Aim: The aim of the study is to delineate the outline of the Itobe marble using geophysical electrical survey method. Study Design: Eight (8) vertical electrical sounding surveys were carried out along a profile parallel to the trend of the marble outcrop. Place and Duration of Study: The study area is Itobe and its environs in Kogi state, central Nigeria. Field geophysical resistivity survey of the study area was carried out between January and April 2012. Methodology: The field resistivity sounding surveys were carried out with an ABEM SAS (1000) Terrameter using the Schlumberger electrode array. Interpretation of the resistivity sounding data was carried out first by curve matching technique and followed by computer iterative interpretation technique using the Winresist software (version 1.0). Results: The results of the study revealed the occurrence of an additional marble unit (Mass III) at an elevation of 105m besides two marble units identified from outcrop studies. The thickness of the marble in mass I is 0.6m and that of mass II is 6m. Conclusion: The outcrop geological survey revealed the occurrence of two marble units (described as mass I and mass II).The geophysical survey revealed an additional marble unit (described as mass III) in the study area.
Aim: The aim of the study is to delineate the subsurface geologic layers and evaluate the aquifer potential in Anyigba and its environs. Study Design: The resistivity sounding surveys were carried out randomly within the study area with half of the total surveys carried out within Anyigba town. Lithologic logging of boreholes close to the survey lo\ations were also carried out. Place and Duration of Study: The study area is Anyigba and its environs in Kogi state, central Nigeria. Field geophysical resistivity survey and borehole lithologic logging of the study area were carried out between March 2010 and December 2012. Methodology: The field resistivity sounding surveys were carried out with an ABEM SAS (1000) Terrameter using the Schlumberger electrode array. Drill cuttings from boreholes sampled at 3 meters interval were used for the identification of the subsurface lithology. Results: The results of the study reveal the presence of four to six geologic layers within the study area. The geologic layers and the mean thicknesses of the layers are: i. Lateritic top soil (1.022m), ii. Lateritic sandy layer (5.285m), iii unsaturated loosely compacted sandstone layer (9.843m), iv. unsaturated compact sandstone layer (45.8m), v. partly saturated sandstone layer (26.9) and vi. A fully saturated sandstone layer. Conclusion: Four to six geologic layers have been delineated within the study area. The fifth (partly saturated sandstone) layer and the sixth (fully saturated sandstone) layer constitute the main aquifer units in the study area.
Background: Central Asian countries as Uzbekistan have a long history of opium consumption. In recent years, the use of opium and other drugs became epidemic. The article investigates the history of drug consumption with an emphasis on opium in the region of present-day Uzbekistan. Objectives: The paper investigates how patterns of drug consumption reflect religious, historical and political influences and are also shaped by the availability of a drug. Methods: A search of ancient literature in the Karlsruher Virtueller Katalog, in the Tashkent National Library, Leipzig University Library, German National Library, and private sources of the authors were used for the review. Search criteria were Central Asia, Uzbekistan, drugs, opium, alcohol, cannabis. For modern sources, the search engine MEDLINE was used. Additionally, in-depth interviews were conducted in Uzbekistan from September 2010 February 2011 and further interviews to update the data were carried out in October and November 2011. In total, 50 interviews with people IDs (injecting drugs) were conducted in the Uzbek cities of Tashkent and Urganch. Results: A tradition of moderate consumption of drugs survived and still plays a role in justifying current drug consumption among drug addicts. Such moderate consumption occurred in the past, especially among old people who used opium for pain relief and physical activation. Conclusion: Under certain circumstances moderate drug consumption can endure in a society, especially when it is linked to a particular group and stays under control. Also, with regard to prevention measures such traditions have to be taken into consideration.
