This article discusses the use of Instant Controlled Pressure Drop (DIC) as a pre-treatment stage to intensify the solvent extraction of total phenols and more especially tannins from the bark of African sumac (Tunisian Rhus tripartitum). Total phenol land tannin contents were determined using the spectrophotometric Folin–Ciocalteau method and external calibration with Gallic acid. We used DIC with two processing parameters in a 5-level central composite Design of Experiment to study the yields of total phenol and tannin as the dependent variables. The results obtained confirmed that the DIC operating parameters, which were saturated steam pressure and total heating time, were significant for both dependent variables. The optimum predictive values for DIC treated bark were 280.66 Gallic Acid Equivalent/g dry basis (GAE/g db) for total phenol and 51.79mgGAE/g db for tannins, compared with 207.5 and 33.4mg GAE/g db with untreated raw material. In terms of total phenol extraction kinetics, the starting accessibility δXs and effective diffusivity Deff were calculated to be 0.17gGAE/g db and 1.26×10-10m2s-1, respectively, for DIC treated material at a steam pressure of 0.37 MP and a processing time of 37s, compared with 0.15 g GAE/g db and 1.18×10-10m2s-1 for raw material. Moreover, all DIC treated samples exhibited higher antioxidant activity compared to the raw material. A positive correlation was established between the total phenol content and the % DPPH free radical scavenging activity. The overall findings demonstrate that DIC increases the extraction efficiency for both total phenols and tannins, thus rendering Rhus tripartitum bark a promising source of natural antioxidants.
The aim of the present study is to propose a generalized formulation of physical exergy property for a system interacting with a generalized reservoir consisting of independent reservoirs at constant temperature and constant pressure respectively. Physical exergy components are thermal exergy and mechanical exergy representing contributions by useful work and useful heat as outcomes of the available energy related to a composite system-reservoir and converted by means of the Carnot and Joule cycles. The demonstration of this generalized formulation, as an additive and non-negative state property, utilizes the method constituted by the categories of dualism and symmetry adopted to prove that work depends on pressure as heat depends on temperature when a system interacts with independent isobaric reservoir and isothermal reservoirs.
Aims: The aim of this study was to examine the physicochemical and functional properties of cassava flour and in composite with wheat flour for bakery products. Study Design: A 3 x 3 factorial design of High Quality Cassava Flour and levels of inclusion in wheat flour were designed for the studies. Place and Duration of Study: Food Processing and Engineering Division of the CSIR-Food Research Institute, Accra and Department of Food Science, BioCenter, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden between January, 2012 and January 2013. Methodology: High quality cassava flour was processed from three cassava varieties as Afisiafi, Bankye hemmaa and Doku duade, formulated into composite flours at 10, 20 and 30% inclusion levels with wheat flour. The Physicochemical, functional and pasting properties of the flours were characterized. Results: Cassava flour appeared whiter and less yellowish had higher pH and lower water activity compared to wheat flour but moisture and starch content of the flours showed no significant differences (p>0.05). Flour from only Doku duade had significantly igher amylose content than wheat flour. Generally, swelling power, solubility index, solubility volume and water binding capacity were greater in cassava flours than wheat flour. Increasing trend in these parameters was observed as cassava flour inclusion increased in the composite flour. Pasting performance in RVA showed a higher peak viscosity for cassava flour (3500–4089 cP) but lower paste stability and pasting temperature compared to wheat flour. Peak viscosity of the various composites were however comparable to that wheat flour but increasing cassava fraction resulted in early gelatinization and reduced retrogradation of the composite. Conclusion: The performance of cassava flour and its composite with wheat shows that it can be successfully adopted to replace a significant fraction of wheat flour.
Aim: To examine potentials to improve solute flux of selected uremic toxins across EXELTRA Plus 210 membrane. Methodology: Scanning electron microscopy was used to measure the inner and outer fenestrations of the membrane. We selected endothelin, β2-microglobulin, and complement factor D as uremic toxins for this study. The effective diffusivities of these molecules, Deff, were estimated using the equation Deff = Kdiff Do, under different conditions of fenestration densities and capillary diameters, where the hindrance factor, Kdiff, was calculated using the equation Kdiff = (ε / 2 - ε)2. Results: We estimated the innermost and outermost fenestrations mean pore densities to be 2.71% and 12.06%, respectively. Provided that the fenestrations’ density of the inner walls remained constant, doubling of the capillaries’ diameter and reducing their numbers by half, reduced Kdiff. Applying an electric potential across the outer surface of the capillaries increases the flux of the uremic toxins. Conclusion: The potential to improve the diffusive transport of uremic toxins through the capillaries’ walls could be enhanced by doubling the inner diameters of the capillaries, increasing the fenestrations density on the inner walls, and applying an electric potential.
