Open Access Original Research Article

Fracture Characterization, Mineral Vein Evolution and the Tectonic Pattern of Igarra Syn-Tectonic Granite, Southwestern Nigeria

Oden, Michael I., Udinmwen Efosa

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 2417-2429
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2014/8540

Extensive outcrops of the pan-African granite were studied in detail with particular interest in the joint pattern and mineral vein characteristics. The attitude of 57 tectonic joints and 60 mineral veins were measured, the length and width of the veins documented. Rose diagrams and graphs representing fractures and veins were plotted and analysed based on their behavior and preferred orientations. Two (2) basic trends of mode I fractures(joints) and veins were observed in the granites, these are the E-W trending joints and veins parallel to the maximum principal stress (σ1) direction and the N-S trending joints and veins parallel to the minimum principal stress (σ3) direction. These granites contain mostly Mode I fractures which require lower stress to initiate and propagate relative to Mode II and Mode III fractures, although other trends (NW-SE and NE-SW) of joints and veins were mapped, they are highly insignificant compared to the major E-W and N-S trending joints and veins within the plutons. Mineral veins in these syn-tectonic granites developed apertures that were sensitive to the orientations of the stresses; the widest veins being those oriented approximately in the E-W direction, parallel to the maximum principal stress (σ1). Mineral veins in N-S orientation are generally thin and non-persistent; their formation indicates fluid pressure-build up in the course of the orogeny. The occurrence of sheet/exfoliation joints lends credence to the occurrence of some sort of near-surface deformation related to cooling and exhumation or unroofing within the granite. The simple pattern of surface joints and veins indicates a fairly constant orientation of the principal stresses σ1 and σ3 in the E-W and N-S directions respectively, through most part of the orogeny in this area. From this study, it would appear that the pan-African stress configuration did not change throughout the period tracked by the evolution of these granites. This work serves to elucidate the joint pattern and mineral vein evolution of the syn-tectonic granite to further discuss the history of Pan-African tectonics of the Igarra region in southwestern Nigeria and it was carried out in Igarra and environs with further analysis done at the Department of Geology, University of Calabar, Nigeria for a period of 18 months.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Potential of Indigenous People’s Forest: Ecological Benefits and Plants Diversity in Bru People’s Spiritual Forest, Northeastern Thailand

Tunwa Chaitieng, Tharest Srisatit

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 2430-2439
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2014/9170

Aims: To study the ecological benefits and biodiversity of plants in the Bru’s spiritual forest and the relationship between the Bru’s wisdoms and their spiritual forest.
Study Design: This research applied the use of forest ecology and a qualitative research.
Place and Duration of Study: Sakon Nakhon Province, the upper Northeastern Thailand, between June 2011and June 2012.
Methodology: We surveyed plants diversity in 3 spiritual forests of Bru people’s villages and collected primary data about relationship between Bru people and spiritual forest from the site by in-depth interviewing, group discussions with key informants.
Result: The Bru People are a group of indigenous people near the Lower Mekong River and have a culture that is closely related and tied to the spiritual dimension. Their philosophy and fundamental world views are holistic. There are 11 Spiritual Forest in Bru communities of Sakhon Nakhon Province. These forests once serves as: an important source of biodiversity and native plants, a source of food and herb to support the Bru people’s economy and ecology, a spiritual centre of communities, and a foundation to create strength to maintain their idealism and ecological heritage in the Lower Mekhong basin.
Conclusion: Spiritual forests of Bru people have served as important reservoirs of biodiversity, preserving native species of plants, protection air pollution and supporting the ground economy and culture of Bru people.

