##### Do You Know Your Sh*t? Students’ Awareness, Attitude and Perception about Current and Relevant Events in Microbiology

Farahnaz Movahedzadeh, Adrienne Linzemann, Jose Aveja, Renee Wickham, Margaret Martyn

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 2290-2301
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2014/9315

Aims: To probe the knowledge, insight and attitude of students who had previously taken a traditional microbiology class and those who had not been exposed to any relevant knowledge of microbiology.
Methodology: A total of 228 undergraduate students participated in a survey containing 22 questions. The survey was collected from 99 microbiology students (called group 1, with a 90.9% completion rate) and from 129 non-microbiology students (called group 2, with a 100% completion rate). The survey focus was on students’ general knowledge of bacteria, in particular beneficial bacteria, where they exist, what happens in the lack or absence of them; the usage/misusage of antibiotics; general knowledge about poop, and what it is made of; and fecal transplant as an example of the new medical procedures available today that use live microbes as alternative treatments.
Results: Our results show that current and relevant topics should be included in the curriculum of microbiology courses to motivate students to engage in the learning process.
Conclusion: We conclude this approach will not only inform students about the current knowledge of the field, but will also increase motivation among students which leads to spending more time on task and developing a better understanding of the subject matter and long-term retention of the learned concepts.

##### Adaptive Method of Comparison to Identify for Force Ripples in Wavelet Coefficients of Two Types Linear Motors with Permanent Magnets

Edwin Laniado-Jacome, Jaime Montoya-Larrahondo, Gabriel González-Palomino, Yimy E. Garcia-Vera

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 2265-2276
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2014/9233

This article proposes a numerical model of Permanent Magnet Linear Synchronous Motors (PMLSMs) for use as a tracking mechanism for the transport system. This paper studies the behavior under operating two types of linear motors to analyze and compare the system of forces and vibration levels to determine its efficiency as a transport system. The first model of motor has configuration of opposite poles and second has Halbach type configuration, are analyzed by the finite element method with commercial software FLUX™. The data of variation of force called ripple are analyzed with techniques for vibration signals using wavelet coefficients for classification of MatLab™ software to determine the concentration of vibrational energy levels and the parameters identified for each proposed linear motor.

##### Physiological Effects on Re-growth of Forage Sorghums Ratoon Crop under Varying Salinity and Irrigation Frequency

A. R. Saberi, H. Siti Aishah

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 2277-2289
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2014/5738

The responses of forage sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] varieties to salinity and irrigation frequency were studied from January to December 2009. Two salt tolerant varieties of forage sorghum namely Speedfeed and KFS4 were grown under salinity levels of 0, 5, 10, 15 dS m-1 and irrigated when the leaf water potential reached -1(control),-1.5 and -2 MPa. Salinity and irrigation frequency significantly (P≤0.01) affected leaf water potential, chlorophyll content, photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance and stomatal size. Though both varieties were sensitive to salt and water deficit the KFS4 variety had 10.7, 8.2, 6.1 and 4 percent higher leaf water potential, chlorophyll content, photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductance, respectively compared to Speedfeed, hence KFS4 is more tolerant to stress conditions compared to Speedfeed. Combination effect of high salinity and low water availability had an adverse effect on stomatal conductance. When irrigation was delayed from the leaf’s water potential of -1 to -2MPa, the chlorophyll content, photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductance were decreased by 26.8, 10.1 and 28% respectively. The highly significant declined was mostly at -2 MPa irrigation frequencies, it means irrigation of forage sorghum can be delayed till leaf water potential reaches to -1.5 MPa, which takes about two weeks time. The number of stomata and the size of their apertures determine the extent of gaseous exchange and hence the photosynthetic potential. The number and dimension were less in the treated plants.

##### Remarkable Influence of Structures around Rhenium (V) Centers Constructed in Polyoxotungstates for Methanol Dehydrogenation under Visible Light Irradiation

Chika Nozaki Kato, Ryuta Nakayama, Shota Hattori, Hidekuni Amano, Yuki Makino

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 2302-2319
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2014/9336

The synthesis and characterization of α1-Dawson-type mono-rhenium (V)-substituted polyoxotungstate, [α1-P2W17ReVO62]7- (1), are described. The dimethylammonium salt of 1, [Me2NH2]71-P2W17ReVO62]•9H2O (Me2NH2-1), was obtained as analytically pure homogeneous black-blue crystals by reacting mono-lacunary α1-Dawson polyoxotungstate with [ReIVCl6]2- in CH3COOH/CH3COOLi buffer, followed by crystallization via a vapor diffusion from acetonitrile/ethanol. Characterization was also accomplished by X-ray crystallography, elemental analysis, TG/DTA, FTIR, UV-vis, and solution 31P NMR spectroscopy; these results showed that the polyoxoanion 1 was a monomeric α-Dawson structure, in which the rhenium(V) ion was coordinated to the monovacant site of [α1-LiP2W17O61]9-, resulting in an overall C1 symmetry. The polyoxoanion 1, [O{ReV(OH)(α2-P2W17O61)}2]14- (2), and [α-PW11ReVO40]4- (3) showed the hydrogen evolution from methanol under visible light irradiation (≥400nm) in the presence of titanium dioxide. The activities were remarkably depended on the rhenium (V) sites in 1–3; polyoxoanion 2 possessing the dirhenium(V)-oxido-bridged site showed the highest activities among these complexes.

