Open Access Original Research Article

Developing Integrated MEMS Products for Medical and Industrial Markets

Tapani Koivukangas, Tommi Matila

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1309-1319
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2014/5756

Aims: As the trend in technology is shifting toward smaller and more compact devices with requirements for more accurate measurement systems, new sensors and components enabling this trend are also being brought to market. Micro electromechanical sensors (MEMS) and devices utilizing these components are finding new applications in mobile and hand-held devices, mobile robotics and navigation. Inertial sensors have been shown to be subject to a number of different error sources such as temperature and integration drifts and other biases mostly caused by the sensitivity of the sensors as well as by external disturbances [1-5]. However, due to recent advances in MEMS technologies, these errors are better controllable.
Study Design: This paper describes recent developments in the field of MEMS with proof-of-concept devices for a variety of sensing applications. Our recent research has focused on monitoring of human vital signs and displacement tracking of controlled and free-hand motions.
Results: In this study, we demonstrate that current commercial off-the-shelf MEMS based inertial measurement units (IMU) can be used as such with appropriate signal processing both in medical and industrial applications.
Conclusion: Our proof-of-concept device has been used in basic human vital signs detection, such as tremor and respiration. Other tests were performed to verify the suitability of the sensor in demanding industrial applications with high accuracy requirements for rotation and displacement.

Open Access Original Research Article

Predisposing Influence of Home Factors, Negative Self Component and Peer Orientation on Substance Abuse among Okada Riders in Ibadan

R. A. Animasahun, V. O. Animasahun

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1320-1333
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2014/7151

The use of motor-cycles (Okada) for carrying passengers from one destination to another for commercial purposes has crept into Nigerian’s transportation activities and gradually becoming the most popular, possibly because it is faster especially when there is terrible holdups and can also drop an individual at his door step. Nevertheless, it has added greatly to the incidence of road accidents whereby special orthopedic departments are created in Nigerian hospitals to attend to the victims. The recklessness and misbehaviours of the Okada riders has been traced to substance abuse. This study, therefore, investigated the predisposing influence of Home factors, Negative self component and Peer orientation on substance abuse among Okada riders in Ibadan. Descriptive survey research design was adopted. A total of 300 participants were randomly selected from 10 Okada parks in Ibadan metropolis. Their ages ranged from 16-35 with a mean of 24.7. They responded to four validated instruments, namely: Animasahun [16] Crime Behaviour Factor Battery; Negative self component of Animasahun [49] Academic success barrier battery; Peer orientation scale of Gasa [50] and Miller [51] Substance Abuse scale. Three research questions were raised and the results showed that each of the independent variables has a significant positive correlation with substance abuse, while they jointly contributed a total of 58.4% to the prediction of substance abuse among Okada riders in Ibadan. Based on this, it was recommended that public lecture and sensitization programmes should be put in place to teach the young Okada riders about the evils of substance abuse, and also exposed to assertiveness training to boost their self component and to make them difficult to be influenced by bad friends. The intervention is believed to help in reducing the excesses of the Okada riders in the society.

Open Access Original Research Article

Optimisation of Twin Screw Extrusion Process for Production of Snack from Aswagandha (Withania sominifera) Rice (Oryza sativa) and Chapra (Fenneropenaeus indicus) for Antioxidant Effect

Mahuya Hom Choudhury, Runu Chakraborty, Utpal Ray Chaudhuri

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1334-1352
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2014/6773

Response surface methodology (RSM) of Wang Yong design of 16 experimental runs has been applied in extrusion cooking process of rice, shrimp and aswagandha (Withania sominifera) feed mixture for maximizing expansion ratio (ER), product acceptability (AC) , retention in total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and minimising shear strength (SS), density (D) of the extrudate. The results indicated that the optimum operating conditions were 135°C process temperature, 15% feed moisture of rice, shrimp and aswagandha powder composition. Under this condition, the ER is 2.86, Shear force 14.6N, Shear stress 3.24x105 N/m2, Acceptability 80.64, TAC-16.48 mmol/Trolox/Kg of Dm. The multiple regressions analysis showed significant effect of feed moisture and process temperature (p<0.05) for ER, AC, SS, D and significant effect of process temperature for TAC. SEM feature indicates characteristic behaviour of extrudate and symmetrical fashioned expanded product was indicated at 135°C process temperature and 15% moisture.

