The study examined accessibility and flow of agricultural commodity in a rural area of Nigeria with a view to determining the effect of transportation on agricultural development in the area. The data used were collected from one hundred randomly selected farmers from five major market centres in the Local Government Area. The road network of the study area was also mapped to determine the level of connectivity of the area. The study showed that settlements in the area are poorly connected. This factor coupled with the deplorable condition of the rural roads have hampered steady evacuation of agricultural produce to the market centres. Movement of agricultural commodities to urban centres was concentrated on the few good roads available using lorries as the main mode. The study therefore recommends that in order to improve the flow of agricultural commodity in the local government, good roads and transport facilities should be provided.
Aims: This study was designed to determine different subsurface Geo-electric layers, the aquifer units, determination of Dar-Zarrouk parameter (Longitudinal conductance(S) and Transverse resistance (R)) as well as identifying suitable areas with poor, weak, moderate and excellent aquifer protective capacity rating. Study Design: The study area, Sabo in Kaduna state lies approximately between latitudes 10º25’N and 10º30’N and longitudes 7º25’E and 78º30’E covering an area of about 500,000m2. Methodology: A total of sixty-six (66) vertical electrical soundings (VES) using Schlumberger electrode array were acquired with a maximum electrode separation of AB/2=100 m, using the ABEM Terrameter SAS 300C. Results: Maximum of five lithologies were identified namely, topmost layer which consists of lateritic clay, river sand and gravel, clayey sand, weathered transition zone/ fractured layer and the fresh basement. Qualitative interpretation indicates that the weathered layer and weathered/fractured basement constitutes the main aquifer units. These aquifers are characterized by thick overburden found within basement depressions with maximum value of 65 m and resistivity values between 10 ohm.m and 756 ohm.m. The Dar-Zarrouk parameters evaluated are total longitudinal unit conductance (S) and total transverse resistance (T) with values ranging from 0.005 – 0.65 mhos and 2000 – 32000 ohm.m2. Conclusion: The results show that the lithology of the aquifer is dominated by clay/clayey sand and sandy materials with attendant low and high transmissivity. About 80 % of the area has longitudinal conductance value greater than 0.3 mhos due to high content of clay/lateritic clay indicating moderate protective capacity rating, hence vulnerable to contamination.
In most existing buildings cooling and heating loads lead to high primary energy consumption and, consequently, high CO2 emissions. These can be substantially decreased with suitable energy concepts using appropriate integrated renewable systems. In the present study a numerical model is developed to study the effect of different collector parameters and operating conditions on the performance of parabolic trough solar collector (PTSC) in Kuwait climate. The proposed model takes into consideration the thermal interaction between absorber-envelope, and envelope-envelope for thermal radiation losses which have been neglected in existing models. A review of the equations for convective heat transfer losses was performed as well and new equations were developed and used in the present model. The effects of heat conduction in the collector tube wall and mixed convection in the inner tube, which have been neglected in previous studies, are included in the proposed model. In addition, a case study is carried out adapting parabolic trough collectors to satisfy nominal space heating load, water heating load and cooling load of a typical Kuwaiti dwelling. Finally, the environmental impact of solar heating and cooling systems under Kuwait climate conditions is investigated. Present results indicate that convection loss from the absorber tube to supporting structures is the largest among the other losses (conduction and radiation). Also, at noon time PTSC has the smallest angle of incidence and the highest efficiency and when the annulus between the receiver surface and the glass envelope is In vacuo, conduction and convection across the annulus are effectively eliminated. In addition, space heating load and domestic water heating load can be completely provided by PTSC. The minimum required collector area is about 82 m2 to supply cooling loads of a typical residential house under all climatic conditions in Kuwait. A CO2 emission reduction of about 12.3tonne/year can be achieved as a result of adapting parabolic trough solar collector to a typical Kuwaiti dwelling.
The attempt to properly date the iron-age Lejja site has been the concern of some archaeologists for the past few decades. The latest archaeological investigations of the area revealed that artefacts could be found at depths below one metre. Excavation of such completely concealed features may involve much futile digging which is prohibited at most locations in the community. To avoid discontinuity of the research resulting from environmental restrictions, we have adopted a more environmentally friendly approach; that is, geophysical mapping of the artefacts before excavation. Archaeo-magnetic data was acquired on regular 1 by 1 metre grid covering a total area of 2400 square metre using proton precession magnetometer (Geometrics model G-856AX). The analytic signal software used for inversion of the field data was first validated using synthetic data obtained from Rao and Babu model. The result revealed presence of some archaeological features, perhaps, a prehistoric iron smelting furnace and a mound nearby, both remaining in-situ and buried at same depth of 1.76 metres. Also revealed were two other smaller features which were, most likely, iron smelting slag blocks buried at depths of 1.2 and 1.56 metres. However, permission was not granted for excavations that were needed to confirm the above results.
