Insufficient supply of treated water in most of the rural and peri-urban areas of Nigeria has made groundwater a major source of water supply for domestic and other purposes. In theseareas,water demand is fulfilled from shallow wells. The shallow wells are commonly constructed close to pit latrines.A study was therefore conducted to determine the impact of pit latrines on groundwater quality in Foko slum, Southwestern Nigeria. Water quality of shallow wells was assessed within the slum with respect to their distance from fivepit latrines. Water samples were collected from the shallow wells and analyzed for determination of total and faecal coliforms (FC), alkalinity, total dissolved solids (TDS), total suspended solids (TSS), nitrates, electrical conductivity, turbidity and pH.The faecal coliform values were regressed with distance between the pit latrines and the wells. The resulting equation was evaluated to obtain a minimum lateral distance between a pit latrine and shallow well for zero value of microbiological parameters in the wells. Results showed that the physico-chemical parameters of the water samples were within the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for drinking water quality. Nevertheless, biological contaminants exceeded the recommendation of WHO drinking water quality guidelines. Maximum coliform counts enumerated were9300cfu/100ml of water. This study shows that there is an indicator gradient in faecal bacteria with distance from pit latrines, and that pit latrines whichimpact on shallow well water at lateral distances of 19.75m.
The reduction and oxidation reactions of Cinnolin-4(1H)-one were studied in terms of reduction and oxidation potentials in aqueous phase. Geometry optimizations were performed at the 6-311++G (d, p) level by using the B3LYP functional theory. Cinnolin-4(1H)-one (I) has lower reduction potential (-0.184V) than that of of 2, 3-dihydrocinnolin-4(1H)-one (II) (-0.064 V). Oxidation potential of 2, 3-dihydrocinnolin-4(1H)-one (II), has greater negative value (-0.134V) than oxidation potential of 1, 2, 3, 4-tetrahydrocinnolin-4-ol (IV) (-0.091V). HOMO and LUMO energies are in increasing order: IV > II ≈ V > III > I and IV > II > V > I > III respectively, which is the same order as the strength of donating electrons in gas and aqueous phase. The values of µ, η, ω, and âˆ†Nmax show, compound (III) is good electrophile comparison of the other compounds in gas and aqueous phase. Therefore compound (III); the greater is the tendency of the oxidized form to get reduced by accepting electrons.
This study investigates experimentally the effect of jet injection on the flow structure around a pier-scour hole. Experiments are conducted with 1-jet, 3-jets and without jet injection under clear-water scour conditions. The results show that the jet(s) alter(s) the turbulent characteristics and vertical component of the velocity, causing a reduction of the strength of the down flow. A quadrant analysis for the Reynolds shear stress values reveals that the sweeps and ejections have the main contributions on the Reynolds shear stress production in the near-bed flow. The third-order correlations of velocity fluctuations show an obvious distinction for the jet injection experiments in comparison to that without injections, especially inside the scour hole.
Aims: This paper discusses the concept of contingency planning for information systems in a university context, uncovers the critical information systems within a university that are most vulnerable, identifies contingency planning models, and establishes a systematic approach that would be followed when implementing a contingency plan program in a university environment. Study Design: Adapted conceptual model. Place and Duration of Study: The University of Nairobi between April and July 2012. Methodology: The adapted model was applied to the University of Nairobi, ICT Centre. The study used primary data that was collected through self-administered questionnaires; one set was administered to the end users spanning across seven departments and another set was distributed to ICT staff. Results: This study identified the critical university information systems, identified the minimal IT resources that support the critical information systems, established a systematic approach that should be followed when implementing a contingency plan program in university environments, and developed a model contingency plan. Conclusion: The findings of this research would be of major importance to university policy makers and stakeholders who would be able to make sound decisions and policies regarding the protection of information assets from an informed point of view.
