Open Access Original Research Article

Chemical Composition, Antioxidant Capacity and Total Phenolic Content of the Flours Obtained from Cow Pea (Vigna ungualata) Varieties Commonly Consumed in Nigeria

Ibiyinka Ogunlade, Roseline Taiwo Ogunleye, Ilesanmi Osasona

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1729-1735
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2014/7501

Aim: To determine the proximate, mineral composition, antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content of the flours of four varieties of cow pea commonly consumed in Nigeria and to examine the influence of the colour of the beans’ hull on the antioxidant capacity of the bean varieties.
Place and Duration of Study: The experiments on proximate and mineral composition were performed in Chemistry Laboratory of Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti while those on antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content were conducted in Chemistry Laboratory, Afe Babalola University, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria.
Methodology: Standard analytical methods were employed to determine the proximate and mineral composition of the flours obtained from four varieties of cow pea Vigna unguiculata subsp. dekindtiana, the wild relative of the cultivated subspecies; Vigna unguiculata subspcylindrica, cultivated, catjang; Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis, cultivated, yardlong beans andVigna unguiculata subsp. unguiculata, cultivated, black-eyed pea. The antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content of the aqueous extracts were determined using Ferric ion Reducing Antioxidant potential (FRAP assay) and Folin-Colcalteau method respectively.
Results: The moisture content, crude fibre, ash and fat were generally low in the four varieties with significantly high protein (24.19%-25.74%). Calcium and phosphorous were found to be high in all the varieties. Antioxidant Activity ranged from 44.52-150.05 mgGAE/100g DW while the total phenolic content varied from 88.15-100.02 mgGAE/100 g DW. A linear positive relationship existed between the antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of the cow pea varieties (R2=0.3333).
Conclusion: This study shows that the four cow pea varieties could serve as good sources of protein, calcium and phosphorous with valuable antioxidant properties. All the varieties could however be utilized in food preparations and formulations for both adults and children.

Open Access Original Research Article

Performance Evaluation of Photo and Biodegradation of Low Density Polyethylene Using Photodegradable Additive 4, 4’ Bis (Dimethylamino) Benzophenone (DMDAB) [Part – I]

Rajshree Vijayvargiya, A. K. S. Bhadoria, Ajay Kumar Nema

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1736-1758
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2014/4779

The additive 4, 4’ Bis (Dimethylamino) Benzophenone (DMDAB) is used as a photodegradable additive, which is commercially available and reported as UV active. DMDAB was melt blended with LDPE at three different formulations 1, 3 & 5 (w/w) % respectively in twin screw extruder. After blending with LDPE the performance of photo and bio degradation was evaluated. The films were evaluated for their mechanical, thermal, infrared spectroscopic analysis, and morphological characteristics. The results show that DMDAB can be used, as an effective photodegradable additive. The photo degradation rate of the additive is very high at lower concentration of DMDAB additive and the biodegradation was also proving that some low molecular weight species was formed during photo degradation, which is responsible for the 16% biodegradation after 50 days.

Open Access Original Research Article

Hematological Parameters of Broilers Fed with Feed Contaminated with Aflatoxin

Y. A. Jeff-Agboola

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1759-1771
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2014/4736

