Aims: To investigate the concentrations of Manganese (Mn), Cadmium (Cd) and Mercury (Hg) in water, sediment and organs of Sarotherodon galilaeus, Labeo senegalensis and Brycinus nurse. Study Design: One-way ANOVA (no Blocking) Place and Duration of Study: Nangodi, in the Upper East Region of Ghana, West Africa. Between November, 2012 and March, 2013 Methodology: 3 samples of water, sediment and 36 fish samples were collected from the Red Volta River in Ghana. All samples collected were labelled and placed in clean polyethylene bags with ice to maintain the freshness and immediately taken to laboratory where samples were deep frozen at -20°C until prepared for analysis. Results: There was significant difference between heavy metals found in the river water, however there was no significant difference between heavy metals found in sediment (P= .05). Mn content was the highest and that of Cd was the lowest in water whiles in sediment Mn content was the highest and that of Hg was the lowest. Also concentration of heavy metals found in the gills and muscles of Sarotherodon galilaeus, Labeo senegalensis and Brycinus nurse were statistically significant(P= .05). The gills of Sarotherodon galilaeus accumulated the highest concentration of Mn whiles that of Brycinus nurse accumulated the lowest concentration, also the gills of Brycinus nurse accumulated the highest concentration of Cd whiles that of Sarotherodon galilaeusaccumulated the lowest concentration and Labeo senegalensis accumulated the highest concentration of Hg whiles that of Sarotherodon galilaeus accumulated the lowest concentration. In muscles of the fish species studied, Sarotherodon galilaeus accumulated the highest concentration of Mn and Hg whiles Brycinus nurse accumulated the lowest concentration in the gills, Brycinus nurseaccumulated the highest concentration of Cd whiles Labeo senegalensis accumulated the lowest concentration in the muscles. Conclusion: The research revealed that the water and fishes from Red Volta is polluted with Mn, Cd and Hg. Consumption of fish from the river could lead to health hazards induced by heavy metals.
Organic photovoltaic cells are made by sandwiching a composite active layer of organic electronic materials conjugated copolymer (BEHP-co-MEH-PPV) mixed with ZnO nanoparticles, between two metallic conductors, typically a layer of indium tin oxide (ITO) with high work function( 4.8 eV) and a layer of low work function metal(3.7eV) such as Aluminum. In this work, the spin coated conjugated copolymer blends (BEHP-co-MEH-PPV): ZnO thin films, deposited on both Silicon and glass substrates have been studied for morphology using atomic force microscopy (AFM). All films examined by AFM, showed a dense structure with average roughness of 20 -40 nm. Optical properties were explored for films coated onto glass substrates at a spin speed of 1200 rpm, using a spectrophotometer for optical absorption in the visible region. The photo luminescence (PL) spectra of the pure and blended BEHP-co-MEH-PPV films were recorded. Ellipsometry were used for refractive index, extinction coefficient and thickness. The current-voltage characteristics (I-V’s) of the solar cell showed that incorporation of the ZnO nanoparticles in the copolymer resulted into further increase in the power conversion efficiency compared to that in their absence. All deposited films showed good adhesion to substrates, and good optical properties. The conductivity of the active layer increases with the increment of the ZnO nanoparticles into the nanocomposite thin films. Such characteristics make the polymer: nanoparticle blended layer (BEHP-co-MEHPPV: ZnO) very favourable to charge injection and conduction for photovoltaic device.
Aims: To evaluate the effects of water hyacinth compost prepared with various cultures on growth and yield parameters of maize. Study Design: Randomized Complete Block Design. Place and Duration of Study: Field experiments were carried out at Otonglo Division in Kisumu County and greenhouse trials were carried out at Kenyatta University from November 2011 to August 2012. Methodology: The water hyacinth compost was prepared using effective microorganisms (EM) solution, cow manure and molasses separately as starter cultures for composting. The compost was applied on maize (H513) on separate growth pots in the greenhouse and plots in the field. The treatments applied included compost prepared with EM (8.84 g/pot), compost prepared with cow manure (8.84 g/pot), compost prepared with molasses (8.84g/pot), diammonium phosphate (DAP) fertilizer (70.7 mg N/pot) and control (without fertilizer). For the field experiments, water hyacinth compost was applied at a rate of 5000 kg ha-1and DAP at 40 kg N/ha. The experiments had five treatments and three replications for each treatment in the greenhouse and four treatments replicated four times in three farmers’ fields. Results: Application of water hyacinth compost and DAP significantly influenced positively (P ≤ 0.05) the growth attributes of maize. Among the various treatments of the compost, water hyacinth compost prepared with EM (WHE) performed better in most parameters evaluated including plant height, shoot dry weight, root dry weight and root collar diameter. Yield parameters such as 100 seed weight and grain yield were not significantly (p > 0.05) influenced by various treatments. Conclusion: Water hyacinth which is locally available and in large quantities (especially in lake Victoria) can be composted to prepare organic fertilizers and effectively used as an organic soil amendment to restore soil and increase maize production.