Open Access Original Research Article

Development of Computer Software for Seismic Refraction Data Interpretation and Engineering Parameters Determination

O. E. Bamidele, O. J. Akintorinwa

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1353-1374
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2014/5523

Aim: Computer software was developed for seismic refraction data interpretation and computation of engineering parameters as a means to ease the problem of cumbersomeness of the manual interpretation of seismic refraction data and computation of engineering parameters by adopting seismic refraction method of investigation.
Study Design: Software development.
Place and Duration of Study: Department of Applied Geophysics, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria, between June 2010 and February 2011.
Methodology: Necessary equations for the program were compiled, and the program algorithms were developed, fed into a computer interpreter, debugged and run. The program algorithm was written with Visual Basic Programming Language and the software was designed using Visual Basic tools.
Results: The software accepts and interprete Single On Shot and On and Reverse Shot seismic refraction data for planar and dipping interface. The developed software plots T-X graph and compute the layer velocities and thicknesses. Engineering parameters such as Fracture Frequency (n), Rock Quality Designation (RQD), Bulk and Young modulus and Poisson ratio (σ) which are used in subsurface engineering evaluation can also be computed using the software.
Conclusion: Seismic refraction data for both planar and dipping interface were obtained and used in testing the efficiency of the software and the results correlate with that of manual interpretation and computation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Structural Style and Reservoir Distribution in Deep-Water Niger Delta: A Case Study of “Nanny Field”

L. Adeoti, T. Igiri, L. Adams, A. Adekunle, M. A. Bello

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1375-1391
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2014/7720

Aim: The structural styles and its effect on reservoir distribution in deepwater Niger Delta was analyzed using information derived from 3D seismic data and well logs interpretation with a view to facilitating a better implication of faulting with respect to determining prospectively potential within “NANNY” Field.
Methodology: The data analysis was carried out using Nanny-1 well log, Well tie to seismic was conducted and five (5) mapable sequence boundaries were identified and interpreted across “NANNY” Field. Fault interpretation and framework modeling was developed for the field.
Results: The results from seismic interpretation and well log data show that in the Inner Fold and Thrust Belt synthesis of the structural province is characterized by complex; broad scale thrust cored anticlines and imbricates structures that are widely spaced. This spacing creates accommodation space for reservoir development. This region also has multiple levels of detachment surfaces which improves hydrocarbon charge. The analysis of the Transition zone reveals that the structural province is typified by large areas of little or no formation. Prospects in the transition zone have well defined four way closures with large size of containers from drilled well results. The outcome of well log data analysis and fault interpretation on seismic reveals that the Outer Fold and Thrust Belt where “NANNY” Field lies, is dominated by smaller and less prominent sets of closely spaced imbricated thrust faults with shallow single detachment surface. This structural province is characterized by active and intense faulting style, some of which are still active as evidenced by the footprint on the sea floor. The regional petro-physical study using data from thirty wells randomly selected across the three structural provinces shows that in deepwater Niger Delta, porosity decreases with depth. This result shows that shallow reservoirs have higher porosity and permeability than reservoirs that are emplaced deeper stratigraphically.
Conclusion: This study reveals that thrust faults in the structural province are closely spaced and active with little or no seal strength thereby preventing the focusing of hydrocarbon. Hence, prospectively within the “NANNY” Field area will likely have increasing geological risk arising from fault seals, limited fetch area, and small sizes of container and limited volume of source rock (Akata).