Aims: The study was design to show the effect of aflatoxicosis in hematological parameters of broiler fed with different doses of aflatoxin contaminated diets
Place and Duration of Study: Sample: A day old broilers were purchased from a poultry farm in Oyo State Nigeria and the heamatological analysis were conducted in Federal University of Technology Akure, Nigeria in the Department of Microbiology and Animal production and Health in Department between January–August 2012.
Methodology: A day old broilers were fed with normal commercial starter feed for 6 weeks. Thereafter were divided into 11 groups and fed with the different feed samples. (A= Basal diet free from mycotoxin contamination, B= diet containing mycotoxin standard AFB1(0.5µg/Afkg), C=diet containing standard AFB1(1µg/Afkg), D=diet containing standard AFB2(0.5µg/Afkg), E=diet containing standard AFB2(1µg/Afkg), F=diet containing standard AG1(0.5µg/Afkg), G= diet containing standard AG1(1µg/Afkg), H=diet containing standard AG2(0.5µg/Afkg), I= diet containing standard AG2(1µg/Afkg), J=diet containing toxicgenic Aspergillus flavus (1µg/AFkg),K= diet containing toxicgenic Aspergillus (1µg/AFkg) parasiticus) for 4 weeks. The initial body weight of the birds were recorded at 7 days interval up to the end of the experimentation.
Results: The result obtained from this research showed that, the average weight gain (g) increased in birds fed with normal diet from day 0 up to day 21 (39. 31±0.13a, 60.72±0.99a, 89.82±0.24c, 121.22±0.62a). There were reduction in weight of birds fed with feed containing the aflatoxigenic moulds and standard with increase in concentration of the toxin. The highest reduction was found in sample containing toxigenic A. parasiticus (25.33±0.19k, 38.45±0.09i, 49.12±0.02n and 62.34±0.32n) and A. flavus (28.15±0.65i, 31.32±0.02i, 57.43±0.05m and 78.45±0.21l) respectively after feeding up to 21 days. Significant decreases were noted in the following hematologic parameters: Red blood cell (RBC), Hemoglobin (Hb), Packed cell volume (PCV), and White blood count (WBC) heterophils and monocytes counts. There was increase in lymphocytes and eosinophils count compared with control.
Conclusion: The effects of the exposure of six-week-old broiler to doses of Aflatoxin correspond to a marked decrease in the weight of broilers, decrease in the Red blood cell (RBC), Hemoglobin (Hb), Packed cell volume (PCV), and White blood count (WBC).

Open Access Original Research Article

Exploring Factors Influencing Customer Loyalty: An Empirical Study on Malaysian Hypermarkets Perspective

Muhammad Khalilur Rahman, Md. Abdul Jalil

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1772-1790
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2014/9001

Aims: The main purpose of this paper is to examine the factors that influencing consumers’ loyalty in Malaysian hypermarkets context.
Study Design: A total of 292 respondents were selected randomly who purchased products from hypermarkets. Data were examined using descriptive frequency, correlations, principal component and exploratory factor analysis (EFA), confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), measurement model, structural model and hypothesized path coefficient.
Place and Duration of Study: Data was collected from Malaysian hypermarkets (Giant, Tesco and Carrefour) in federal territory area in Kuala Lumpur, between February and April 2013.
Methodology: A self-administered questionnaire was developed to collect information through random sampling method. The study employs structural equation modeling (SEM) approach using confirmatory factor analysis and test the hypothesized positive correlation between exogenous and endogenous constructs to identify the customers’ loyalty.
Results: The result showed that service quality, product quality and price strategy both have positive impact on customer loyalty. The finding also revealed that price strategy was highly significant with consumers’ loyalty in Malaysian hypermarkets context.
Conclusion: This research is empirically validated the proposed causal relationship between the independent and dependent variable and it also allowed in testing all the correlations concurrently. The main contribution of this study is that it proposes a way to assess customer loyalty in retail marketing strategic plan that influence consumers to repurchase product in Malaysian hypermarkets. The study has proposed a conceptual hypothesized model that is necessary for further exploration and opens the gate for future research.

Open Access Original Research Article

Shrinkage Deformation of Concrete Containing Recycled Coarse Aggregate

Musbau Ajibade Salau, Efe Ewaen Ikponmwosa, Adesola O. Adeyemo

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1791-1807
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2014/3950

The long term properties of Concrete containing Recycled Coarse Aggregates (CRCA) were investigated. Initially, series of short term tests were carried out to determine the density, workability, absorption and compressive strength of concrete with and without locally available recycled aggregates from demolition wastes. The water cement ratio of 0.52 was adopted for all the mixes, while the coarse aggregate in concrete was replaced with 0%, 25%, 50% and 100% recycled coarse aggregates.
The test results indicated that the replacement of normal coarse aggregates by recycled aggregates up to 25% had no significant effect on the compressive strength but higher levels of replacement reduced the compressive strength. A replacement level of 100% caused a reduction of about 27% in compressive strength.
The shrinkage deformation characteristics of concrete made with 25% recycled coarse aggregate were compared with those of normal concrete. Eight 10cm x 10cm x 40cm concrete sealed and unsealed short columns made with and without RCA, were under investigation for 120 days. The results of the investigation showed that the basic shrinkage strains of normal concrete is about 1.07 times greater than that of CRCA (with 25% RCA). The drying and total shrinkage strains of CRCA (with 25% RCA) are respectively 2.56 and 1.26 times greater than that of normal concrete. 25% RCA content in concrete was therefore considered for use in load bearing structural elements.