Aims: To produce concentrates at remote areas of production, where fruits are expected to be cheaper and hence compete with imported concentrates. Study Design: Factorial Experimental design. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Khartoum, Sudan and Food Research Center, Shambat, Sudan, between September 2009 and May 2010 Methodology: Two mango (Mangifera indica) varieties Abu Samaka and Baladi were used to produce concentrate and the concentrate was stored at ambient temperature and a refrigerator at 4ºC for 6 months. The concentrates were prepared by using open kettle boiler (100ºC) and they were packed in cans using double seam machine. Results: The Baladi variety gave higher total soluble solids (TSS) than Abu Samaka. Abu Samaka exhibited an excellent percentage (29.7%) of total sugars during storage and the total titrable acidity of mango concentrate in the two varieties reported a slightly increase. The reducing sugars increased gradually with storage time. The two varieties showed retention of ascorbic acid content during storage. There was no growth of E. coli, yeast and molds in the concentrates of the two varieties tell the end of the storage period (6 months). The concentrates from the two varieties at both temperatures were acceptable by the panelists. Conclusion: The two varieties showed suitability in processing to give mango concentrate.
Aims: Effects of drying methods on proximate and physico-chemical properties of fufu flour fortified with soybeans was investigated. Study Design: Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was employed in this work. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Food Science and Technology, Osun State Polytechnic, Iree, Osun State, Nigeria, between January 2013 and August 2013. Methodology: The peeled cassava roots (Manihot esculenta crantz) were steeped in water for two days. The roots were thereafter grated. The grated pulp was steeped in water for another two days for fermentation. The fermented pulp was sieved and packed in jute bags and dewatered using hydraulic press. The cassava cake was pulverized by hand and dried using oven, sun and solar drying methods. Soybean seeds were washed and boiled for 20 mins. The boiled seeds were drained and dehulled to remove seed coats. The dehulled soybeans seeds were dried, milled, sieved and packaged. Flour from cassava and soybean were mixed in the ratio of 80%:20% for this research work. Results: The protein contents of fufu fortified flours using different drying methods were higher than fufu flour. Bulk density, water absorption capacity, swelling capacity and gelation of fufu and fufu fortified flours were not affected by the drying methods. But there was increase in the proximate and functional properties due to soybean inclusion into the flours as the values were higher than that of fufu flours. Viscosities of fufu flour were higher than the fortified fufu flour. Conclusion: There were increase in proximate constituents and functional properties of the fufu flours with addition of soybean flour. The foam capacity and pasting parameters were significantly affected by the drying methods coupled with addition of soybean flour.
Aims: To determine the effects of cultivar and bulb size at planting on growth and yield of onion production in Ghana. Study Design: The experiment was laid out as a randomized complete block design and each treatment combination was replicated four times. Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted at the experimental fields of the University for Development Studies, Nyankpala in the Northern Region of Ghana from July to October in the year 2012 and repeated during the same period in year 2013. Methodology: The three onion cultivars used for the study were ‘Bawku red’, ‘White onion’ and ‘Nigel brown’. The bulb sizes used were large (45-60 mm in diameter), medium (30-45 mm in diameter) and small (15-30 mm in diameter) bulbs. Bulbs from these treatment combinations were planted in the field, and growth and yield parameters were measured. Results: Bulb size at planting influenced vegetative growth and yield parameters of onion. The big bulb gave the best performance in terms of growth and yield whilst the small bulb gave the least of these parameters. No significant cultivar difference was observed in terms of growth, but ‘Bawku red’ and ‘White onion’ had higher bulb fresh mass than the other cultivar. Conclusion: Results indicated that the highest yield in the northern region of Ghana was obtained with the large (45-60 mm in diameter) bulbs of ‘Bawku red’ or ‘White onion’.