Workers in printed circuit boards (PrCBs) industry have a long history of occupational exposures to toxic substances, however little is known about the long-term health consequences of such exposure. Aims: To determine the prevalence of some health problems among manufacturers of printed circuit boards and to formulate recommendations for occupational safety and health at this factory. Subjects and Methods: A case-control study was conducted in the first double sided printed circuit board manufacturing factory in Egypt, during the period from December 2012 to January 2013. Fifty three workers engaged in the process of printed circuit board manufacture were matched with sixty six referent subjects from the administrative department. All workers were personally interviewed filling a special questionnaire involving occupational history and full clinical examination. Investigations as Lead, Cadmium, serum copper and zinc levels were measured. Results: Eighten exposed workers (34%), had occupational asthma; 7 (13.2%) had contact dermatitis; 8 (15.1%) had ocular manifestations versus 11 (16.7%); 1 (1.5%); 4 (6.1%); 1 (1.5%) respectively for the control group. Blood levels of lead (48.84±10.0 versus. 13.60±4.70, p<0.001), cadmium (35.09±14.0 versus 23.90±5.70, p<0.001), and copper (1.32±0.64 versus 0.94±0.33, p<0.001), were statistically significantly higher among the exposed group than controls, while zinc levels (40.75±19.34 versus 77.31±15.21, p<0.001) were statistically significantly lower among the exposed group than controls. Blood levels of lead (r=. 543; p<. 001) and copper (r=. 463; p<. 001) were found to be positively correlated with the duration of employment. Conclusion: PrCBs manufacturing has been implicated with many health problems.
Recommendations: Proper safety measures should be enforced in the workplace. Pre-employment and periodic medical examination should be done for exposed workers. Further studies are recommended for PrCBs workers.
Time series analysis and forecasting has become a major tool in different applications in meteorological phenomena, such as rainfall, humidity, temperature, draught and environmental management fields. It has two goals, perception or modeling random mechanism and prediction of future series quantities according to the past. In this research, ARIMA (Auto Regressive Integrated Moving Average) model has been used to carry out short term predictions of monthly rainfall in Sylhet and Moulvibazar district (north-eastern region) for years 2012 to 2014. Based on the inspection of the ACF, PACF autocorrelation plots, the most appropriate orders of the ARIMA models are determined and evaluated using the AIC-criterion. For the monthly rainfall in Sylhet district at Tajpur and Kanairghat station ARIMA (1,1,1) (0,1,1)12 is obtained, whereas the respective models in Moulvibazar district at Chandbagh, Sreemangal and Manu railway bridge are ARIMA (0,1,1) (1,1,1)12, ARIMA (1,1,1) (1,1,1)12 and ARIMA (1,1,0) (0,1,1)12. Among five rainfall stations PBIAS is the least (-1.07%), NSE (88%) and Index of agreement (87%) are the highest at Kanairghat station. Negative Mann-Kendall test statistics of monthly rainfall series (for the period between 1980 and 2011) indicates that monthly rainfall is decreasing with time except Kanairghat station (0.075). Mean rainfall with their standard deviation indicates rainfall is fluctuating with time. The outcomes from this study will assist water engineers and hydrologists to establish strategies, priorities and proper use of water resources in Sylhet and Moulvibazar districts.
The Ferrocene additive is also reported as UV active and giving absorption peak of 220-260 nm at 2.8 X 10-3 mol/l. Ferrocene additive was melt blended with LDPE at 3 different concentration of ferrocene i.e. 1, 2 & 3% using twin screw extruder. After blending with LDPE the performance of photo and bio degradation was evaluated. The films were evaluated for their mechanical, thermal, infrared spectroscopic analysis, and morphological characteristics. The results show that ferrocene can be used as an effective photo-biodegradable additive. The photo degradation rate of the additive is very high at high concentration of ferrocene additive and the biodegradation was also proving that some low molecular weight species was formed during photo degradation, which is responsible for the 22% biodegradation after 47 days.
