processed into flours. The flours were sieved to pass 0.75mm laboratory mesh. The moisture content of the flours were determined. AYB flour was added to cassava flour at ratios of 0.54:99.46, 20:80, 50:50, 80:20 and 99.46:0.54. Also AYB was added to ighu flour in the same ratio as cassava flour. The moisture levels of the blends were adjusted by adding a pre-determined amount of water using material balance equation to yield (13.3, 16, 20, 24 and 26.7)% moisture content. The flour samples were then mixed and transferred into polythene bags and allowed to equilibrate for 12 hours at room temperature. Extrusion was carried out using a Brabender laboratory single screw extruder (Duisburg DCE -330 model). The screw speed was adjusted from 109.95 to 125,150,175 and 190.05rpm.Twenty extrusion runs were conducted with the cassava/AYB flour blends and another twenty extrusion runs were carried out for Ighu/AYB flour blends. Torque (T) was determined by reading directly from the extruder during extrusion run, while the specific mechanical energy was calculated from the data of torque and volumetric flow rate. Data obtained were subjected to response surface analysis (RSA) and analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results: Regression analysis for extruded blends of Ighu/AYB showed that specific mechanical energy (SME) had significant (p <0.05) linear, quadratic and interactive effects on the independent variables. Reduction in the moisture content of the feed materials resulted in an increase in the SME of the extruder. The result showed that the lowest torque occurred at the lowest moisture content and feed composition of AYB. The response surface plots showed that the maximum SME occurred at the critical values of screw speed and feed composition of 192.05 rpm and 0.54% ighu/ 99.46% AYB respectively. The responses obtained with cassava/AYB flour varied from the ones obtained using ighu/AYB blends, signifying that the feed composition had effect on the operation of the single screw extruder. Conclusion: Extrusion variables influenced the torque and specific mechanical energy of the single screw extruder. The energy efficiency of the extruder was affected by the operating variables. The independent variables must be considered in the design of an experiment.
In this paper, we have presented the bilinear form, a generalized double Wronskian solution of a non-autonomous Schrödinger equation. Furthermore, we found rational-like solutions by taking special case in general solutions.
Trado-medical practice variously referred to as ethno-medicine, folk medicine, native healing, and alternative medicine, is an ancient and culture-bound method of healing used against various diseases threatening human existence and survival. The aim of this study was to investigate the use of honey and other ethno-biological components in the treatment of different ailments in Kwara State, North central Nigeria. Structured questionnaire and interview schedule were used to collect information from 280 respondents (120 herb sellers and 160 trado-medical practitioners). The result revealed methods of remedies’ preparation such as infusion, decoction, maceration, extraction, squeezing, soaking, shredding, grinding/pounding, and drying while the mode of use include: drinking, chewing, licking, eating, and topical application. It was also observed that 20 plants and 6 animal products distributed across 18 and 5 families respectively were being used in combination with honey for the treatment of arthritis, toothache, cold, chronic cough, stomach ulcer, diabetes, wounds, hypertension, low sperm count, ear defect, rheumatism, malaria and infertility among others. The knowledge of trado-medical practices elicited could serve as a basis for further drug discovery, pharmacological research and bio-prospecting.
The study was carried out to assess contamination and seasonal variations in bioavailable forms of trace metal (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Ni, Zn, Mn) concentrations in bed sediment. Sediment samples were collected from five sampling points during dry and rainy seasons along Mada River, Nasarawa state, Nigeria. The samples were extracted using HCl/HNO3 (3:1v/v) and Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). Trace metal levels in the extracts were quantified using atomic absorption spectrometer (AAS). Enrichment factors (EF) and Geochemical index (IGeo) were also determined. Acid leachable metal concentrations in bed sediment were higher than the EDTA extractable trace metal levels during the rainy season. Sediments were enriched with Fe and Mn. Igeo index revealed class 0 – uncontaminated for the sediments during both seasons. Acid leachable Cu, Pb and Zn concentrations correlated positively and strongly for both periods of analysis; indicating same source and mechanism. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) indicated significant differences (P<.05) between acid leachable and EDTA trace metal concentrations. Metal concentrations, though higher during the rainy season, were below the Consensus-Based Sediment Quality Guidelines (CBSQG), the threshold and probable effect concentrations. The moderately to strongly contaminated nature of surface sediment could be as a result of anthropogenic source of metals entering the coastal zone through river inputs. Further study on the impact of trace metal contents in bed sediment on the quality of the overlying water column of the river is recommended.
The research work is focused on novel feasible structures of non condensing mode trilateral thermal cycles which differs from the recently known trilateral thermal cycles in that the conversion of heat to mechanical work is performed undergoing closed process transformations along with the three state point changes of the cycle. The proposed cycle is characterised by the fact that in its active process, as heat energy is being absorbed under increasing specific volume, entropy and temperature undergoing a load-dependent path function, mechanical work is simultaneously performed, contrary to what happens in conventional Carnot based engines. An analysis of the proposed cycle is carried out and results compared with that of a Carnot cycle operating under the same ratio of temperatures. Into the range of relative low operating temperatures (320 K) high thermal efficiency is achieved reaching 25.4% for hydrogen, 36.3% for helium and 31.8% for argon as working fluids when compared with Carnot Factor (7.8%).
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of temperature on sulphate removal from wastewater by selected bacterial (Pseudomonas spp., Klebsiella spp., Staphylococcus spp. and Lysinibacillus spp.) and fungal (Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium spp. and Absidia spp.) isolates. The study was carried out under shake flasks conditions at incubation temperatures of 30ºC, 35ºC, 40ºC and 45ºC at shaking speed of 150 rpm. After inoculation with the respective isolates, aliquot wastewater samples were aseptically removed from each flask prior inoculation and every 24 h, for 96 h for the estimation of sulphate levels in the wastewater and pH, using standard procedures. The results revealed optimum temperatures for sulphate removal to range from 30ºC -35ºC and 30ºC – 40ºC, for the bacterial and fungal isolates, respectively. Also observed was a consistent increase in pH of the wastewater throughout the period of incubation. This trend was irrespective of the test microbial isolates and the incubation temperature. The study was able to reveal the role of temperature in sulphate removal ability of the test isolates under the experimental conditions used for investigation.