##### Breast Cancer Screening Awareness and Practice among Women in Sagamu Local Government Area, South-Western Nigeria: A Community Based Study

O. E. Amoran, T. O. Toyobo, O. K. Fatugase

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 2320-2332
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2014/9050

Introduction: Breast cancer is the leading female malignancy in the world and the second principal cause of cancer deaths in women worldwide. It has a poorer outcome among African-American women compared with the whites due to more advanced stage at presentation. This study therefore examines the factors influencing breast cancer screening awareness and practices among women in Ogun State, Western Nigeria.
Methods: This analytical cross-sectional study was conducted between April 22nd and13th May, 2013. A multi stage cluster sampling technique was used to select the participants into the study. One participant per each household was selected into the study. A semi- structured questionnaire was used to collect relevant information.
Results: A total of 495 women were interviewed in this study, the mean age of the respondents was 36.45 years ranging from 19 to 63 years. Only 48.5% of respondents knew the commonest age group at risk of breast cancer and 59.4% knew breast cancer can be detected early. Majority [81.0%] were not aware of mammography and none of the respondents knew the age when regular screening should commence. One hundred percent of our respondents have never had mammography done for any reason whatsoever. Majority of respondents [85.0%] have never asked anyone about mammography. Predictors of awareness of mammography were marital status [O.R= 1.61, C.I=1.35-3.05], tertiary education [OR= 2.14 C.I=1.13-6.08] and Nuclear family structure [OR=1.83, C.I=1.13-3.74].
Conclusion: This study revealed a low level of awareness of mammography and mammographic screening. None of the respondents had ever undergone mammography. Public education and awareness programs should be developed to promote early detection and diagnosis in the prevention of breast cancer in women in Nigeria and other developing countries.

##### Effects of Soil Chemical Characteristics on the Occurrence of Entomopathogenic Nematodes

Fanuel Kawaka, John Kimenju, Sheila A. Okoth, George Ayodo, Shelmith Mwaniki, John Muoma, George Orinda

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 2333-2343
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2014/8775

Aims: This study was conducted to determine the effect of selected soil chemical characteristics on the occurrence of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) under different land uses in Embu and Taita Districts in Kenya.
Study Design: The sampling points were systematically marked in a grid-mesh construction using GPS marking.
Place and Duration of Study: Soil sampling was done between January 2008 and May 2008 in Embu district in the highlands of Central and Taita-Taveta district in the Coastal highlands of Kenya.
Methodology: EPNs were baited from soil using Galleria mellonella larvae and infective juveniles identified using morphological- biometric characteristics. The nematode occurrence was evaluated through relative abundance and recovery frequency expressed as percentage from the soils.
Results: EPNs were detected in 43.3% of the samples with Steinernema spp being the dominant species. The occurrence of EPNs is affected by selected soil chemical properties, land use systems and heavy metals.
Conclusion: Soil fertility management practices and heavy metals influence the occurrence of EPNs and should be considered for their effective use as biological control agents.

##### Participation and Empowerment Through Self Help Groups: Does Volunteerism Mediate the Relationship?

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 2344-2357
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2014/8856

Volunteerism plays a vital role in mediating relationship between participation and empowerment in any given group self help approach. This paper seeks to examine the mediation effects of volunteerism on the relationship between participation and empowerment in women’s self help group (SHG) approaches. An important aspect of SHG activities is the implicit assumption that through volunteerism, participation in group approach will be enhanced and empowerment been the desired goal will be achieved. The general aim of this paper is therefore to analyze the mediation effect on relationship between participation and empowerment using volunteerism as a mediating variable. A sample of 282 SHG members were selected through simple random (lottery method) out of 30 SHGs identified in agricultural activities from the three senatorial districts of Niger State of Nigeria and a schedule was designed and administered among the respondents. Data were collected through questionnaire from the respondents from June 2012 and July 2013. The result of this study through hierarchical regression analysis indicated that volunteerism mediated the relationship between level of participation and empowerment (social, economic and psychological). The paper concludes that greater volunteerism leads to active participation and increases empowerment.