An experimental study using artificial neural network (ANN) is carried out to achieve the optimal network architecture for proposed positron emission tomography (PET) application. 55 experimental phantom datasets acquired under clinically realistic conditions with different 2-D and 3-D acquisitions and image reconstruction parameters along with 2min, 3min and 4min scan times per bed are used in this study. The best scanner parameters are determined based on the ANN experimental evaluation of the proposed datasets. The analysis methodology of phantom PET data has shown promising results and can successfully classify and quantify malignant lesions in clinically realistic datasets.
Aim: Biogas research and subsequent production is fundamental to mitigating the possible depletion of crude oil and energy crisis, especially in Nigeria. This research paper was aimed at evaluating the biogas production capacity of water hyacinth, poultry droppings, cow dung and their combination. Methods: One kilogram, two kilograms and three kilograms weight of these substrates were subjected to anaerobic digestion in starter and without starter cultures for 45 days at the interval of 5 days. Results: Our results showed that heterotrophic bacteria and fungi counts were substrate-specific with poultry dropping fed-digester having the highest. Different bacteria and fungi were isolated including methane-producing bacteria such as methanolreoibacteria, methanoculleus bourgense, methanogenium cariaci, methanocorpusium parvum, methanoscrcimon barkeri, methanoplanus lunicola, methanococcoides methyluteus and methanothrix sochngenic. There were significant differences in the amount of biogas produced by the different substrates. However there was no significant differences (P>0.05) between the biogas produced by water hyacinth-fed digester (170.41mls) and poultry droppings-fed digester (182.88 mls). Combining all the substrates (WH+PD+CD) yielded the highest biogas (423.80 mls), which was followed by biogas production of cow dung (331.8 mls). Conclusion: Explicitly, our present report showed that higher biogas yield can be achieved by the combination of different biogas feedstock.
This paper demonstrates that cooperation is the way to solve emission problem and to find a better dynamic emission rights allocation. We present a model to analyze the difficulty in global climatic cooperation, and the tragic result if there is no cooperation. We preset a weighted formula of equal per capita emission and GDP to solve the dynamic emission rights allocation. We introduce a two-step mitigation path to the global climatic cooperation, and suggest that privatization and marketing may be a way to solve the green house gases emission problem. Game theory is the main method in this paper, theoretical analysis is the character of the paper, and we cited some literatures to demonstrate our standpoints. We discussed the universal of cooperation and a third party in our society, we believe that a court, a country, the United Nations and UNFCCC come into being because they are needed to be a third party that provide public service. Our conclusion is that we need get to a binding agreement to control green house gases emission.
The relationship between fines content and cohesion of soil was studied. Selected lateritic soil samples were subjected to laboratory analysis. The fines were separated from the coarse component of the soils after which the samples were remoulded in varying ratios (fines:coarse) from 10:100 to 100:0 in 10% increment. Then the samples were subjected to unconsolidated-undrained triaxial test to determine the shear strength parameters. Quantitative relationships between fines content and cohesion of the soil samples were developed. It was found that, the cohesion of the soil samples generally increased with increase in fines content; the polynomial relationships gave the best fitting between the fines content and cohesion of the soil samples.