Open Access Original Research Article

An Empirical Investigation into Factors Influencing the Intention to Use E-learning System: An Extended Technology Acceptance Model

Haitham Alshibly

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 2440-2457
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2014/10033

Aims: The aim of this research is to investigate the factors affecting the intention towards using e-learning in a Jordanian university, through an extension of the technology acceptance model (TAM).
Place and Duration of Study: Amman University College between May and July 2013.
Study Design: Adapted theoretical framework. This study incorporates perceived system quality and perceived self-efficacy into the TAM model in order to investigate the role of perceived system quality and perceived self-efficacy in educators’ intention towards using e-learning.
Methodology: The adapted model was applied to Amman University College; the study used primary data that was collected through self-administered questionnaires; Partial least squares analysis was used to observe the associations of proposed constructs.
Results: The results of the study confirm the original technology acceptance model findings. The research results show that all the hypotheses are supported, which indicates that the extended variables can effectively predict whether users will adopt an e-learning system.
Conclusion: This research advances theory and contributes to the foundation for future research aimed at improving our understanding of students' adoption behavior of the e-learning system. This study will help to determine what are the factors that are significant in explaining the intention towards e-learning.

Open Access Original Research Article

Hydrogeochemical Characteristics and Evaluation of the Drinking and Irrigation Water Quality in Marand Plain, East Azerbaijan, NW Iran

Fazel Khaleghi, Gholam Hossein Shahverdizadeh

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 2458-2467
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2014/9426

In order to study hydrogeochemistry of groundwater, samples of water were collected from Marand located in Eastern Azerbaijan province, NW of Iran at July, 2008. This region has 800 km2 space and 87 locations. Samples which were collected from 74 water wells, 10 Qantas and 3 springs analyzed for major cations and anions processed by statistical methods. Parameters were compared with water quality standards and public health standards for domestic usage. Some of the locations are defined by high concentration of EC, TDS, Cl, Na and K. Half of the groundwater samples were contained Ca-Mg-Cl type of hydrochemical facies, followed by Ca-HCO3, Ca-Cl and Na-Cl types. Based on US salinity diagram, 42% of the samples fall in the field of C3-S1. Due to low sodium and medium-high salinity groundwater C3-S1 class can be used for irrigation on almost all soils with little danger of sodium problem. Majority of the samples are not suitable for domestic purposes meanwhile they were far from standards of drinking water. In the recent years, comparing average electrical conductivity and total dissolved solids of the studied area revealed that declines in water levels as a result of extensive agricultural activities and urbanization resulting in deterioration of groundwater quality in the major parts of the plain.

Open Access Original Research Article

Rejuvenating the Economies of Ogbese Rural Region, Nigeria

J. O. Daramola, J. O. Basorun

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 2468-2476
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2014/9087

Aims: To examine the level of socio-economic and physical development of Ogbese town vis-à-vis the regional development potentials.
Study Design: Reconnaissance survey and administration of questionnaires were carried out in the study.
Place and Duration of Study: Ogbese region in Akure Local Government Area of Ondo State, Nigeria, between July and August, 2013.
Methodology: We sampled 96 respondents in the study region (Ogbese 60, Elemo 8, Benin 7, Owode 9, Araromi 7 and Lisa 5). Data analysis was carried out using descriptive statistics such as frequency counts and percentages.
Results: Research findings show that agriculture as the spine of the rural regional economy is declining due to the financial constraints and failure of the farmers and traders to harness labor and facilities for effective operations.
Conclusion: Policy measures were recommended based on research findings to improve the economies of the rural environment.

Open Access Original Research Article

No Frequency Reuse: Wearable Steerable MIMO Microstrip Antenna Array for Mobile Ad Hoc Applications

Taha A. Elwi, Sa’ad Al-Frieh, Mohammed Al-Bawi, Mohammed Noori

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 2477-2488
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2014/8739