Aims: In Telemedicine, the use of digital utilization for medical diagnosis helps medical practitioners for better and fast treatment of patients, but at the same time it increase the storage resource requirement for archive the images as they are in high resolution and size. To minimize the size it must be compressed before transmission and stored. On the other hand, the compression will reduce the image affinity, particularly when the images are compressed at lower bit rates. The reconstructed images endure from overcrowding artifacts and the image quality will be severely besmirched under the circumstance of high compression ratios. Methodology: To meet these defy, numerous amalgamated compression algorithms solely for medical imaging are developed in the recent years. But a need of accurate technique/s is highly essential to avoid any lethal results. Artificial intelligence (AI) techniques are highly accurate and hence preferred for automated image classification, segmentation and compression. Conclusion: To accomplish the goal of performance enhancement with respect to compression ratios and deciphered picture quality an algorithm is developed using advance Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) for image compression (IC) and the results are compared with existing image compression techniques viz JPEG2000. This work is explored in the context of Magnetic Resonance (MR) image classification, segmentation and compression.
A solar dryer and hybrids incorporating back up incinerators were designed and constructed for performance evaluation and analysis of efficiencies for selected farm produce of cassava grates, okra and chilli pepper in two climatic locations (sub-tropical of Nsukka and humid of Makurdi in Nigeria) at the University of Nigeria, Nsukka and Federal University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Nigeria. It consists of a solar collector, drying chamber, and incinerator. The dryer was used for drying at night; sunshine days and cloudy days. They were used for test drying, termed ‘no-load’ test (without any farm produce) and ‘on-load’ (cassava grates, okra and chilli pepper) as selected farm produce. Their respective weight losses were used to determine the reduction in moisture content. Drying was assumed to have taken place in the falling rate periods, which enabled the use of only one drying rate constant. Graphs of drying rates against time were plotted in each case and used to obtain the drying rate constant, K for the various conditions and locations. Comparison was made for the drying rate at the two locations. The efficiencies of the equipment at various locations were calculated and the drying rate efficiencies were also obtained. Results obtained showed that drying was fastest during the solar drying and least during the incinerator drying and the control drying respectively. The drying rate was also faster at Nsukka tropical location than Makurdi humid location. The mean location drying rate efficiencies obtained were 98.8%, 94.7%, and 87.4% for solar dryer, solar-incinerator dryer and incinerator dryer respectively. The computed efficiencies for the equipment were 56%, 13% and 16% for solar dryer, solar incinerator dryer and incinerator dryer respectively. The dryers can be used to substitute garri dehydration and drying of other farm produce in rural and semi-urban areas for improved quality.
Pollinic analysis carried out on samples of honey harvested between 2009 and 2010 from natural beehives located in some parts of zones ecologic IV and V of the Guinean Zone of Togo: Danyi-Elavanyo, Danyi-Akayo, Igblélékoutsè-Béna and Azianfokopé has permitted to obtain 3625 grains of pollen which are grouped in 82 different types of pollen of melliferous plants; only 43 of them have been identified up to species level. Elaeis guineensis’s pollens are the most abundant and the only one found in all the samples of honey analysed. As a whole, the “Arboreal Pollens” are more represented than the “Non Arboreal Pollens” namely 87% against 23%. This study has been done to enrich the palynologic data bank of Togo which was very poor. Besides, the photo of some determined pollens has been presented. The pictures have been taken with a light microscope, followed with their numerisation by a photomicroscope equipped with a camera, a computer and the softwares Quancoul and Motic Images Plus 2.0.
The antimicrobial efficiency of Moringa oleifera seed extracts in the treatment of grey water was investigated in this study. The Moringa oleifera seeds were collected, prepared and used to treat both filtered and unfiltered grey water at different concentrations. Physical parameters like Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), Turbidity, Electrical conductivity (EC) and Total dissolved solids (TDS) of the raw, filtered and treated grey water samples were conducted. The result revealed 65.7%, 67.1% and 80.1% BOD removal for the 50mg/l, 100mg/l and 150mg/l Moringa treatment respectively. An average of 97.4% turbidity removal was achieved for the filtered grew water sample after treatment with 150mg/l of Moringa seed extract. For the Electrical conductivity, a 27.3% removal was achieved for the unfiltered sample while for the Total dissolved solids, a 91.52% removal was recorded for the filtered grew water sample using 150mg/l of seed extract. The analysis of the total coliforms and pH conducted showed that 50mg/l, 100mg/l and 150mg/l of Moringa oleifera seed extracts solution respectively achieved 68.33%, 85.00% and 97.50% removal for the filtered grey water with pH values of 6.37, 5.88 and 5.83 respectively. It was calculated that the optimum dosage of Moringa seed powder required to maintain minimum crop pH requirement of (6.5) was 32.89mg/l (44.95%). It was concluded that the seed extract of Moringa oleifera acts as a natural coagulant, flocculent and absorbent for the treatment of grew water. The presence of indicator organisms shows that the water samples are faecally contaminated and is only safe for irrigation purposes after the treatment.
