The objective of every wind energy producer is to reduce operational costs associated to the production as a way to increase profits. One other issue that must be looked carefully is the equipment maintenance. Increase the availability of wind turbines by reducing the downtime associated to failures is a good strategy to achieve the main goal of increase profits. As a way to help in the definition of the best maintenance strategies, condition monitoring systems (CMS) have an important role to play. Informatics tools to make the condition monitoring of the wind turbines were developed and are now being installed as a way to help producers reducing the operational costs. There are a lot of developed systems to do the monitoring of a wind turbine or the whole wind park, in this paper will be made an overview of the most important systems.
The exceptionally stable mycobacterial protein porin A (MspA) from Mycobacterium smegmatis has potential applications in protein-based solar cells, and as a biotemplate for nano-wires and nano-dots. These applications would be enabled by an efficient and cost effective method to grow the host organism at high cell mass yields, and recover purified MspA. In this work, the cell mass yield was maximized and costs lowered by applying experimental design (varying nitrogen and iron contents according to a Doehlert matrix) based on a minimal fermentation medium that was reported earlier. Glucose use was minimized by adjusting glucose feed based on analyzing residual glucose after fermentation. The costs for extracted and purified MspA were lowered by 67% for the minimum medium and the optimized composition derived here compared to commercial medium (7H9 Middlebrook).
Aims: To establish a rich Facial Action Coding System (FACS) coded database and to investigate the use of the facial visual cues for deception detection. Study Design: A within-participants design experiment was conducted, using immigration as a scenario for asking questions of participants in controlled experimental conditions. The study design required participants to answer questions on two topics, one as themselves and one based on a learned scenario. Data regarding visible images of facial movement were collected and analyzed against cues identified as indicative of deceit. Place and Duration of Study: With the ethical approval from the University of Bradford, 32 volunteer undergraduate students and research assistants took part in the study, from March 2011– June 2011. Methodology: We included 32 participants (27 men, 5 women; age range 18-33 years). The experiment was constructed as two interview scenarios. Participants were interviewed by an ‘Examiner’ who was introduced by the ‘Facilitator’ as having recently trained in techniques to detect lie. The participants were told it was important that they appear honest throughout. For one session, they were asked to answer questions as themselves. For the other, they were given a character profile to learn and were asked to answer the questions as if they were the character in the profile. Some questions went beyond the information in the profile, requiring participants to create plausible answers. A rich Facial Action Coding System coded (FACS-coded) database was established for further analysis. Results: The Examiner’s score is 56.25% in both sensitivity and specificity. The best classification algorithm for our FACS-coded database was Logistic Regression with a sensitivity of 47.9% and a specificity of 71.2%. The findings revealed that the machine learning was biased towards truth prediction. In order to increase the sensitivity of deceit prediction, the threshold of classification was adjusted and the improved result indicates sensitivity of 70.0% and specificity of 63.3%. Conclusion: Our research established a rich FACS coded database which is expected to be important for future research development. In order to increase the detection rate, we showed that it is worthwhile to consider machine learning algorithms to aid human decision.
In this study, removal of heavy metal ions including cadmium and lead from wastewater were studied. Adsorption process was carried out using simple multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) and functionalized MWCNT with the carboxyl agent (MWCNT-COOH) prepared by CVD (chemical vapor deposition) method with a purity of 95%. Furthermore, the effect of temperature at 27.32, 37 and 47°C on absorption rate was investigated, in terms of the other constant variables such as initial content of metal ions, solution pH, contact time and concentration of carbon nano absorbers. Final content of the metal ions remaining in the solution was measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). It was revealed that there is a direct relationship between solution’s temperature and cadmium and lead ions absorption rate on carbon nanotubes. Furthermore, thermodynamic calculations of absorption showed that Gibbs free energy (ΔG) of absorption process by MWCNT-COOH and MWCNT is negative. This result indicating the spontaneous absorption reaction and removal of metal cathion by carbon nanotubes. This reaction is endothermic and Positive ΔH confirms it.