Aims: This study was to manufacture and evaluation of novel food product from germinated barley (barley like jam) comparing to the same product manufactured from wheat (wheat like jam). Study Design: Germinated grains of both of wheat and barley was minced with water, liquidated and cooked then chemically sensory and microbiologically evaluated. Place and Duration of Study: Products manufacture and analysis were carried out through 60 days of storage period at faculty of specific education laboratory, Mansoura Univ. and national research center, Giza, Egypt. Methodology: Five hundred grams of germinated grains was minced with 1500 ml of water at 30ºC. After 1 h extraction the weight was filled up to 2000 ml. Then it liquidated for separating the hard fibers. The produced extract (first extract) was kept in refrigerator. The remained high fiber part was soaked in 3 liters of water for 3 hours (for obtaining most water soluble component. Moisture, crude protein and crude fat, Phosphorus, calcium, potassium, iron, copper and zinc, total phenolics Eq. (mg Gallic acid) were determined. Products antioxidant activity was measured by DPPH0 (1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl radical) and ferric reducing FRAP (free radical antoxidant power) assay. Results: Total phenolic compounds content increased in final product comparing to the original grains from 41,458 and 74.271 to 98.646 and 145.833 Eq. (mg Gallic acid /100g) respectively, antioxidant activity increased from 63.561 and 38.485 to 66.439 and 55.152 Eq. (mg ascorbic acid /100g). FRAP assay and DPPH scavenging activity increased from 21.78 and 35.58g/100g to 52.45 and 49.08g/100g for wheat and barley respectively. The increase in total viable count, yeast and molds was faster in wheat than in barley product over the storage period. Barley product had insignificant decrease in overall acceptability comparing to wheat product. Conclusion: Novel forms of products can be produced from germinated wheat and barley grains with high content of bioactive compounds comparing to the original grains. In the context of development of acceptable functional foods for consumers.
Aim: To determine and compare the levels of zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), mercury (Hg), and cobalt (Co) in edible clay samples. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Chemistry Laboratory, Federal College of Education (Technical), Asaba between June and October 2013.
Methodology: Two species of edible clay (Nzu and Ulo) bought in replicates from four spatially located markets namely Ochanja, Ose, Relief and Okpokoin Onitsha were used for the study. The samples were digested with aqua regia solution and analyzed for heavy metals by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Mean concentrations were computed from three replicate measurements. Data from the markets were compared by One-Way ANOVA while data between the clay types were analyzed by independent t-test. Results: Mean concentrations (ppm) of Zn, Pb, Cd, Cu, and Co showed no significant difference [(P =.981, .479, .335, .333 and .613) for Zn, Pb, Cd, Cu, and Co respectively] among markets. The mean concentration (ppm) of Hg (2.335±0.276) in Ochanja market however, differ significantly (P =.045) from those of the other markets, 0.621±0.244, 0.796±0.280 and 0.251±0.190 for Ose, Relief and Okpoko respectively. Statistically reliable differences were found for Zn (P =.000) and Co (P =.003) type 1 and 11 mean concentrations. However, mean concentrations of Pb, Cd, Cu and Hg in type 1 and type 11 clays did not differ significantly [(P =.391, .288, .243, and .613) for Pb, Cd, Cu and Hg respectively]. There were high concentrations of Hg invirtually all samples and Cd in few samples. Conclusion: The high levels of Cd and Hgin the analyzed edible clays make them unhealthy for human consumption. However, further research is required to validate the reliability of these findings.
Aims: To determine the effects of drought and bulb weight at planting on growth and development of onion in the Northern Region of Ghana. Study Design: Levels of bulb weights at planting and watering regimes were factorially combined and replicated three times in randomised complete block design. Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted at the plant house of the University for Development Studies, Nyankpala in the Northern Region of Ghana from the 15th of July to 30th October, 2012 and repeated during the same period and in the same manner in year 2013. Methodology: Three onion bulb weights namely large bulb (44.3g), medium bulb (26.1g) and small bulb (16.7g) were planted in pots, each of capacity 0.01m3, and subjected to three levels of watering regimes: watering weekly throughout the experimental period, from the time of planting up to three weeks after planting, and from the time of planting up to five weeks after planting. The study was conducted using randomised complete block design with three replications. Growth parameters, plant vigour and bulb yield at harvest were collected for statistical analysis. Results: Drought stress did not significantly affect vegetative growth and bulb yield of onion but it played a crucial role in influencing plant vigour. Bulb weight at planting, however, influenced plant vigour, vegetative growth and bulb yield at harvest. In general, as the weight of the planted bulb increased, growth and yield parameters also increased in proportion to the weight of the planted bulb. Conclusion: Onion growers in the Northern Region of Ghana should use large bulb weight (44.3g) at the time of planting in order to get optimum growth and bulb yield at harvest. Growers should also have access to irrigation facilities to supply water on their farms during the time of drought to maintain the vigour of plants especially when the crop is produced by planting small or medium bulbs.