Open Access Original Research Article

The Extent of Applying the International Internal Audit Standards by the Telecommunication Companies Operating in Jordan

Osama Samih Shaban

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1411-1423
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2014/8238

This study aimed to identify the extent of the application of International Internal Audit Standards by the telecommunication companies operating in Jordan. Generally, standards work as a framework for performing and promoting a broad range of value added functions. International Internal Audit standards establish the basis for the evaluation of internal audit performance in any organization. The study has covered three telecommunication companies in Jordan. A questionnaire has been designed and distributed among the internal auditors for this purpose and to the non-executive directors as they are members of the Audit Committee in each company. The number of questionnaires analyzed was 35 questionnaires. Resolution data were analyzed using the statistical program SPSS, in addition to other statistical methods through descriptive statistics, arithmetic means, standard deviations, and percentages. The study found that telecommunications companies are applying the International Internal Audit Standards IIA in general. Attribute Standards were mostly applied, then Application Standards were used in the second place but in a high degree. Performance Standards were not applied in those companies. Also the study discovered that there are some difficulties and obstacles that limit this kind of application, but moderately. The study recommended that these companies should increase the size and extent of Internal Auditing Standards in the telecommunication companies operating in Jordan, especially Performance Standards, which will lead of rising the efficiency and effectiveness of the internal audit and finally contribute to the improvement of risk management and create additional value for those companies.

Open Access Original Research Article

Biochemical Changes in Tissues of Telfaria occidentalis Leaves Following Subchronic Exposure to some Heavy Metals

L. A. Nwaogu, C. U Igwe, C. O. Ujowundu, A. A. Emejulu, C. I. Iheme, D. C. Belonwu

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1424-1431
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2014/7063

Aims: To investigate the biochemical changes that occurred when T. occidentalis seedlings are exposed to some heavy metals [mercury (Hg), lead (Pb) and cadmium Re(Cd)] at varying concentrations: 50, 80 and 100 μg/dm3 respectively over a period of time.
Study Design: Randomized controlled plant experiment.
Place and Duration of Study: Experimental garden farm unit, Department of Crop Science, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, between April and May, 2012.
Methodology: Sixty viable seeds of T. occidentalis were planted into three sets of polythene bags of three groups each containing four viable seeds. Germination which was indicated by the appearance of epicotyls above the soil level was observed at 4 days interval up to 12 days. At the 8th days, the cotyledons of two seedlings each from A-D were harvested and prepared for the assay of α-amylase. The other seedlings were allowed to grow. When the plants were considered to have matured with enough leaves (after 120 days), the leaves were harvested according to the labeled sets, washed and prepared for the assay of catalase (CAT) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration determination.
Results: There was a significant (P<0.05) decrease in α-amylase activity in the cotyledons of seedlings from heavy metal–polluted soil samples(A-C).The activity decreased as the concentrations increased in all the heavy metal-polluted soil samples. The activities of catalase also decreased significantly (P<0.05) in the T. occidentalis leaves from 80 and 100  μg/dm3 heavy metal-polluted soil samples relative to the control.
Conclusion: These heavy metals at 80 and 100 μg/dm3 precipitated biochemical changes in tissues of T. occidentalis by causing a significant (P<0.05) decrease in the activities of α-amylase in the cotyledons of T. occidentalis seedlings and the leaves, and a significant (P<0.05) increase in MDA concentrations in the leaves.

Open Access Original Research Article

Hand Gesture Recognition System Based on a Geometric Model and Rule Based Classifier

A.M. Riad, Hamdy K. Elminir, Samaa M. Shohieb

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1432-1444
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2014/7956

As a part of natural interfaces the sign language recognition (SLR) is considered an important area of research. Such systems are considered useful tools for assisting the deaf. For example, one of the applications of sign language recognition is transcribing notes and saving sign language presentations into digital format. Hand gesture recognition systems can also be used to control useful machines, computers, screen pointers or camera-based selection devices, like the kind used on modern ‘Smart TVs’ or console games that use the Microsoft Xbox Kinect camera. A great deal of research has been paid for this area but few ones handled the Arabic Sign Language (ArSL). This work describes an isolated SLR system that extracts geometric features from a camera for the hand gesture and builds a geometric model for the hand gesture. The rule based classifier was then used for the recognition process based on the determined geometric features of a specific gesture. The proposed model was tested on seven ArSL words. The overall recognition rate was about 95.3%.