Zr4+ doped carbon coated LiFePO4 cathode [C-LiZrxFe1-xPO4 (where x=0.02)] material were synthesized by a one pot solid-state synthetic route for its use in rechargeable lithium-ion battery. The carbon coating over the phosphate material was done using a natural precursor, camphor. The calcinations and sintering temperatures were set at 450ºC and 700ºC, respectively, which were selected from the TGA-DTA experiment. The synthesized materials were characterized by various spectroscopic techniques, such as; FTIR, Powdered XRD and SEM. Electrochemical studies of the synthesized materials were carried out by cyclic voltametry and charge-discharge behavior after preparing a laboratory model cell against lithium anode. It was found that C-LiZrxFe1-xPO4 (where x=0.02) material coated with carbon from a natural precursor (camphor) shows better discharge capacity of 159 mAhg-1 during the first few cycles compare to that of pure LiFePO4.
The use of solar power in generating electricity is still very much at its infancy in Nigeria despite the abundant solar energy available in the country. The heavy dependence on cheap petroleum product has not helped matter as more investments are attracted to the oil sectors because of the huge returns. However the destabilizing effects of fuel price increments had pushed for alternative sources of energy with little uncertainties. This study was conducted to assess the use of solar power systems in public facilities where most of the solar power equipment is being used. Using random sampling, questionnaires were administered and the finding suggest that public knowledge of the solar equipment are still very low, the initial cost were high and the people would want it installed in their residence to solve their power needs.
In this study, production and characterization of hybrid biomass briquettes using two major agricultural wastes was carried out. Briquettes were produced from sawdust of the specie Albiziazygia and sorghum dust using native cassava starch as binder. Five different composition of sawdust/sorghum dust hybrid briquette were produced, moisture content, compressive test, ash content, calorific test and burning efficiency tests were carried to determine the physical and mechanical properties of the hybrid briquette. Test results show that moisture content varies from 6.83% to 29.70%, compressive load at break varies from 4.94KN to 15.18KN, ash content varies from 2.85% to 17.14%, calorific value varies from 3.83MJ/kg to 10.43MJ/kg and burning efficiency varies from 1.57% to 6.63%.
Aims: Despite of intensive studies of glioblastoma multiforme, still no unified concept for the most important specific molecular alterations exists for this tumor type. The method of array CGH has great potential for molecular characterization of glioblastoma. The aim of our study was to determine the type, frequency and fine mapping of unbalanced genomic changes and to suggest candidate genes for the emergence and development of brain tumors. Study Design: Ten tumor samples were collected from patients with glioblastoma multiforme after taking informed consent. Histological examination was done to confirm the presence of tumor cells in more than 75% of the samples. DNA was isolated from each tumor sample. Place and Duration of Study: The material was collected in Department of Neurosurgery (Medical University Sofia) and processed for analysis in Department of Medical genetics (Medical University Sofia) between June 2010 and December 2011. Methodology: We used the method of array CGH with BAC clones, covering the entire genome, for investigation of copy number changes in tumors. We applied specific software microarray analysis (Blue Fuse, Blue Gnome, Cambridge, UK). For fine mapping of the most significant aberrations and to identify possible candidate genes: 1) we identified BAC clones with aberrations of high amplitude (ratio T / H> 0.5 for gains and <-0.5 for losses); 2) we select only those clones that have a frequency of aberrations more than 30% and have at least one adjacent clone with the same aberration. Doing this we also determined the smallest regions of overlap (SRO) of aberrations that occur in at least 50% of tumors. Results: Trisomy 7 (70%) and monosomy 10 (80%) were the most common big aberrations in tumors. Regional aberrations across all chromosomes were characterized in details. The most frequent were: amplification of 1q43-1q44 (50-70%), deletion 1p36 (60%), gains 9p11-9p13 (50%), deletion 18q22 (50%), gains of 20q11-q13 (50%), loss of 22q12 (50%), deletion Xp21 (50%). By determination of smallest regions of overlap and based on their function, we suggested potential candidate-oncogenes (RGS7, CDK5, OPN3, CDK5RAP1, PTPN1) and tumor-suppressor genes (NF2 and OSM). Conclusion: Our study provide with basis for further studies in which the role of identified candidate-genes will be validated by other molecular genetics methods and at other levels - transcriptional and protein. This will lead to significant advances in knowledge of glioblastoma multiforme and suggestion of new more effective molecular-based prognostic and therapeutic indicators.
