Open Access Original Research Article

Research on Pearl Detecting and Grading Based on Monocular Multi-view Machine Vision

Yi-ping Tang, Shao-jie Xia, Zhi-liang Zhu

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 2136-2151
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2014/5544

Aims: Pearl is a non-planar object and its surface has a certain degree of curvature. It is necessary to obtain the image of the entire surface of a pearl for the aim to achieve the grade based on size, shape, luster, blemish and color. This paper designed a detecting device to solve this problem and complete the pearl’s grading automatically.
Methodology: In this paper, an imaging apparatus of monocular multi-view was designed by putting a symmetric bucket cavity, which was made of 4 planar mirrors in front of the camera. The surface of a pearl will be captured from different perspectives using this device. Then a series of views which reflect the quality of a pearl could be achieved by image processing. Finally feature fusion will be utilized to determine the quality of the pearl.
Conclusion: Experimental results show that the image of the entire surface of a pearl could be obtained in a unified color system using the proposed device. Besides, the device accomplishes pearl online detecting and grading according to the quality indicators such as size, shape, luster, blemish and color.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Protective Effect of Combined Leaf Extracts of Gongronema latifolium and Nauclea latifolia on Acetaminophen-induced Liver Toxicity in Rats

Effiong Grace, Mbagwu Herbert, Essien Grace, Udo Nsikan, Akpan Henry, Eyong Ubana, Ebong Patrick, Asanga Edet

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 2152-2168
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2014/4054

Aims: Protective effects of the combined ethanolic leaf extracts of Gongronema latifolium (GL) and Nauclea latifolia (NL) on acetaminophen-induced liver toxicity were studied in rats in comparison with individual extract treatment and the standard drug; Silymarin.
Study Design: The design consisted of sixty rats divided into ten groups of six rats each. Hepatotoxicity was induced orally with a single dose of acetaminophen (200mg/kg, bw, p.o,) diluted with sucrose solution (40% w/v) in five groups. Animals were then separated into five hepatotoxic and five non-hepatotoxic groups and treated with GL, NL, GL+NL, Silymarin or distilled water.
Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Calabar, Nigeria, between February, 2010 to August, 2011.
Methodology: The phytochemical constituents of Nauclea latifolia (NL) and Gongronema latifolium (GL) leaf extracts were determined quantitatively using standard methods. The pharmacological studies involves ten groups of six rats each; divided into five hepatotoxic and five non-hepatotoxic groups and then treated with the extracts, silymarin or distilled water. Biochemical indices (protein, albumin, AST, ALT) as well as antioxidant enzymes like catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase(SOD) and histological examinations were done with the serum and liver respectively.
Results: The quantitative phytochemical investigations of the NL and GL leaf extract showed the content of alkaloids, polyphenols, flavonoids, saponins and hydrocyanic acid. Administration of only toxicant showed that the ALT and AST levels were significantly (P=.05) increased by 3.19 and 3.01 fold respectively while the levels of total protein and albumin were decreased when compared to the normal control. Pretreatment with extracts both singly and in combination for 21 days decreased the elevated levels of the transaminases and restored the normalcy of total protein and albumin significantly. These were most impacted in the combined extract treatment group, indicating a positive synergy. In only acetaminophen treated rats, CAT (441.47±130.95), GPx (2720.27±33.78) and SOD (13.52±0.21) were decreased significantly but treatment with extracts of GL (CAT= 531.37±27.60, GPx=2768.51±19.78 & SOD=15.05±0.35) or NL (CAT=475.20±50.13, GPx=3307.26±343.69 & SOD=13.69±0.41) and in combination (CAT= 785.40±74.46, GPx=4449.59±26.48 & SOD=15.69±0.60) caused a significant increase (P=.05) in these antioxidants activities. Acetaminophen treatment alone showed severe liver damage while pretreatment with only NL or GL showed an improvement in histological section of the liver but the protective effect was more pronounced in the combined extract treatment group against the hepatocellular damage.
Conclusion: These results suggested that NL and GL leaf extracts have a significant role in alleviating liver damage, with the combined extracts synergistically improving the levels of these indices more, thus suggesting a better amelioration of hepatotoxicity.