Aims: To design a LC tuned circuit to levitate a ferromagnetic material by magnetic levitation technique. Study Design: To eliminate the drawbacks of position sensors, self sensing system needs to be developed. AC excitation with LC tuned circuit was found as an alternative. To further strengthen the performance of the system, a Z source inverter was designed to bring back the levitated object to the desired position when it deviated from it. Place and Duration of Study: The work was carried out in Electrical and electronics Department of SSN College of Engineering, Chennai, TN, India. Methodology: A combination of AC excitation and series tuned circuit can be used to levitate a ferromagnetic object by magnetic levitation technique. The electromagnet forms the inductive part of a resonating circuit. The circuit is tuned at a frequency less than that of the exciting frequency. Therefore when the distance between the object and the electromagnet increases, there is fall in inductance of the lifting magnet, the circuit approaches resonance and the coil current increases. The magnetic force on the object increases and the object moves to its desired position. Though the method is simple, for slow change in coil current the levitated object may move under influence of gravitational force and come to rest position. Hence a new circuit with Z-source inverter with shoot through is designed to bring the levitated object to its desired position. Results: The response of a simple LC tuned magnetic levitation system without any control circuitry was experimentally obtained. It indicated that the levitated object vibrated with increasing magnitude of oscillations and hence deviated from desired position. Hence a Z source inverter with LC tuned circuit as its load and PIC microcontroller to control the current were designed such that the object is brought back to its desired position. Conclusion: Tuned inductive capacitive magnetic levitation circuit is designed and implemented. Experimental results show that the LO oscillates around its equilibrium position. The frequency of these oscillations obtained theoretically and experimentally does not show large variation. A new circuit with Z-source inverter is designed and implemented with the tuned circuit. It is observed that when the LO deviates from its equilibrium position, the circuit is no longer tuned and the voltage across the tuning capacitor varies. This voltage is used to generate shoot through condition to boost the excitation of the inverter. The resulting increase in the current produces sufficient force to pull the LO back to its desired position. Experimental results show that with this new circuit, the LO vibrates but with much reduced amplitude and hence can be said that the circuit also nearly damp out the oscillations. The main advantage of the system developed is it eliminates the sensors and its related drawbacks. Also design of complicated controllers is eliminated.
In this paper, a review is made in order to broaden our knowledge on the management systems of household waste in the five largest towns of Burkina Faso and propose an environmentally sound thermal way for their treatment. Data from the General Population and Housing Census of 2006 and the statistical handbook of the environment of year 2010 was used to estimate the five largest cities of Burkina Faso inhabitants’ waste production, management and disposal methods. Descriptive statistics have been used to evaluate waste production, thermal energy and improvement to organized household waste collection rates. These cities produce continuously growing quantities of household waste, but infrastructure to manage it is insufficient or almost inexistent. Furthermore the majority of Burkina Faso’s citizens poorly handles or disposes of their household waste. This results to an unhealthy urban environment. It appears that treating municipal waste in gasifiers will give an economical value to waste and possibly improve its collection rate. Gasification has been used several decades ago in Europe, USA end Australia and offers the advantage of accepting a big variety of feedstock. Municipal waste in Burkina Faso that mainly consists of carbonaceous materials appears as a good candidate for gasification. This review suggest that gasifiers represents a good opportunity for municipal waste treatment in Burkina Faso and downdraft gasifiers appears the most suitable technology that could be built, operated and maintained by local technicians without a need for very high special training.