The aim of this work is to investigate the effect of Soldier-Ant Mound (SAM) on the strength characteristics of lateritic clay soils in order to improve their poor geotechnical properties for road pavement construction. Three soil samples were collected from a burrow pit along the Lagos-Ibadan Expressway, Lagos, Nigeria. The samples were mixed with Soldier-Ant Mound in various proportions (0%, 2%, 4%, 6%, 8% and10% by weight) and subjected to soil strength tests: Compaction tests, California Bearing Ratio (CBR) and Unconfined Compressive Strength tests at the University of Lagos, Nigeria between June 2012 and July 2013. Results obtained were compared with the natural soil and standard values. The Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy, AAS, gave the exchangeable cations present in the Soldier-Ant Mound as: Calcium (Ca2+), Magnesium (Mg2+), Sodium (Na+), Potassium (K+) and Aluminium (Al3+). The plasticity index decreased with increase in SAM content which signifies a reduction in any swelling and deformation that may take place. The maximum dry density, soaked CBR and Unconfined Compressive Strength all increased with increase in SAM content. The addition of 10% SAM content reduced the plasticity index by 7.5% (from 25.8% to 23.9%) and increased the maximum dry density of the clay soil from 1660kg/m3 to 1750kg/m3 which is considered satisfactory to excellent. The Optimum moisture content of the clay soil was reduced by about 15%. The addition of 10% SAM increased the soaked CBR by 85% (from 10.43% to 19.35%) while the unconfined compressive strength of the Lateritic Clay Soil increased by 122% (from 40.32kN/m2 to 89.36kN/m2). Soldier-Ant Mound significantly improved the engineering properties of Lateritic Clay Soil. The results indicate that there is a potential in the use of Soldier-Ant Mound for improving the strength characteristics of lateritic soils for road pavement construction and other earth works.
Aims: We have studied the adsorption of lead onto many substrates such as biomaterials and inorganic adsorbents and found these substrates to have very high adsorptive capacities for lead. However, limited studies have reported desorption of lead adsorbed by these substrates under mechanical agitation and neutral pH conditions. The study reported here investigated not only the adsorption of lead from contaminated water by biomaterials such as fishbone from stock, salmon, and drum fish, and charred spinach and grapes) but also the bioavailability via desorption of the adsorbed lead when mechanically agitated with deionized water under neutral conditions. Place and Duration of Study: School of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics, Dillard University, Between January 2013 and May 2013. Methodology: Fishbone and charred spinach and grapes were exposed to 1300 PPM lead solution under stirring at room temperature for 48 hrs. The amount of lead adsorbed by each bio-substrate was calculated by difference between control sample and residual lead in the supernatant from each substrate’s reaction vessel. Each exposed substrate was mechanically agitated with deionized water for 48 hr at room temperature. The amount of lead desorbed into the water was analyzed using EPA Method 6010 (Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES)). Results: The order of percent lead adsorption is Salmon Fishbone (99.9%) >Drum Fish bone (99.7%), > Stock Stock fishbone (86%)> Charred Grape (82% > Charred Spinach (44%) while the order of desorption is Charred grape (6.4%) > Drum fishbone (2%) ~ Charred Spinach (2%) > Salmon Fishbone (0.06%) > Stock Fishbone (0.017%). Conclusion: The data suggests that very little desorption of adsorbed lead on various substrates occurred and that there is varying lead-adsorption capabilities for various substrates. Furthermore, charring biomaterials diminishes their ability to adsorb lead from contaminated water.