Open Access Original Research Article

Sample Size for Correlation Studies When Normality Assumption Violated

Azadeh Saki, Hamed Tabesh

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1808-1822
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2014/7923

Aims: Assessing the correlation between two variables is very important in observational and experimental researches. “How many sample size was required?” is one of the preliminary questions for correlation studies. Although achieving normality is rare the available techniques calculated the sample size based on fisher transformation statistics that supposed the bivariate normal distribution. This study conducted to find the sample size of correlation studies when the distribution of population is not bivriate normal.
Methodology: A Simulation study was used to compared the required sample size of the correlation test for ρ= 0.1, 0.2 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6, 0.7, 0.8, 0.9. Samples are drawn from bivariat normal, skewed, highly skewed, and heavy tailed distributions. The bias, variance, Mean Square Error (MSE), and the rejection rate of the fisher test for 10000 sample correlation coefficient were calculated. To achieving the nominal power the sample size was increased gradually.
Results: Both the mean Bias and Mean Square Error of Sample correlation increased when the bivariate distribution is not normal. The correlation test is robust against minor and major departures from bivariate normal assumption when the sample size of study was sufficiently large. To find the significance correlation between two variables with nominal power the required sample size depending on ρ and population distribution approximately 10 to 30 percent increased.
Conclusion: Departure from normality affected both accuracy and precision of sample correlation. Normality is not an ignorable assumption for correlation studies and it is important to have information about population distribution to determine the sample size when designing a study.

Open Access Original Research Article

Study of the Properties of Impulse-Like Pulses in Finite-Difference Time-Domain Simulation of Grounded-Dielectric-Slab-Like Microstrips

Alejandro Dueñas Jiménez

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1823-1840
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2014/8144

The study of nine different voltage pulses (exponential, rectangular, unit step, trapezoidal, logarithmic, triangular, quadratic, gaussian, and tangential), which approximate the unit impulse or dirac delta in finite difference time-domain (fdtd) simulation of grounded dielectric slab-like microstrips, was carried out in order to know how each one behaves when transient and steady state analyses are considered. All these pulses lead to almost identical responses (except the unit step) in the frequency regime but to very different performances in the time regime. The convenience of use one pulse instead of other is dicussed on the context of specific applications.

Open Access Original Research Article

Analysis of Mobile Agent Optimization Patterns

Faiz Al Shrouf, Aiman Turani, Ayman Abu Baker, Ahmad Al Omri

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1841-1857
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2014/7093

Aims: This study extends classification of mobile agent design patterns to involve optimization patterns. We propose two optimization design patterns for mobile agents namely: V-Agent Optimization Pattern and P-Agent Optimization Pattern. The purpose of this paper is to report agents' performance based on mathematical computing model and to support reusability of designs in mobile computing area.
Study Design: This study was developed in collaboration between researchers from computer science department of Amman Arab University, department of computer engineering, department of Network of Applied Science University.
Place and Duration of Study: Samples were implemented in the Department of Computing and Mathematics (Computer Science) and Department of Information System of Amman Arab University for Higher Studies between October 2012 and July 2013.
Methodology: Sample of four master mobile agents that create three slave mobile agents. Master agents are working on set of clients using Aglet alpha release 2.0.5, Tahiti working server and Java Execution Environment (JEE) platform. Slave agents are created by master agents that receive multiple messages from master agents. Master agents send 4000 messages. Consequently, slave agents record message response time in milliseconds. Finally, optimized computed time is computed using the two optimizers: V-Agent Optimizer Design Pattern and P-Agent Optimizer Design Pattern.
Results: Different sample sizes of two data sets are analyzed: seven master mobile agents vs. four slave mobile agents (number of master agents is larger than slave mobile agents, five master mobile agents vs. five slave mobile agents (number of master mobile agents equal to number of slave mobile agents), and four master mobile agents vs. seven slave mobile agents, (number of master mobile agents is less than number of slave mobile agents). Results are based on two main factors: first, disparity of mobile agents in the first data set is computed with variance   σ is less than 6 and the second data set, variance is larger than 6 between master mobile agents and slave mobile agents, second, number of messages was still fixed in the two data sets of 4000 messages.
Conclusion: finally, it was reported that the optimized computed time for both data sets using P-Agent Optimizer Pattern is less than V-Agent Optimizer Pattern in all cases of different master mobile agents vs. slave mobile agents. It was concluded in this study that P-Agent Optimizer Design Pattern is more efficient, reusable and scalable than V-Agent Optimizer Design Pattern.