Open Access Original Research Article

Concept of Free Acoustic Field

Dmitri Yerchuck, Felix Borovik, Alla Dovlatova, Andrey Alexandrov

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 2169-2180
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2014/9392

Aims/ Objectives: To develop the concept of the acoustic field and to give the practical recommendations of its using.
Study Design: The theory of functions of complex variable and the developed Dirac quantisation method were used.
Place and Duration of Study: Heat-Mass Transfer Institute of National Academy of Sciences of RB, M.V.Lomonosov Moscow State University, between November 2013 and January 2014.
Methodology: We have used generalised Cauchy-Riemann conditions for the case of a mixed vector-scalar argument in functions of complex variable and the earlier developed Dirac quantisation method.
Results: The equations of the free acoustic field are derived. They coincide in the mathematical form with the first two Maxwell equations for the free electromagnetic (EM) field. It is accentuated, that the equations in the mathematical form of the first two Maxwell equations for the free EM-field are universal equations of the Nature. They describe an any free complex-vector physical field, vector-functions of which are analytical functions. In the case of FA-field, it seems to be the strong indication taking into account the quantum Fermi liquid model of EM-field leading to the existence of phonons, accompanying the process of a photon formation, that FA-field and free EM-field are the display of the single united field, both the components of which can propagate simultaneously [however, with different velocities], for instance, in weakly absorbing media.

Conclusion: The theory proposed can be the theoretical basis for the practical realization of high temperature [room temperature and higher] superconducting states in the materials with the strong interaction of electrons with acoustic field phonons and with radiofrequency photons in magnetic resonance conditions.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Comparison of Soda and Soda-ethanol Pulps of Thaumatococcus daniellii Benth (Miraculous Berry) Stalks

A. O. Oluwadare, A. F. Gilbert, O. A. Sotannde

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 2181-2193
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2014/8785

Aims: To evaluate the pulp and papermaking characteristics of Thaumatococcus daniellii stalks using soda and soda-ethanol pulping methods.
Study Design: A completely randomized design was used.
Place and Duration of Study: Department of Chemical Engineering, Lakehead University, 955 Oliver Road, Thunder Bay, Canada, between June 2010 and July 2011.
Methodology: The stalks of T. daniellii were pulped with both sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and soda-ethanol (NaOH-C2H5OH) liquors in a 10-litre electrically heated stainless steel digester. Cooking temperature was varied at 140, 150 and 160 OC while the concentration of the cooking liquor was kept constant at 12% NaOH and 12:40% by volume of NaOH-C2H5OH and cooked for 60 minutes. The bleachability of the pulp was assessed using DEDD elemental chlorine free bleaching sequence. The bleached pulp was beaten in a PFI mill at revolution of 0, 1600 and 3200 followed by formation of handsheet in a standard sheet former. Lastly, the elrepho brightness, bulk, apparent sheet density, tear index, burst index, tensile index and the breaking length of the handsheets produced from the two pulp types were evaluated using standard tappi methods.
Results: The temperature and pulping method had marked effects on the yield, kappa number and brightness of the pulps. Also, beating revolutions had significant effect on the physical and strength properties of the handsheets produced from both pulps (P = 0.05). The yield and bleaching properties of soda-ethanol pulps are superior to those of soda pulps. Handsheets produced from soda-ethanol pulps also had significantly higher strength, particularly in unbeaten and when beaten at 1600 revolution (P = 0.05). Beyond 1600 revolution, the tear index, tensile index and breaking length of soda-ethanol handsheet were not significantly higher than those from soda pulp (P ≥ 0.05).
Conclusion: Handsheets produced from T. daniellii stalks had physical and strength characteristics that are comparable to those from notable non-wood fibre source. It is therefore expected that the stalk can play a big role in complementing wood fibres in pulp and papermaking.

Open Access Original Research Article

Estrogenic and Hypocholesterolemic Effects of Aqueous Extract of Nicotiana tabacum (Tobacco) on the Micro-Anatomical Architecture of the Testis in Male Albino Wistar Rats

J. O. Okoye, A. A. Ngokere, S. I. Ogenyi, A. O. Onyemelukwe, F. Ogala

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 2194-2205
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2014/9529

Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of aqueous extract of Nicotiana tabacum on the testicular function and micro-architectural integrity in male Albino Wistar rats in relation to the serum concentrations of estradiol, cholesterol, testis and body weights.
Study Design: The experiment was carried out on Albino Wistar Rats.
Methodology: A total of 18 male Albino Wistar rats aged 8 to 10 weeks and weighing 140 to 220 g was used. Aqueous extract of N. tabacum at the doses of 20 and 30 mg/kg body weight were orally administered to groups B and C, respectively while 0.5 ml of distilled water was administered to group A (Control) for 28days. Serum concentration of estradiol (E2) and total cholesterol were estimated using the microplate enzyme immunoassay and enzymatic end point methods, respectively. The SPSS software (version 20) was used for the statistical analysis and the result expressed in mean ± SEM.
Result: The result showed significant increase in serum estradiol concentration (from 2.50±0.43 pg/ml in the control group to 9.33±1.87 pg/ml in the treated groups), significant decrease in serum total cholesterol concentration (from 1.92±0.04 mmol/l in the control group to 1.22±0.08 mmol/l in the treated groups) and body weight (p≤0.05), and insignificant increase in the weight of the testes (p≥0.05). Testicular microscopy showed decreased spermatogenesis, atrophic interstitial space and moderate hypertrophy of the seminiferous tubules.
Conclusion: Therefore, N. tabacum could be considered a potential endocrine disruptor which can affect the micro-anatomical architecture and function of the testis.


Open Access Original Research Article

An Investigation on Silicone and Silicone Rubber Stents in Comparison with Stainless Steel Stents: Introducing a Double Layer Stent Model

Mona A. El-Naggar

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 2206-2222
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2014/8908

A single layer of different materials; silicone, silicone rubber and steel, is investigated for stent deployment. The response of the proposed stents to the mathematical simulation of radial blood pressure waveform is studied considering their mechanical properties. The stress-strain response and the stored strain energy are computed likewise. Furthermore, a model of a double layer stent made of silicone-silicone rubber is suggested. The behavior of the introduced double layer stent model is investigated under the effect of radial pulsating pressure. The model is tested for strain response, stored energy, inertial energy and power loss. This model employs the actual available physical constants. The results indicate that silicone and silicone rubber are not only biocompatible but also eliminate possible thrombosis as well. Moreover, they are electrically compatible, since they do not contribute to heating complications induced by electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure.
Aim: Study the viscoelastic behavior of an arterial transversally deployed stent, of suggested materials namely silicone and silicone rubber to be compared to the commonly used stainless steel. A proposed double layer stent model stress-strain response is mathematically tested for pulsatile radial pressure.
Study Design: Mechanical viscoelastic double layer model
Place and Duration of Study: Faculty of Engineering, Cairo Univ. April to Dec. 2013.
Methodology: Computer simulation of the presented mathematical model by MapleV release 4 is carried out.
Results: Table 1 shows the results obtained employing the single layer stent model to compare mechanical response of steel, silicone and silicone rubber. They are compared to the inner two layers of the human arterial wall. Silicone and intima media layers show highest strain responses, 3.98% and 0.54% respectively and consequently largest values of stored energy. Silicone rubber and adventitia show strain responses of 0.015% and 0.000603% respectively. These results recommended the proposed design of the double layer stent. Stress-strain complex functions are represented for the each layer besides the stored energy, inertia, and power loss.
Conclusion: Results largely elect the silicone materials to replace steel regarding the strain energy that provides backward pressure. Since stored strain energy contributes to the pulsatile motion of arterial wall then the higher strain lessens susceptibility to possible thrombosis or stagnation. In other words, the pulsating stent wall enhances a vibrating motion that compensates loss of elasticity of a stiff artery. The proposed design for the double layer silicone-silicone rubber stent shows highly fluctuating time response. The fluctuations provide adequate wall strain energy to push back and hence maintain the blood flow rate. This type of stent can be implanted in vessels suffering stiffness to overcome restenosis.


Open Access Original Research Article

Estimation of Environmental Chemical Pollution of Al-Baiji Oil Refinery in Iraq

Mohemid M. Al-Jebouri, A. H. Al-Samarrai, Riydh A. Abdeljabar

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 2223-2230
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2014/8279