Aims: The main objective of this study is to evaluate the effects of market orientation, intellectual capital and organizational learning capability on successfulness of a new product. Study Design: The research model has been formed considering intellectual capital, organizational learning capability and market orientation as independent variables, while intellectual capital, organizational learning capability and successfulness of the new product have been considered as dependent variables. Methodology: The population includes 320 active incorporations in textile industry of Yazd Township. Stratified sampling method was used for sampling relative to the size of the sample, and in order to determine the size of the sample, Morgan Table was used. Finally, 175 acceptable samples were selected. Data was collected using questionnaires and measurements. Also data analysis was done by modeling the structural equations using LISREL software. Results: Results show that market orientation has a significant effect on intellectual capital, and intellectual capital affects organizational learning capability and successfulness of the new product. Results also show that there is no meaningful relationship between organizational learning capability and successfulness of the new product. Conclusion: This study can be beneficial for researchers and managers in textile industry due to presenting useful information in domain of management. Furthermore, it presents some suggestions for optimization and effectiveness of the obtained results.
The aim of the study was to improve the protein content of biscuit; a low protein but widely consumed snack by school-aged children. The study was carried out at the Department of Crop Utilization; International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Ibadan between March, 2012 and December, 2012. Composite flour was produced from African yam bean (a nutrient-dense but underutilized legume) flour (AYBF) and wheat flour (WF).The composite flour was prepared at various ratios WF/AYBF 100:0, 80:20, 70:30 and 60:40.and used to produce biscuits. These biscuits samples were analysed and the 100/0 WF: AYBF biscuit served as control. Proximate analysis, crispness (breaking force) and sensory evaluation of the biscuit samples were determined using standard methods. Proximate analysis showed significant increase (P=.05) in protein (9.61-14.71%), ash (1.37-2.42%) and sugar (14.11-21.29%) and significant decrease in starch (76.66-51.15%) and fat (12.53-8.13%) contents with increase in AYBF in the biscuits. There was no significant difference in the moisture contents of the test samples. Crispness of the biscuit increased with increase in percentage of AYBF in the flour blend. The breaking force values reduced from 8.5kg (for 100/0 WF: AYBF biscuits) to 3.0kg (60/40 WF: AYBF biscuits). Lower breaking force was found to correspond with higher crispness. Sensory evaluation results showed that all biscuit samples had high rating for all evaluated attributes. The closeness of values obtained for all biscuit samples to the control sample indicate a high level of acceptance of the AYBF-WF biscuits. Hence, suggesting a way of obtaining biscuits with higher protein content.
The use of natural antimicrobial compounds, especially extracted from plants, as food preservatives is nowadays widely used, since plant matrices possesses antimicrobial and antioxidant natural products to protect themselves from microbial infection and deterioration as well as for human health benefit properties. The present work was undertaken to examine the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of clove (Syzygium aromaticum L.) buds essential oil. Clove essential oil (CEO) exhibited high amount of total phenolic compounds (TPC) with high radical scavenging activity toward DPPH, ABTS and linoleic acid radicals as well as iron chelating activity. The TPC of CEO was 845 mg GAE g-1 demonstrated 509 µmol of TE g-1DPPH radicals scavenging activity and 713 µmol of TE g-1 ABTS radicals scavenging activity. The antioxidant capacity of CEO exhibited 94% reduction when evaluated by β-carotene bleaching assay. The Reducing power activity related to iron chelating was 314 µmol of AAE g-1. The composition of CEO exhibit high eugenol content (80.19%) over 16 identified components by GC-MS analysis. Furthermore, CEO exhibited antibacterial activity in vitro at low concentrations against tested food borne pathogens applying disc diffusion and microdilutions assays. The minimum inhibitory concentration values (MICs) for tested bacteria which were sensitive to CEO were in the range of 1400–3600µg ml-1. The phenolic components of CEO are most active and appear to act principally as membrane permeabilizers which established using staining-DNA fluorescence dye assay. Quantification of membrane permeabilization exudes a positive relationship between the cell membrane damaging and concentrations. Therefore, the CEO can be reliably used in commercial applications as antioxidant, antibacterial and flavoring agent in individual or in combination with common preservatives for controlling the undesirable organoleptic and microbial deteriorations in foodstuffs.