Aims: This study investigates the effect of consumption of an edible seafood - Egeria Radiata (Clam) on hematological parameters in rats. Study Design: Albino Wistar rats were assigned to 3 groups of 5 rats each. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Physiology, University of Calabar, Nigeria. Methodology: The protein content of the extract was estimated as 24.60±.1mg protein / mL. Graded doses of the extract (1.64 – 104.96mg protein / kg) were administered (i.p) in rats to determine the LD50 value of the extract. Based on the LD50 value (56.36mg/kg), two test doses (low dose - 7.0 mg protein / mL and high dose - 52mg protein / mL) were selected and administered to two groups of rats orally and daily for six weeks, while a third group of rats served as the control, n = 5. Blood samples were obtained from all the rats via cardiac puncture for the analysis of the various hematological indices. Results: Both the low and high doses of the extract produced significant increases in RBC count (P<.001), Hb (P<.001) and PCV (P<.001) compared with control. MCH (P<.001), MCHC (P<.001), total WBC count (P<.001) and platelet count (P<.001) were also increased in the extract groups. The extract groups had significant reductions in mean platelet volume (P<.001), platelet distribution width (P<.001) and platelet large cell ratio (P<.001) compared with control. Conclusion: In conclusion, an edible molluscan sea animal (Clam) probably contains food substances that enhance erythropoiesis, leukocytosis and thrombopoiesis. Clam could therefore serve as preferred and stable supplementary diets.
Aims: This study evaluated the impact of metal and metal containing wastes (plastics, glass, miscellaneous and fines) on cadmium and lead contents in soil and leachate and the inter-relationships among the various waste categories dumped on the site, using Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Study Design: Cadmium and lead contents in top soils of Sub-site WDA (Waste Dump Area) and LLA (Leachate Lagoon Area) (wdatscd, wdatspb; llatscd, llatspb); at 15-30cm depth i.e. sub-soil 1 (wdass1cd, wdass1pb; llass1cd, llass1pb); at 31-60cm depth i.e. sub soil 2 (wdass2cd, wdass2pb) and attenuated leachate cadmium and lead (alcd, alpb) were used along with the various waste fractions for PCA analysis. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Zoology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria. January 2003-September 2004; Institute of Applied Ecology, Shenyang, China. May 2006-May 2007. Methodology: Solid waste, leachate and soil were collected from two sub-sites (WDA and LLA and comparative control 600m away) from the Aba-Eku landfill site, Ibadan, Nigeria in February, April, August, October and December 2003; as well as in June 2004. They were analyzed for cadmium and lead contents using Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectroscopy after Hydrofluoric-Perchloric-Nitric acid digestion. Data obtained were subjected to PCA analysis. Results: The tendency of the various metal containing waste categories to cluster with lead and cadmium in leachate and soil on more than one principal component is suggestive of the degree of input to lead and cadmium contamination in soil and leachate. Metals contributed the highest (cluster on all three PCs) followed by plastics and the miscellaneous fraction (cluster on two PCs), glass and the fines fraction (cluster on one PC). Results also revealed two main clusters of biodegradable (Food wastes, miscellaneous and fines or soil) and non-biodegradable wastes (Glass/ceramics and metals). Conclusion: Based on these results, increased recovery and recycling of the metal, plastics and glass/ceramics waste fractions in particular, are suggested.
Aims: to evaluate nutrient status in Koroneiki olive trees grown in sandy soils and calculate the amount of nutrients annually removed by the olive tree. Study Design: Costate Statistical package, in order to calculate means, maximum, minimum, standard deviations (SD), with 12 replicates Place and Duration of Study: El-FIFA farm which is located at km 48 of Cairo-Alexandria road in the north west of Egypt, between January 2011 and December 2012. Methodology: This experiment was carried out on 10 years-old olive trees cv. Koroneki grown on a loamy sand soil. The trees are cultivated at 6 x 6 meters distance (278 tree/ha-1) and grown using standard cultural practices and subjected to moderate pruning every year. Flesh and pit were separated, weighed and dried. Nutrient concentrations in the flesh and pit were determined and used to quantify the nutrients removed by fruit. The materials removed in pruning were separated to branches and leaves, weighed and dried. Based on the dry matter and nutrient concentration in the different tissues, the amounts of nutrients removed annually in pruning were calculated. Nutrient removals were calculated for every organ, by multiplying dry weight by nutrient concentration. These amounts were added together, to obtain the total nutrient removal/tree. Results: Leaves have sufficient contents of N, P, K, Ca, Na, Mn, Zn, Cu and B while the level of both Fe and Mg was high. Nutrients removed annually/tree were: 265.24g N; 37.93g P; 353.93 g K; 122.67 g Ca; 76.94g Mg, 74.78 g Na; 7.288g Fe; 0.773g Mn; 0.514g Zn, 0.213g Cu and 0.663g B., when the yield was77.33Kg/tree. Conclusion: The results obtained are helpful in calculation fertilizer recommendations.