All kinds of industries like oil plants, petrochemicals and chemical industries are causing tremendous chemical pollution of environment components like air, water and soil. The first target of chemical pollution is the environment of the refinery itself. It was seen that the protection and control measures of chemical pollution locally followed for oil refinery environment and its community were very limited. This worse situation might lead health hazards to workers in oil refinery and consequently to its vicinity. This study was conducted to assess the degree of chemical pollution and impact caused by Al-Baiji Oil Refinery of Iraq on its own environment. Six heavy metals concentrations were estimated in selected samples of soil and water collected from different sites in oil refinery by using atomic absorption spectrophotometery. These metals were cadmium, copper, nickel, lead, vanadium and zinc. Estimation of pollutant gases utilized a portable digital device. Results showed that some of the heavy metals tested (Cu and Zn) were at acceptable levels whereas the other four heavy metals (cadimium, nickel, lead and vanadium) revealed higher values than maximum allowable limits. Determination of hydrogen sulphide (H2S), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide (CO) and oxygen (O2) gases were also done. Acceptable concentrations of H2S (4.16)ppm and CO (29.5)ppm were recorded, while those of NO2 (0.108)ppm and O2 (20.6%)ppm were not acceptable. Inhalation of metal particles might be more dangerous than through gastrointestinal tract (GIT) or dermal routes. Concentration of gaseous pollutants was almost close to the acceptable concentrations, with exception of nitrogen dioxide which was noted to be more than the acceptable limits.


Open Access Original Research Article

On Cartesian Products of Any Finite Number of Orthogonal Double Covers

R. El-Shanawany, A. El-Mesady

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 2231-2240
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2014/8689

We are concerned with the cartesian products of any finite number of symmetric starter vectors of orthogonal double covers of the complete bipartite graphs and use this method to construct ODCs by new infinite classes of disjoint unions of complete bipartite graphs.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Comparative Study on the Influence of Elastic Scattering Mechanisms on the Electron Mobility in Wurtzite and Zincblende Gallium Nitride

K. Alfaramawi

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 2241-2250
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2014/8671

The electron mobility of zincblende (ZB) and wurtzite (WZ) structures of n-type GaN is investigated as a function of both temperature and donor concentration. Numerical calculations of the mobility are carried out in a temperature range from 10 K up to 400 K and donor doping concentrations from 1019 m-3 to 1027 m-3. Elastic types of scattering mechanisms are considered. These types include ionized impurity scattering, neutral impurity scattering, deformation potential acoustic phonons scattering and piezoelectric potential scattering. The electron drift mobility versus temperature shows peak behavior for both zincblende and wurtzite GaN structures. Below approximately 120/140 K (for ZB and WZ GaN respectively), the mobility increases when the temperature is increased. In this temperature range, the ionized impurity scattering is assumed to be the dominant scattering mechanism. Above 120/140 K, the mobility is lowered down by raising the temperature. In this regime, the lattice scattering is considered to be the dominant mechanism. The variation of the electron drift mobility with donor concentration at room temperature shows a continuous decrease with the increase of impurity doping concentration. This is probably due to Coulomb scattering present particularly at low temperatures.

Open Access Original Research Article

Toxicity and Histopathological Effect of Cypermethrin on Juveniles of Clarias gariepinus

R. O. Ojutiku, F. P. Asuwaju, R. J. Kolo, R. A. Obande, O. O. Agbelege

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 2251-2264
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2014/3259

Aim: To study the toxicity and histopathological effects of Cypermethrin on the gill and liver tissues of the Clarias gariepinus.
Place of the Study: It was carried out at the toxicology section of the of Water Resources, Aquaculture and Fisheries Technology Department, School of Agriculture and Agricultural Technology of the Federal university, Minna, Niger State, Nigeria.
Methodology: The fish were exposed to six (6) acute concentrations (0.025mg/l, 0.050mg/l, 0.075mg/l, 0.100mg/l, 0.125mg/l and 0.000mg/l) for 96 hours. The histopathology of the gills and liver were determined and the LC50 was determined.
Results: The 96 hours LC50 of the toxicant to the test fish was 0.060mg/L. The most common gill changes at all doses of cypermethrin in solution were destruction of gill lamella, epithelial hyperplasia and epithelial hypertrophy. Hepatic lesions in the liver tissues of fish exposed to Cypermethrin in solution were characterized by degeneration of hepatocyte, vascuolization of cell cytoplasm, fatty degeneration and hypertrophy of hepatocytes. Histological comparison of tissues indicated that most damage occurred in the gill rather than in the liver.
Conclusion: Juveniles of Clarias gariepinus exposed to various concentration of Cypermethrin showed that this synthetic pyrethroid was highly toxic to the Clarias gariepinus fingerlings with lethal concentration (LC50) of 0.060mg/l. Evidences of toxicity manifested significantly in the damages caused to the gills and liver studied. The severity of these damages to some selected organs in the body of the fish is proportional to the concentration of the pesticides.