Open Access Original Research Article

Acidic Corrosion Inhibition of Copper by Hydroxyethyl Cellulose

I. O. Arukalam, I. C. Madufor, O. Ogbobe, E. E. Oguzie

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1445-1460
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2014/5463

Aims: To investigate the inhibition performance of hydroxyethyl cellulose on the acid corrosion of copper.
Study Design: This study was designed to investigate the corrosion inhibition efficiency of hydroxyethyl cellulose, as well as ascertain how the additive modifies the corrosion behavior of copper in the test acid media and hence the corrosion inhibition mechanism.
Place and Duration of Study: This study was carried out in the Electrochemistry and Materials Science Research Laboratory, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria between April and September, 2012.
Methodology: The corrosion inhibition performance of HEC on copper in aerated 1 M HCl and 0.5 M H2SO4acid solutions was assessed using weight loss measurements. The influence of HEC as well as HEC + KI on the corrosion behavior of copper was investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization measurements. The electronic structure of the HEC molecule was modeled using density functional theory (DFT) -based quantum chemical computation, while molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were performed to illustrate the adsorption process of the HEC molecule on copper.
Results: Weight loss measurements results revealed that HEC effectively inhibits copper corrosion in the studied acid media, with maximum inhibition efficiency ~95%. Maximum efficiency in 1 M HCl was obtained after 1 day of immersion and that in 0.5 M H2SO4 after 5 days. The impedance response revealed two capacitive time constants and this mechanism was not altered on addition of HEC, which functioned by adsorption onto the copper surface. The potentiodynamic polarization profile in 1 M HCl shows features of active-passive transition, whereas that in 0.5 M H2SO4 shows spontaneous passivation. These mechanisms were not modified by the inhibitor. The computational studies confirmed the corrosion inhibiting potential of HEC. The HEC/Cu adsorption energy estimated by means of molecular dynamics simulation (-55.09 kJ/mol) suggests a spontaneous physical adsorption process.

Open Access Review Article

Potentials of Probiotics as Alternative Therapy in Combating Bacterial Diseases: A Review

S. S. Salisu, S. Nura, A. S. Shaaibu, F. M. Mahamud, S. Garba, K. Shehu

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Page 1392-1410
DOI: 10.9734/BJAST/2014/6577

Bacterial diseases have been the major cause of mortality and sufferings the world over. Several treatment modalities were devised against these pathogens; the most prominent of which is antibiotic therapy. However, the treatment modalities most usually employed are either cost effective or associated with some side effects leading to the emergence of new strains of resistant bacteria. Alternative treatment strategies are needed to complement the existing modalities in combating these diseases. Probiotics are live non-pathogenic microorganisms embedded in food and administered to improve microbial balance. They exert their beneficial effects by immune-regulatory actions thereby modifying host’s immune system, by the restoration of gut barrier function, by lowering intestinal pH, decreasing colonization and invasion by pathogenic organisms and by the production of favorable metabolic products through the modulation of the gut microbiota. These actions might inhibit the onset and alleviate the symptoms of inflammatory diseases, such as intestinal and metabolic diseases and allergy. These bring about the treatment of gastritis, bacterial vaginosis, urinary tract infections, ulcerative colitis, pouchitis, inflammatory bowel syndrome and crohn’s diseases. Probiotics are usually safer and easy to use because they are consumed as part of fermented foods in yogurt, soy-yogurt or as dietary supplements. Ironically, despite all the obvious potentials of probiotics in the prevention and treatment of human infectious diseases, their use in developing countries like Nigeria is limited, due to lack of awareness which might have perhaps arisen from inadequate information or absence of guiding policy in the health sector for the usage of such therapy. The aim of this study is to review the antibacterial potentials of probiotics therapy in treating bacterial diseases so as to inculcate the spirit of its use in the Nigerian health care policy and guidelines. This would subsequently help in their administration in the prescription system to complement antibiotics therapy so that the threats posed by antibiotics on human health in Nigeria should be reduced to a minimal level.