Aim: The principle of eliminating the frequency reuse in the mobile Ad Hoc system among the sectors of the unit cell using Multi Inputs Multi Outputs (MIMO) antenna array is investigated in this paper.
Antenna Design: The size of the proposed antenna array is 10×10 cm2 to obtain a bandwidth around 1 GHz. The single antenna element is constructed from sub-patches that are connected with feeding network through pin diodes, as switches, that are mounted on an FR-4 substrate.
Antenna Performance: The antenna elements are characterized from 0.8 GHz to 2 GHz in terms of S-parameters and radiation patterns with different switching OFF/ON categories.
Methodology: A numerical investigation based on Finite Integral Techniques (FIT) of Time Domain (TD) formulations is conducted using CST MWS to evaluate the antenna performance. A Frequency Domain (FD) solver based on CST formulations is conducted for validation.
Results: It is found the antenna shows insignificant coupling around 1.2 GHz and 1.6 GHz. Furthermore, the radiation patters of the antenna are found to be in the end fir direction with phase change of about 120o among antenna sectors. The antenna provides absolute gain of 2 dBi at 1.2 GHz and 2.9 dBi at 1.6 GHz. It is found that the proposed antenna behaves like highly directive end fire antenna at the main lobe direction around 1.6 GHz. Moreover, it is found that the antenna array exhibits insignificant coupling among each other around this frequency.
Conclusion: The performance and structure of the proposed design allows the use with wearable Ad Hoc mobile systems without the need for frequency reuse by steering the radiation patterns of the antenna sectors through switching antenna branches. Finally, an excellent agreement has been achieved between the regarded results from TD and FD solvers.

Open Access Original Research Article

Improving Design of a Cryogenic Process by Exergy and Process Economic Analyses

A. N. Anozie, M. N. Braimah, O. J. Odejobi, O. P. Ayoola

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 2489-2500
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2014/8646

Aim: This work compared four different designs of a cryogenic process (Linde methane liquefaction) using exergy and process economic analyses.
Study Design: Simulation, energy, exergy and process economic analyses were used.
Place and Duration of Study: Department of Chemical Engineering, Obafemi Awolowo University Ile-Ife and the duration of study was between March and May 2011.
Methodology: Hyprotech System Simulator (HYSYS) software was used in simulating the process plants and Microsoft Excel was used for exergy, energy and process economic analyses. Annual venture profit was used as economic index in the selection of best design among the available alternatives.
Result: Linde Methane Liquefaction for cryogenic process was investigated for improvement using exergy and process economic analyses. Four design cases were considered. The exergy efficiency for the base case (case 1) was 5.19%, 5.30% for case 2 when a recycle was added to the base case, 28.7% for case 3 when a recycle and a turbine were added to the base case and 39.5% for case 4 when a recycle was added and the valve was replaced with a turbine in the base case. Case 3 has the highest equipment and installation cost of $594649.14. The capital investment, operating and maintenance expenses were $88574.00/yr, $89687.30/yr, $94280.17/yr and $90672.23/yr for case 1, case 2, case 3 and case 4, respectively. Process economic analysis based on 1 kg/h throughput revealed case 2 with the highest annual venture profit of $4564265.09/yr as the best design.
Conclusion: Since it is known that throughput has effect on venture profit, it was concluded that case 4 with the highest exergetic efficiency could be the best design at higher throughput. This will be investigated in a follow up study.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Cropping Pattern Systems on Incidence of Scab and Septoria Leaf Spot Disease of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata)

G. A. Mbong, C. N. Fokunang, O. Alabi, E. A. Tembe-Fokunang, M. Emechebe, M. D. Alegbejo, C. N. Akem

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 2501-2512
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2014/6229