##### Comparative Study of Replacing Fluorescent Lamps by CFL and LED Lamps in Schools and Universities and Its Impact on the Environment and the Economy of the Country

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 2358-2381
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2014/9641

In countries of the third world such as Lebanon (case of this paper), the organizations, schools, institutes, universities, etc. are searching to economize as possible the price of installation of electrical systems such as light sources, equipment and other electrical devices without taking into consideration the high impact of the electrical bill for such installations and without taking into consideration the environmental impact such as the emission of the CO2, toxic gases, mercury and the high fuel cost. This mentality is widely spread in Lebanon because the majority of owners and investors want to install the cheapest materials in order to reduce as possible the investment cost without taking into consideration the future impact of such installations even if they know that these installations have bad impact on the electrical bill and the environment. In this paper, the authors will discuss the installation of Fluorescent lamps particularly in schools and universities and how is it possible to replace these lamps by other lamps with high efficiency such as CFL and LED lamps. A comparative study is developed and the authors proposed solutions for such buildings and this study can be applied on a bigger scale for all building sectors in Lebanon. This study is the first study that compares different lighting technologies applied on a real building which is a school in Lebanon and it can be applied and generalized to all buildings in all sectors.
Aims: The aim of this study is to compare different technologies used for lighting system such as fluorescent, Compact Fluorescent Lamp (CFL), and LED installed in schools and universities in the third world especially in Lebanon and their impact on the economy of the country and the environment. This study emphasizes the important of the installation of LED technology in such buildings and its positive impact on the economy of the country and for many reasons developed in this paper.
Study Design: This study is developed using the software Dialux for lighting calculation and comparison between different technologies.
Place and Duration of Study: This study was made by the first author in a technical school (public school) in Hammana in Lebanon during the year 2014 using real measurements on site and using lighting software “Dialux” in order to compare different types of technologies.
Methodology: Real measurements were taken for the lighting load from private generator 60kVA and from power authority (EDL) for the existing lighting system (In the public school). The first author studied the distribution of lighting points for other technologies for the same lux level in each room. The calculation of the predicted load is done and a comparative table that shows different indicators for each technology and final the study is generalized for all schools and universities in Lebanon. The generalized study shows important results on the scale of the country in which the replacement of fluorescent lamps by LED lamps is enough to close 1.5 thermal power plants of the size 35MW in Tyre (south Lebanon) and to economize 2.16% of the total power consumption on the Lebanese scale.
Results: The replacement of fluorescent lamps (2x36W) by LED lamps as indicated in this paper will reduce the total power consumption on the Lebanese scale of 48.81 MW (2.16% from total power generated in Lebanon), the saved Energy is 52712.85 MWh/year, saved emission of CO2 from Fuel Oil is 35317.71 Ton of CO2/year, saved fuel consumption from private generators is 36990 liters/day (6,658,200 liters/year), saved cost of maintenance is 767,181$/year, Reduced Cost of electricity and maintenance is 8,955,141$/year, etc.
Conclusion: In this paper, the first author presents a comparative study between four different types of lamps (fluorescent 2x36W, CFL of type Philips, CFL of type Arcluce, LED of type ASTRA). This study emphasize the important of doing calculation using “DIALUX” software before selecting any type of lamps even if we consider this lamp is energy-saving. Moreover we have to take into consideration many indicators which are presented in this paper before buying any type of lamps. This study is a sample that helps all investors, owners, clients… to compare many types of lamps using indicators presented in this paper before buying them. We have to take also into consideration the impact on the environment such as the emission of the CO2, toxic gases, mercury…
In conclusion, the best choice of lamps in these days is the LED and of course a good quality and not of bad quality.

##### Fault Ride Through in Grid-connected WECS Using FACTS

Mahmoud A. Saleh, Mona N. Eskander, Sanaa M. Ibrahim

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 2382-2394
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2014/9895

This paper discusses the effectiveness of installing two types of FACTS devices, namely STATCOM and DVR to enhance the fault ride through (FRT) capability of a doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) applied in wind energy conversion systems (WECS). The response of the DFIG to a 3-phase ground fault is investigated with each of these devices. Comparing the stator and rotor voltages, stator and rotor currents, active and reactive power, of the two investigated systems is presented. PI controllers are employed to allow the rotor speed to follow the turbine speed and to adjust the applied rotor voltage magnitude and phase angle according to the wind turbine speed for maximum power tracking. This is achieved by controlling the two PWM converters connected between the rotor circuit and the electrical grid. Results showed a better FRT when using the STATCOM device with the DFIG.

##### Age Prevalence of Leiomyoma Uteri; a Histopathologic Study

E. I. Odokuma

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 2395-2399
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2014/5978

Introduction: This was a retrospective study to demonstrate the age prevalence of uterine fibroid cases diagnosed in a peripheral health facility within a ten year period with a view to improving available demographic health data in Nigeria.
Results: Records obtained from the University of Benin Teaching Hospital showed that the commonest age of occurrence within the period was within the 31-40 year interval (44.41%) except in 2003 were 41-50 year interval predominated. While 29.42% occurred in within the fifth decade, 18.48% occurred in the 21-30 age interval. Only 0.87%, 6.34% and 0.48% occurred in the second, sixth and seventh decades of life. There was an observed significant relationship between age and the prevalence of uterine fibroids during the entire period of study (p<0.01) x2=89.54; DF=50.
Conclusion: Fibroids are common in Africans especially in early adulthood (the working class), the opinion canvassed in this study therefore is that concerned authorities should direct adequate resources towards managing symptomatic patients at a subsidized rates.