Open Access Original Research Article

“Protective” Effects of Titanium Dioxide Nano-particles on Daphnia magna Exposed to UV Radiation

Guillermo Galindo Reyes, Giuseppe Rafael Galindo Rodríguez

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1858-1868
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2014/8696

Aims: Titanium dioxide nano-particles (nano-TiO2) have been used in sunscreen creams to protect skin againstultra violet (UV) radiation; other applications are polarized glasses, wall paints, etc., however, the ecological risks when nano-TiO2 residues reach aquatic ecosystems is not well documented; therefore, the objective of this study is to give some insight on the attenuating effects of nano-TiO2 against UV radiation on Daphnia magna and the toxicity of nano-TiO2 on this organism.
Study Design: Exposing Daphnis to UV radiation in presence and absence of nano-TiO2.
Place and Duration of Study: Biotechnology Institute, CNR, Canada and Toxicology laboratory, Faculty of Marine Sciences, University of Sinaloa Mexico; between April and July 2012.
Methodology: Daphnis (adults and neonates) were exposed to UV light for varying periods in the absence and presence of nano-TiO2. After 48 h incubation, mortalities were recorded for each experiment. Similar experiments were performed using bulk TiO2 instead of nano-TiO2, to know if protective effect is related to particles size. Finally, to know if protective effect is outer (blocking UV radiation) or interior (by cellular processes), Daphnis were pre-treated with nano-TiO2, then exposed to UV radiation, and mortalities recorded.
Results: The mortalities were significantly lower in presence than in absence of nano-TiO2. Alsomortalities were significantly higher in bulk TiO2 than in nano-TiO2, indicating that nano-TiOhas a protective effect against UV radiation on Daphnis. Also, results indicate that protective effect is exterior, by blocking of UV rather than cellular repair mechanisms (cellular processes). However, at 100mg/L nanoTiOconcentration, 15% mortality was observed.
Conclusion: Nano-TiO2 is a nanomaterial blocking UV radiation; however if residues reach aquatic ecosystems, could be a risk (toxic) for aquatic organisms, because the highest concentration used in this work caused mortalities in Daphnia magna.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Impact of Work and Family Stress on Workers’ Health

Ahmed Zaghloul, Frederic Ananian, Mona Siha

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1869-1881
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2014/8388

Aims: To evaluate the role of some work factors ( shift work and monthly income) and family factors (marital status and number of dependants) in the development and aggravation of some stress related diseases such as hypertension, coronary heart diseases (CHD), diabetes mellitus (DM), and peptic ulcer ( PU).
Study Design: A cross sectional study.
Place and Duration of Study: “El Nasr for Tobacco and Cigarettes” factory, Giza, Egypt. The study was performed between January to December 2012.
Methodology: The sample size included the whole work force (4800 workers). A special questionnaire was designed including socio- demographic characteristics, medical and occupational histories. Clinical examination was performed in the medical department of the factory. Some investigations were done (ECG, urine for glucose, fasting and post- prandial blood sugar, Stress ECG and stomach endoscopy for suspected cases). Data obtained from the study were coded and entered using the statistical package SPSS version 12. Comparisons between groups were done using Chi Square (X 2) test.
Results: Hypertension was the most prevalent stress related disease among workers (19.2%), males were more affected than females (20.3% versus 15.02% respectively ), divorced were more affected than married and single ones (29.1% versus 6.8% and 1.7% respectively). There was exponential increased incidence of all diseases in workers with more dependents. There was more incidence of diseases among moderate income workers compared to lower and higher ones. Night shift workers were more afflicted when compared to rotating and morning shifts (25.7%, 22.5% and 16.8% respectively for hypertension).
Conclusion: Incidence of stress related diseases such as Hypertension, CHD, DM and PU was more prevalent among workers with stressful work factors such as night shift and low income, as well as those with stressful family situations such as increased number of dependants, being divorced or widowed.