This study was conducted in coastal communities of southern Nigeria to identify the factors influencing severe poverty of farming families. Through the multi-stage sampling, 80 farming families involving 60 males and 20 females were selected and were subsequently interviewed using a questionnaire. Primary data were analyzed using Tobit regression model. Results of analysis revealed that while plot size, migrant remittance, farm income, education, access to modern farming resources related inversely to depth of poverty; years of experience in farming and family size were positively related to poverty. Poverty levels were lower among unmarried family heads and female headed families. Results further revealed that plot size, income from farming, access to modern farming resources and rooms per family member were negatively significant (P<.05) in relation to poverty. Conversely, marital status of family head and average walking time to nearest water source were positively significant (P<.05) in relation to poverty. The level of educational attainment and migrant remittance were significant (P<.10) and negatively related to poverty whereas family size and average walking time to nearest health facility were very significantly (P<.01) positively related to poverty. Findings further reveal that poverty was lower for families that received migrant earnings either in form of cash or goods to support the families. The results suggest the relevance of migrant remittances in lifting people out of poverty. Policies aimed at encouraging increase in cultivable areas and access to land; educational advancement and training; access to health care facilities and water supply; adequate housing facilities are some measures that are likely to reduce poverty in the coastal communities. Policy options that will ensure the sustenance of remittance flows should also be encouraged.
This paper presents an energy analysis in support of developing an Energy Code for New Commercial Buildings for the Arab Countries. Energy efficiency of buildings is a major consideration of the architectural design. The building used for this study is a twenty-story building with a typical floor area of rectangular shape of 900m2. Two computer simulation programs (Excel) had been developed. The first to calculate the heating and cooling degree days (DDH & DDC) for the selected Arab cities, and the second to predict the complied energy required for the new buildings based on the weather data of each Arab city, and building materials and construction. The OTTV approach was used to develop appropriate criteria for the building envelope for most commercial buildings in the Arab region. The analysis shows that the OTTV for the exterior walls for most commercial buildings in the Arab region should not exceed 90 W/m2, and 12 W/m2for the roofs. Also, the WWR should be less than 60% with SHGC less than 0.49.
Aims: This study is aimed to investigate the effects of maggot crude protein levels (25 %, 30%, 35% and 40%) on growth performance, feed utilization, survival rate and body composition Larvae of Heterobranchus longifilis. Study Design: The experiment was carried out in aquaria (38.5 x 46.5 x 28 cm3), stocking each aquarium with 50 larvae (1larvae/L). Four experimental diets were formulated based on the maggot meal as the main protein source. These diets were formulated at 25, 30, 35 and 40% protein levels with maggot meal and maize flour as the major ingredients. Place and Duration of Study: This study was carried out in the reproduction laboratory, at Oceanological Research Center, Abidjan, Ivory Coast between the periods of March to May 2011. Methodology: The diets were offered to the larvae (initial mean weight 0.004±0,001g) three times per day ad libitum for 49 days. Results: The results showed that the growth indices such as final body weight, weight gain, and specific growth rate increased significantly with increasing maggot protein level to a maximum at 35% of maggot protein showed insignificant decrease in growth indices. Feed conversion ratio and protein efficiency ratio were better in 35% of maggot protein level. The highest values of survival rate were recorded with fish fed 35% and 40% maggot protein. Concerning body composition of larvae moisture and ash were not affected by dietary maggot protein level. The protein content of larvae increased with increasing of dietary protein level while the lipid content decreased. Conclusion: From the present results, diet containing 35% of maggot protein is considered optimal for Heterobranchus longifilis larvae.
The effects of different diets on haematological parameters of different species of poultry have been examined in this review. In Nigeria, different poultry species contribute to the animal protein supply of the populace in terms of eggs laid and meat produced. Feeding poultry for optimum growth production requires that the birds consume appropriate balanced diets for the health and productivity, it is important that they be fed diets that meet their nutritional requirements. Dietary components affect the blood profile of healthy birds. The blood transports or conveys nutrients and materials to different parts of the body. Therefore, whatever affects the blood, either nutrition or drugs will certainly affect the entire body adversely or moderately in terms of health, growth, maintenance and reproduction. Thus, a readily available and fast means of assessing, clinical and nutritional health status of animals on feeding trials may be the use of blood analysis, because ingestion of dietary components have measurable effects on blood composition.