Aims: Scab caused by Sphaceloma sp and Septoria leaf spot caused by Septoria vignae were evaluated on one variety (Ife Brown) of cowpea: in this study. Ife Brown is highly susceptible to scab and moderately susceptible to Septoria leaf spot. Cowpea (Vignia unguiculata L. Walp) was planted simultaneously with maize (intercrop) and sorghum (intercrop). The scientific importance of intercropping pattern in this study was to develop an information based system on how crop pattern can influence disease incidence and severity and thus improve crop yield within an agro ecological zone
Study Design: The field layout was factorial concept in Randomized Complete Block Design (RBCD) with four replications
Place and Duration of Study: The two cereals used for this study were, maize variety TZEEW, and sorghum variety ICSV111. The investigations were carried out during three cropping seasons of 2004, 2005 and 2006 at Samaru and Shika in Zaria, Nigeria.
Methodology: Five cropping patterns: interrow, intrarow, doublerow, strip and sole cropping on the incidence and severity of scab and Septoria leaf spot fungi isolated from infected field plants, were studied. Disease incidence and severity for scab and Septoria leaf spot were recorded at weekly intervals starting from the first appearance of the symptoms. Data for the different plant parts (leaf, stem, peduncle, flower cushion and pod) infected by scab and leaves infected by Septoria leaf spot were recorded from four middle ridges for each plot. The data obtained was subjected to analyses of variance (ANOVA) and mean separation was by Student Newman Keuls Test (SNK).
Results: Infection of the cowpea and severity of scab and Septoria leaf spot on the crop significantly increased with increase in age of the variety tested. Symptoms of infection resulting from scab were seen on all the aerial parts of the crop from seedling stage to maturity, depending on the time of infection. Cropping patterns significantly affected the incidence and severity of the two fungi on cowpea in the order of sole<double-row<strip<inter-row<intra-row for scab and sole<intra-row<double-row<strip<inter-row for Septoria leaf spot. However, the reaction of the crop to the individual pathogens was different across the various cropping patterns with the rate of infection of scab higher compared with that of Septoria leaf spot. Cowpea sole cropping proves better for both pathogens compared to the other cropping patterns.
Conclusion: This study showed that sole cropping system was more ideal for disease managements and incidence of Scab and Septoria leaf spot diseases of cowpea with respect to cropping systems studied.

Open Access Original Research Article

Geochemistry and Environmetric Approaches to Estimate Pollution Impacts on Soils around Okaba Coal Mines

E. G. Ameh, I. O. Imasuen, E. G. Imeokparia

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 2513-2527
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2014/7051

Soil samples were collected during dry season from Okaba coal mine areas to establish the level of impact. Impact evaluations were carried out using correlation analysis, factor and cluster analyses, determination of enrichment factor (EF), contamination factor (CF), pollution load index (PLI), anthropogenic factor (AF) and index of geo-accumulation (Igeo). The AF gave this order: Pb>Ni>Cu>Zn>Fe>Cd. The Igeo index, EF and CF also revealed the same rank as AF. The pollution load index indicated that all sampled sites have been polluted with locations Ok06, Ok16, Ok17, Ok03, Ok10 and Ok08 as the most impacted. At P<0.01 level, very strong correlations exist between Na-K, K-Mg, Ca-Zn while at P =.05 level, strong correlations were recorded between Na-Mg, Ca-Fe, Na-Pb, Pb-Cd and Ni-Pb. The R-mode factor suggested that factors one and three were both natural and anthropogenic while factor two was due to natural processes. The R-mode cluster analysis suggested that cluster one was anthropogenic and clusters two and three were pseudo anthropogenic. Based on the indices, Pb, Ni and Cu were the most impacted heavy metals on soils. While detailed study is apt, the author recommend immediate and total reclamation of the ponds/mines and treatment of all affected areas.

Open Access Review Article

The Importance of Targeted Drug Delivery Systems on Pancreatic Cancer

S. Kaleli, G. Güney

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 2400-2416
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2014/9671

Pancreatic cancer (PC) is the fourth type of cancer-related death in the world. There is estimated 45,220 new cases of PC will be diagnosed and 38,460 people will be passed away from the disease in the near future. The absence of diagnostic and prognostic markers and also unresponsiveness to current therapies including radiation and chemotherapies are major barriers against successful therapy even in the initial stage. The current therapies is not sufficient to provide effective treatment for PC patients due torapiddrug solubility and metabolism, insufficient drug concentration at the specific site and adverse side effects. To eliminate this disadvantages, nanoparticle based drug delivery systems have been investigated.In this review, we try to reveal the genetic and molecular mechanism which cause PC and emphasize the importance of targeted drug delivery systems for the disease.