Aims: In this study, the effect of washing process on shelf-life of surimi of Clupeonella spp. with cold-water, solution of 1.5 and 3 percent strength was investigated. Study Design: Data collected were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Place and Duration of Study: Costal line of Caspian sea near the Bandar Anzali, Gillan province of Iran. Methodology: A total of 100 kg fish were captured in the Caspian sea near the Bandar Anzali coast. The data collected from the surimi during the storage time. Results: The shelf-life of surimi was investigated by measuring total volatile base-nitrogen (TVB-N), peroxide value, total count of bacteria and sensory test for 80 days. The results showed the changes of TVB-N for control, 1.5% and 3% NaCl solution were 35, 20 and 19 mg N 100g-1, respectively. On day 80, the total plate counts in control, samples washing with 1.5% and 3% NaCl solution were 9.4, 7.5 and 7.3 log CFU/g, respectively and the level was slightly higher than the permissible limit after 60 days. Conclusion: Based on the present results, washing with 1.5 and 3% NaCl solution treatment on Anchovies (Clupeonella spp.) leads to a retention of the good quality characteristics for longer and an extension of the shelf life during frozen storage.
Aims: To assess knowledge of students of the University of Abuja about sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including HIV/AIDS by determining their knowledge about the types, routes of transmission and symptoms of STIs including HIV/AIDS and the preventive measures available. Study Design: Descriptive cross-sectional study of non medical undergraduate students. Place and Duration of Study: University of Abuja, Nigeria. Between September, 2012 and February, 2013. Methodology: Stratified random sampling method was used in the administration of a detailed semi structured questionnaire which identified socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge of STIs including HIV/AIDS, routes of transmission, symptoms and preventive measures. Data obtained were analysed using descriptive statistics as well as cross tabulation of some of the variables. Results: Knowledge about STIs (87.4%) and HIV/AIDS (91%) was relatively high; most known types of STIs were gonorrhea (89.3%) and syphilis (81.2%). Television was the highest source of knowledge (82%), then school education (81.5%). Knowledge of routes of transmission was varied with sexual intercourse (93%), blood transfusion (90.7%) and sharing sharp objects (83.7%) having the highest values. 23.6% of the respondents had the misconception that STIs and HIV/AIDS can be transmitted through sharing toilets, eating utensils, witchcraft and kisses. Knowledge about symptoms of HIV/AIDS were shared but more respondents chose weight loss (84.3%), fever off and on (74.4%) and itchy skin rash (68.3%); there was varied knowledge of preventive measures with condom use (88.2%), abstinence (86.2%) and faithfulness to one uninfected partner (79.8%) having higher values. Conclusion: The students’ knowledge about STIs and HIV/AIDS was high with some misconception about the routes of transmission. There should be incorporation of STIs and HIV/AIDS education in the University curriculum by making it part of the General Studies courses in the universities in Nigeria.
Background: Animals and animal toxins have a long-lasting tradition in diverse human cultures all over the world. In addition to medicinal plants, animals are important components of many traditional medicines. Methods: By using selected examples, we give an overview of animals, animal toxins, and derivatives to illustrate their pharmacological and therapeutic potential and use. Results: Animals have been used in traditional and modern medicines for treatment purposes. Medicinal leeches (Hirudo medicinalis) are applied for microsurgical operations and for prevention of tissue necrosis due to congestion and insufficient supply of blood capillaries. Patches of blister beetles (Cantharis vesicatoria) have been topically applied in China since centuries against warts and poxvirus-caused molluscum contagiosum. Snake venoms are a rich source for drug development. Some examples are batroxobin (reptilase) from Bothrops moujeni and B. atrox, and others. Bioactive peptides have also been identified from spider and scorpion venoms such as GsMTx-4 from the Chilean rose Tarantula (Grammostola spatulata) or chlorotoxin from the Yellow Israeli scorpion (Leiurus quinquestriatus quinquestriatus). Amphibian venoms have frequently been used as arrow poisons by indigenous tribes. The marine biodiversity is also a rich resource for new drugs. A large array of toxins can be found in sea snails. Important examples are ω-conotoxin from Conus purpurascens, contukalin-G from C. geographus, and ACV1 from C. victoriae. Examples among many others are aplidine from Aplidium albicans, pseudopterosin from the Pseudopterogorgia genus, and dolastatin from Dolabella auricularia. Conclusion: Animals or compounds isolated from snake, spider or scorpion venoms, frog toxins, and toxins from marine organisms reveal astonishing pharmacological activities. Cross-disciplinary approaches between organic and medicinal chemistry, pharmacology, toxicology, molecular biology, and medicine are required to explore the full potential of animal toxins and their derivatives as important candidates in the drug development pipeline.